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ANCIENT ENGLEISH 
METRICAL ROMANCEES, 

SELECTED AND VUBLISH'd 

BY JOSEPH RITSON. 
VOL. III. 



Quae priscis memorata Catonibus atque Cethcgts 
Nunc fitus informis premit ac deferta vetustas. 

HORATIUS. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY W. BULMER AND COMPANY, 

IN CLEVELAND-ROW, 

FOR G. AND W. NICpL, BOOKSELERS TO HIS 
MAJESTY, IN PEL-MEL. 

MDCCCII. 



82853 



w 



r> 3 



CONTENTS. 



VOL. IlL 

Page 

Le bone Florence of Rome - - - 1 

The erle of Tolous _ - - . 93 

Thefquyer of lowe degre - - - 145 
The knight of curtefy, and the fair lady of 

Faguell 193 



METRICxlL ROMANCEES. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. ' ^r 



As ferre as men ryde or gone 

A more chyvalrous town then Troy was oon 

In londe was never feen ; 
Nor better knyghtys then came of hyt 
In all thys worlde was never yyt, 

For bothe hardy and kene. 
Then came oon hyght Awdromoche, 
The furfte byger of Anteoche, 

And enhabyted cuntreys clene ; 
Antenowre was of that barme-teme, lO 

And was fownder of Jerufalem, 

That was wyght withowtyn wene. 

VOL. III. B 



2 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

Helemytes hyght the thryd Troyon, 

And was a ftronge man of blode and bone, 

That fro Troy came to Awfryke ; 
Eneas be fchyp gate to Rome, 
The chefe cyte of Cryllendome, 

Then was ther none hyt lykc. 
Unto the tyme that the emperowr fir Garcy 
Werryd on hyt, and herkenyth why, 20 

That many a oon fore can fyke; 
Of Costantyne the nobull was he, 
A doghtyar knyght thar not be 

In batell for to ftryke. 

Another emperowre reygned at Rome, 
Syr Otes the grawnt hyght that gome, 

That wyght was undur-fchylde ; 
A feyrelady he had to wyfe, 
That on a day lofte hur lyfe, 

That worthy was to welde, 30 

And dyed of a maydyn chylde, 
That aftur waxe bothe meke and mylde, 

So fayre was feen but felde. 

Whan the eraperys was dedd. 
The emperowre was wylde of redd, 
He gart cryften thys chylde bryght, 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 3 

And callyd hur Florens thys maydyn feyre, 
Bothe hys doghtyr and hys heyre, 

In thys worlde was not foche a wyght. 
Wolde ye lythe y fchoulde yow telle 40 

Of the wondurs that there befelle 

Abowte in cuntreys ryght : 
For thre dayes hyt reyned blode, 
And beftes faght as they were wode, 

Bothe wylde and tame with myght ; 

Fowlys in the fyrmament 
Eyther odur in fondur rente, 

And felle dedd to the grownde, 
Hyt fygnyfyed that aftur come 
Crete trybulacions unto Rome, 50 

Schulde many a man confownde ; 
As was for that mayd^'n fmall, 
Owte-takyn Troy and Rownfevall, 

Was never in thys worlde rownde. 
Syr Otes, the nobuU emperowre, 
Gart noryfch the chylde with honowre, 

And kept hur hole and fownde. 

He fet to fcole that damyfell, 
Tyll fche cowde of the boke telle, 

And all thynge dyscrye, 60 



4 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

Be that fche was fyftene yere olde, 
Wei fche cowde, as men me tolde, 

Of harpe and fawtrye ; 
All hur bewteys for to nevyn 
Myght no man undur hevyn, 

For fothe no more may i. 
To mykyll bale was fche borne, 
And many a man flayn hur forne, 

And in grete batels can dye. 

When fyr Garcy herde feye IfO 

That the emperowre of Rome had foche a may 

To hys doghtur d^re, 
He waxe hafty as the fyre, 
And gart fetnbyll the lordes of hys empyr, 

That bolde and "hardy were. 
He fcyde, Ofte have ye blamed me 
For y wolde not weddyd bee, 

Y have herde of a clere, 
Florens that ys feyre and bryght, 

In all thys worlde ys not foche a wyght, 80 

Y wyll hur have to my fere. 

As the romans trewly tolde, 
He was a hundurd yerys olde, 
And fome boke feyth mare. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 5 

He was arayed in ryche parcll, 

Of fylke and golde wythowtyn fayle, 

All whyte was hys hare. 

He feyde, Syrs, wendyth ovyr the fee, 

And bydd the emperowre of Rome feiide me 

Hys doghtur fwete and fware, 90 

And yf he any gruchyng make, 
Many a crowne y fchall gar crake, 

And bodyes to drowpe and dare. 

Hys flefche trerabylde for grete ekle, ^~~f 

Hys blode colde, hys body unwelde, 

Hys lyppes bio for-thy ; 
He had more mystyr of a gode fyre, 
Of bryght brondys brennyng fchyre, 

To beyke hys boones by, 
A fofte bath, a warrae bedd, 100 

Then any maydyn for to wedd, 

And gode enchefou why, 
For he was brefyd and all to-brokyn, 
Ferre travelde in harnes, and of warre wrokyn : 

He tolde them redylye ; 

' When ye have the maydyn broght, 
That ys fo fey re and wortbely wroght, 
Sche fchall lygg be my fyde, 



6 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

And tafte my flankys with hur honde, 

That ys fo feyre y undurftonde, 1 10 

Yn bedde be me to byde. 
Sche fchall me bothe hodur and happe, 
And in hur lovely armes me lappe, 

Bothe evyn and morne tyde ; 
Byd hur fadur fende hur to me, 
Or y fchall dyftroye hym and hys cyt^, 

And thorow hys reraes ryde. 

A prowde garfon that hyght Acwrye, 
He was borne in Utalye, 

The emperowre aftur hym fende ; 120 

And forty lordes wryttes withynne. 
That were corayn of nobull kynne, 

In mesfage for to wende ; 
And forty ftedes with them he fente, 
Chargyd with golde for a prefente, 

" And, fay hym as my frende, 
That y grete wele fir Otes the graunt. 
And byd hym fende me his doghtcr avenaunt, 

That ys curtes and hende. 

He cawfyd them to hye as they were wode, 130 
Wyth fchyppes foone into the flode, 
They rechyd ovyr the dep€ ; 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 7 

Spaynyfch ftedys witli them they ledd, 
And clothys of golde for back and hedd, 

That men myght undur flepe. 
Aye the wynde was in the fayle, 
Over fomes they flett withowtyn fayle, 

The wethur them forthe can fwepe. 
The furfte havyn that ever they hente 
Was a towne they calde Awtreraent, 140 

That folke them feyre can kepe. 

Soon ther trefowre up they drowe, 
And ther ftedys ftrong ynowe, 

And made ther fchyppys tome ; 
They lefte a burges feyre and wheme, 
All ther fchyppys for to yerae, 

Unto ther gayne-come. 
They pafsed thorow Pole and Chawmpayn, 
Evyr fperyng ther gatys gane 

Unto the cyte of Rome; 150 

They entyrde yn at the yatys wyde, 
Full ryally thorow the cyte they ryde, 

And dredyd no vvrang dome. 

The fourti mesfengerys, as y yow fay, 
Every oon rode in feyre array, 
Ther fadyls fchone full bryght ; 



8 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

Ther brydyls glyter3'ng all of golde, 
Ther was never frefcher upon molde, 

Made be day nor nyght. 
A ftede of Spayne, y undurftande, l60 

Every lorde ledd in hys hande, 

Bothe full preft and wyght ; 
All was covyrde wyth redd fendell, 
The caryage behynde, as y yow telle, ^ 

Came wyth the trefur ryght. 

Thorow the towne the knyghtes fange, 
And ever ther bryght brydyls range, 

Makeyng fwete mynftralcy ; 
Lordys and ladyes of grete aftate, 
And odur many, well y wate, 170 

At wyndows owt can lye ; 
And ever the formaft fperyd the wayes 
Unto the emperowrs paleys, 

Full ryall was that crye ; 
Feyre they were resfeyvyd there 
Wyth him that was full wyfe of lore, 

Hys doghtur fate hym bye. 

In a robe ryght ryall bowne, 
Of a redd fyclatowne, 

Be hur fadur fyde j 1 80 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 9 

A coronell on hur hedd fett, 

Hur clothys wyth beftes and byrdes wer bete, 

All abowte for pryde. 
The lyghtnes of hur ryche perre, 
And the br^'ghtnes of hur blee, 

Schone full wondur wyde. 
There were kynges in that halle, 
Eilys and dewkys, who rekenyth all, 

Full a hundurd that tyde. 

Thes fourti mesfengerys at ones I90 

Entyrc into thes worthy wones, 

And came into the halle : 
Syr Acwrye haylfed the emperowre, 
And hys doghtyr, whyte as floure, 

That feyreft was of all. 
He afkyd of whens that they myght bee. 
" Of Coftantyne the nobull are we." 

" Feyre, fyrrys, mote yow befalle." 
" A prefent we have broght in hye, 
Fro owre emperowre, fyr Garcy, 200 

Stedys into thy ftalle, 

And fourty horfys chargyd ryght, 
Wyth clothys of golde, and befawntes bryght. 
Into thy trefory. 



10 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

He byddyth, wythowte avyfement. 
That thy doghtur be to hym fent, 

For to lygg hym by ; 
Hys body ys brefyd, hys bones are aide, 
That fche may kepe hym fro the colde, 

Have done now haftelye. 210 

In comely clothyng fche fchall be cledd, 
I have grete hope he wyll hur wedd, 

Sche ys a fey re lady : 

And yf thou fende hur not foone, 
Haftelye, wythowten wone, 

Then ryfeth ther a ftryfe : 
Ellys wyll he nygh the nere, 
Wyth hys ryche powere, 

And feche hur as hys wyfe. 
He wyll dyftroye thy bygly landys, 220 

And flee all that before hym ftandys. 

And lofe full many a lyfe. 
Have done, he feyde, haftelye in hye. 
An anfwere mufte we gyf Garcy, 

At home when we can ryve." 

The emperowre feyde, as a man hende, 

Ye fchall have an anfwere or ye wende, 

And calde the fteward hym tylle : 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 3 1 

'* The yonder knyghtes to chawmbur ye lede, 

Of all thy nge that they have nede 230 

Serve them at ther wylle ; 
They are fyr Garcys raefsengerys, 
And go we to owre cowncell perys, 

And leve them bydyng ftylle, 
To loke what befte ys for to doo, 
Soche tythyngys ys corny n us too, 
H- Loke whedur we wyll fulfylle." 

The emperowre hys doghtur be the hande hent, 
Ahu vu-a chaumbur they wente, 

Hys cowncell aftur hym yede, 240 

And aflcyd yf fche wolde fent ther-tylle, 
For to be at fyr Garcyes wylle. 

And fche feyde, Jhefu forbede ! 
Sche feyde, Be god, that boght me dere, 
Me had levyr the warfle bachylere 

In all my fadurs ihede, 
Then for to lye be hys brefyd boones, 
When he coghyth and oldely grones, 

I can not on hys lede. 

Hur fadur lykyd hur wordys wele, 250 

So dud hys cowncell every dele, 
And blefsyd hur for hur fawe. 



12 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

They feyde, Yf that Garcy come, 
In evyll tyme he hedur i)ome 

Hedurward for to drawe. 
The garfons be not fo doghtyc, 
But mony of them foone fchall dye, '^l? *>'^'' 

Yf we togedur plawe ; - ■ ■ 

Go we hens, owre i?.IJ ^ ^ ♦in'^, " 

Odur cowncell kepe we nane, 260 

Be ryght nodur be lawe. ' '■ 

The emperowre came into the halle. 

The mesfengerys had etyn all, .wj'A, 

And ftode to byde an anfware : 
He feyde, Syrs, wcndyth hanie, 
For here fchall ye have no game, 

God forbede hyt fo ware ! 
Take the trefowr that ye broght, 
But my doghlur gete ye noght, 

For all yowre boftefuU fare ; , 270 

We fchall ftonde owre cbawnce unto, 
Whedur he come, or not fo do, 

Full mekyll we fchall not care. 

Then Acurye can fay, 

In the begynnyiig of Maye, 

My lordc will buike bym to ryde, 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 13 

And take the fomer before hym clene, 
And dyftroye thy londys all be deene, 

Who ys he that fchall hym byde ? 
Then anfweryd fyr Egraveyne, 280 

We fchall founde to knok ageyne, 

For all hys grete pryde. 
The emperovvre coniawndyd no man fchulde do 
Harme the mesfengerys unto, 

They toke ther leve that tyde. 

Tlien the mesfengerys all togedur, 

Wyth the trefowre that they browght thedur. 

Went home agayiie, 
Al fo tyte as fyr Garcy fawe, 
W'yt ye well he lyfte not to lawe, 290 

But mornyd in mode and raayne ; 
Alther furfte he toke hym come 
To f;iere the estyrs of Rome, 

To telle hym Acurye was fayne : 
" Syr, hyt ys feyre bygged with halles and bowrys. 
We tolde the leven hundurd towrys, 

So Cryfte me fave and fayne ; 

And ther lorde fyr Otes the graunt, 
Wyth mekyll worfchyp they hym avaunt, 

Of curtefye he ys the welle ; 300 



14 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

And therto trewe as any dele, 
For thy, fir, men love hym wele, 

Mony wyth hyn) to dwelle ; 
He ys bothe ware and wyfe, 
And gevyth them gyftys of pryce, 

The certen fothe to telle ; 
And hys doghtur, the feyreft thynge, 
That ever was feen wolde or yynge, 

Made of flefche and fclle. 

Thogh a man fate on a wyght palfraye 310 

All the longe fomers-day, 

Avyfyd myght he be 
For to ryde Rome abowte, 
And come yn wher he wente owl, 

Hyt were a grete yurne. 
Every day in the yere 
The feyre ys there lyke playnere, 

Amonge the folke fo free ; 
Syxty dewkys are calde h) s perys. 
And twenty thoufande bachyleres 3.20 

Longyth to that cyte. 

Of the emperowrs pales y wyll yow fay, 
Ther ys no focbe in the worlde to-day 
Stondyng undur hevyn ; 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 15 

The pyllers that ftonde in the halle. 

Are dentyd wyth golde and clere crystalle, 

And therto fcyre and evyn. 
They are fyllyd wyth fylver, as Crifte me cover, 
And ther ys peynted wythynne and over, 

The dedly fynnes fevyn ; 330 

There was peyntyd wyth thynges fere, 
That men myght mewfe on many a yere. 

Or he hyt fcryed wyth ftevyn. 

There comyth watur in a condyle, 
Thorow a lyon rennyth hyt, 

That wroght ys all of golde, 
And that ftandyth" in the myddys of the halle ; 
A hundurd knyghtes and ladyes fraalle 

Myght wafche there and they wolde 
All at ones on that ftone ; 340 

Many other waturs come thorow the town, 

That frefche are upon folde ; 
In myddys the cyte ys oon rennande, 
Tyger hyt hyght, y undurftande, 

As men there us tolde, 

The effect of Rome y have yow tolde. 
And of the beft barons bolde, 
That lygge there-wy thynne ; 



l6 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

But of the feyrenes of the maye 

1 can not telle mony a day, 35'^) 

Ne noght y vvyll begynne," 
But, fir, he feyde, al fo raote y the, 
Thyn eyen mon fche never fee. 

To welde yyt nodur to wynne. 
Full grcte othys Garcy hath fwome : 
" Many a thoufand fchall dye therforne. 

Or y of my brcthe blynne ; 

Or thre monythys and a halfe be gone, 
I fchall dyftroye hys landys everychon. 

And Wynne hys doghtur with were. 360 

. Then he made to fende owt wrylles wyde. 
In hys londe on every fyde, 

^lesfengerys can them here ; 
And Florence fadur at hame 
Ordeygned hys men on the fame. 

With arraowre, fchylde, and fpere : 
And thus begynneth a bale to brewe. 
Many a man therfore myght rewe, 

And wemen hyt dud grete dere. 

Syxty thoufand fcmbelde then 370 

Of garfons, and of odur men ^ , 

To Garcy in that ftownde. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 17 

They fet up feylys, and forthe they rode, 
And ay hymfelfe, wythowtcn bode, 

The formafte forthe can fownde, 
Syxty myle fro Rome ryved they, 
Hyt went nere on the thrydd day, 

Ther was not oon drowned ; 
They tyght ther pavylons in a ftede. 
The brode felde waxe all redd. 

So glemed golde on the grownde. 

The medowe was called Narumpy, 380 

The water of Tyber rcnnyng by, 

There Garcyes pavylon ftode : 
All the clothys were of fylke, 
The ryche ropx's were ryght fwylke, 

The boofys were redd as blode. 
Ther was no beeft that yede on fote 
But hyt was portrcyed there, y wote, 

Nor fyfches fwymmyng in flode ; 
Fyftene pomels of golde there fchoon. 
An egyll and a charbokull ftone, 390 

Wyde the lyghtnes yode. 

The emperovvre of Rome lay on his walle, 
And h}'s doghtur gente and fniall, 
Florence the feyre fche hyght ; 

VOL, III. C 



18 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

And fye the garfons asfay ther lledys, 
Sterne men in ftele wedys, 

The medow all can lyght. 400 

He feyde, Y have golde ynogh plenty, 
And fowdears wyll come to me, 

Bothe be day and nyght ; 
Now fchall y never my golde fpare, 
But fafte upon thys warre hyt ware, 

God helpe me in my ryght. 

The kynge of Hungary that tyme was dcdd. 
And leftf hys fonnes wylde of redd, 

Syr Mylys and fyr Emere ; 
Ther modur was weddyd to a ftedd, 
Agenfte all the baronage redd, 410 

As ye fchall further here. 
To a lorde that wonn)'d thereby, 
Syr Justamownde of Surry, 

That fterne was to ftere. 
The kynge of Naverne toke thes chyldur two, 
And made them knyghtys bothe the. 

And manhode can them lere; 

Tyll hyt felle oones on a day 

They wcnte to a medowe to playe, 

• To lerne them for to ryde : 4^0 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 19 

Syr Emere bare in hys fchylde 
A vvhyte dowve, whofo behelde, 

A blakk lyon befyde : 
The whyte dowve fygnyfyed 
That he was full of knyghthedd, 

And mekenes, at that tyde j 
The lyon, that he was ferfe and felle, 
Amonge hys enrayes for to dwelle. 

And durfte befte in batell byde. 

A wery palmer came them by, 430 

And feyde, Syrrys, y have ferly 

That ye wyll not fare. 
I have bene at grete Rome, 
To feke feynte Petur, and thens y come, 

Straunge tythyngys harde y thare. 
Ther ys an eraperowre, that hyght Garcy, 
Is logyd in the Narumpy, 

Wyth fyxty thoufande and mare, 
He feyth the emperowre of Rome fchail not leve 
But yf he to hym hys doghtur geve, 440 

That ys fo fwete of fware. 

Than fyr Mylys, and fir Emere, 
Toke wyth them forty in fere. 

That were comyn of gentyll kynne. 



20 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

To grete Rome evyn they rode, 
And at a burges hows abode, 

And there they toke ther ynne. 
They fperyd of ther oftc and ther oft^, 
Of ther tythyngys more and leffe, 

Or evyr they wolde blynne. 450 

They fownde hyt as the palmer tolde, 
They feyde with Otes dwelle they wolde, 

Whedur hyt were to lofe or wynne. 

Fyve thoufande on the morne Garcy fent 
Of hys men verament, 

Wcle arayed in ther gere; 
As nere as they durfte for dowte, 
Fyfty of them ysfewed owte, 

For to jufte in werre. 
That fawe fyr Mylys and Emere, 4^0 

Wyth ther ferys bothe in fere, 

They thoght them for to feere ; 
They pafsyd owt at a pofterne, 
Os men that fchoulde of batayle lerne, 

Wyth armowre fchylde and fpere. 

Thes fyfty had forjufted foone, 
And flewe them down withowten mone, 
All that wolde abydc ; 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 21 

Oon came prekyng owt of the prees, 

To fyr Emere evyn he cliefe, 470 

But foone was fellyd hys pryde. 
Syr Emere reyfyd hys fpere on hyght, 
Thorow the body he bare the knyght, 

And downe he felle that tyde. 
Than they faght hand ouyr hedd, 
Many oon there ther lyvys levydd, 

That came on Garcyes fyde. 

The eraperowre of Rome lay on hys wall, 
And hys doghtur gent and fmall, 

Florence feyre and free ; 480 

Sche feyde, Fadur, with mylde llevyn, 
To us ys comyn helpe fro hevyn, 

Fro god in mageftfe ; 
Yondur ys a nobull knyght, 
That ftyrryth hym ftyfly in the fyght, 

Beholde and ye may fee j 
Wyth the whyte dowve and the blak lyon, 
The befte that cometh he flryketh down, 

Helpe that he rescowde bee. 

The emperowre calde fyr Egravayne, 490 

And fyr Sampfon, that was hym gayne, 
Armed well and ryght, 



22 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROISIE. 

A hundurd men with them he toke, 
Up they lepe, fo feyth the boke, 

On ftedys ftronge and wyght. 
All that were lofte onflayne, 
Fiedd unto ther ftrenkyth agayne, 

Hyt was a femely fyght. 
Then fwere Garcy, in full grete yre, 
That he wolde brenne all Rome with fyre, 500 

On the morne yf that he myght. 

Then fyr Mylys and fyr Emere, 
Wyth ther forty felows in fere, 

Come the emperowre beforne ; 
They falutyd hyra full ryally, 
And hys doghtur that ftode hym by : 

He afkyd where they were borne. 
They anfweryd hym full curteslye, 
We were the kynges fonnes of Hungary, 

Owre fadur hys lyfe hath lorne, 510 

And hedur are we come to the, 
As fowdears, yf mystyr bee ; 

We fpeke hyt not in Ikorne. 

God, and feynt Petur of Rome, 
Yylde yow yowre hedur-corae, 
The emperowre can fey ; 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 23 

So doghtely as ye have begonne, 
Was never men undiir the fonne 

So lykyng to my paye. 
Then the maydyn thaukyd them efte, 520 

He them wythhelde with them they lefte. 

To mete then wente thay ; 
The emperovvre fet fyr Mylys hym by, 
Emere cowde more of curtefye, 

Aiid he ete with the maye. 

Sche thoght hym a full curtes knyght, 
Feyre, yonge, femely, and wyght, 

Hur harte to hym can yylde, 
Syr Mylys feyde the emperovvre too, 
And yc wolde at my councell doo, 530 

Ye fchoulde not fyght in fylde, 
But clofe the yatys, and the brygges up drawe, 
And kepe us clene owt of ther awe, 

And owre wepons wyghtly welde : 
And kepe the town bothe nyght and day, 
Tyl they be wery and wende away : 

Syr Emere hym behelde. 

Emere feyde Mylys unto, 

So myght a fympuU grome do, 

Kepe an holde wy thynne ; 540 



24 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

But we wyll manly to the felde, 
And fyr Garcy batell yelde, 

To morne or that we blynne. 
Then they made crye thorow the cyte, 
That no man fchoulde fo hardy bee, 

That waryfon wolde wynne. 
But folowe the ftandard wher hyt goys, 
And frefchly fyght upon owre foys, 

Bothe the more and the mynne. 

Than fyr Garcy, wyth mekyll pryde, 550 

^lade to crye the fame on hys fyde, 

Amonge the barons bolde; 
The kynge of Turkay he feyde than, 
Thou art a fuUe madde man. 

And faylefte wyt for elde ; 
Syr Otes the graunt hath uoght gylte, 
Let therfore no blode be fpylte, 

For hym that all fchall welde ; 
Nay he warnyd me hys doghtur fchene, 
And that hath tymberde all my teene, 5^0 

Full dere hyt fchall be felde. 

A Roman ftode befyde and harde. 
To the towne full foone he farde, 
And tolde the emperowre ; 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 25 

The maydyn mylde up fche rafe, 
With kiiyghtes and ladyes feyre of face, 

And wente unto a towre. 
There fche fawe ryght in the feldys 
Baners brode and bryght fcheldys 

Of chevalry the flowre, 570 

They nowmberdc them forty thoufand men, 
And a hundurd moo then hur fadur had then, 

That were ryght ftyfi'e in flowre. 

Alias ! feyde that maydyn clere, 
Whedur all the yonde folke and there 

Schoulde dye for my fake, 
And y but a fyrapull woman ! 
The terys on hur chekys ranne, 

Hur ble beganne to blake. 
" Put me owt to olde Garcy, 580 

Yf all thes men fchulde for me dye, 

Hyt were a dolefull wrake." 
Hur fadur feyde hyt fchulde not bee ; 
Hors and armowre afkyd liee, 

And foone hys fwyrde can take. 

He lepe on hys ftede Bandynere, 
And in hys honde he hent a fpere, 
And rode abowte all nyghtjt. 



&6 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. ' 

To the lordys of the towne, 

And bad they fchulde be redy bowne, 590 

Tymely to the fyght. 
Tliey fet ther ftandard in a chare, 
And feele folke with hyt can fare. 

That hardy were and wjght, 
Syxe lordys and fyr Egravayne 
To be all ther chefotayne, 

And kepe hyt well and ryght. 

The ftandarde was of whyte y vore, 
A dragon of golde ordeygned therfore, 

That on the ouyr ende ftode ; 600 

That fygnyfyed that Otes ware 
In the feldc as bolde as any bare, 

And a fterne man of mode. 
The vawe-warde and the myddyll foone. 
And the rere-warde owte of Rome 

Tlie grete ooft reraovyd and yode ; 
Be then had Garcy takyn hys place. 
And foone wythynne a lytyll fpace, 

Ranne bowrnes all on blode. 

Than fyr Otes the graunt can calle 6lO 

On hcrawde and hys knyghtys all. 
In myddys of the prees, 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 27 

Whofo bcryth hym befte to-day, 
Ageyne fyr Garcy, as y yow fay, 

That wyrkyth me thys unpees, 
I fchall gevc hym a feyre flowre. 
Of grete Rome to be emperowre, 

Aftur my dysfees, 
And wcdde Florens my doghtur bryght. 
As y am trewe cryften knyght, 620 

Certen wythowtyn lees. 

Syr Emere aflcyd hys lorde the kynge, 
Yf he myght have the furfte rydynge. 

And he gvauntyd hym tylle. 
Owt of Garcyes ooft came oon, 
A prowdc garfon, hyght Biefebon, 

A wykkyd man of wylle ; 
When fyr Emere with hym mett, 
A ftronge dynte on hym he fett, 

Thorow hys armowre ftylle. 630 

He fonde no focowre at hys fchylde, 
But dedd he felle downe in the fylde, 

Hys harte blode can ovvte fpylle. 

Be that the grete ooft began to fembyll, 
Trumpes to blowe, and ftedys to trembyll, 
Harde togedur they yede. 



28 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

Ryche liarburgens all lo-rufched, 
And ftele helmes all to-dufched, 

And bodyes brake owt to blede ; 
Hcdys hopped undur hors (ete, 640 

As hayleftones done in the ftrete, 

Styckyd was many a ftcde. 
For Florence love, that feyre maye, 
Many a doghty dyed that day, 

In romance as we rede. 

Then fyr Garcy, with mekyll pryde, 
Made knyghtys on hys o\vn fyde, 

Syxty yonge and feyre ; 
The warfte of ther fadurs were barons. 
And oght bothe towres and townes, 650 

And all were they ryght heyre. 
When Emere and hys men with them mett, 
Stronge dyntys on them he fett, 

Among them can they ftore ; 
At the furfte wynnyng of ther fchone, 
So tyte of ly vys were they done, 

That all deryd not a pere. 

Then Garcy yede ncre wode for yre, 
And arayed hys batels in that here, 
And fared as lie wolde wede ; 660 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 29 

He bad tber dyntes fchulde be wele wared, 
That no Roman on lyve be fpared, 

Thowe they wolde rawnfome bede. 
Ageyne hym came fyr Otcs the graunt, 
A doghty knyght and an aveaunt, 

On Bondenore hys ftede ; 
When Garcy fye that hyt was hce, 
He feyde, Syrrys, al fo mote y the, 

We two mufte do owre dedg. 

Thou art wcle flrekyn in age, y trowe, 
But y am ferre elder then thou, 

We two mufte jufte in werre; 
Hyt ys fethyn y armyd ware 
Sevyn yere and fome dele mare : 

And eyther toke a fpere. 
3o harde togedur can they ryde, 
Owt of ther fadyls they felle befyde. 

And grafpyd to odur gere ; 
W^ith fcharpe fwyrdys faght they then, 
They had be two full doghty men, 

Gode olde fyghtyng was there. 

Garcy hyt Otes on the helme, 
That upon hys hedd hyt can whelme, 
Hyt fate hym wondur fare. 



30 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

" Syr, with thys dynte y chalenge Rome, 
And thy doghtiir bryght as blorae, 

That brewyd hath all thys care. 
When that y have leyn hur by, 
And done hur fcharae and vylenye, 

Then wyil y of hur no mare, 69O 

But geve hur to my chaumburlayne." 
Tho wordys made Otes unfayne. 

And tyte he gaf an anfware : 

God and feynt Petur of thys towne. 
Let never Rome come in thy bandoune, 

And fave my doghtur fownde ; 
Owre fyghtyng ys not endyd yyt. 
On the helme Garcy he hyt. 

That he felle to the grownde. 
There had fyr Garcy bene tane, 71O 

But ther came garfons many oon. 

And rescowd hym in that ftownde. 
Syr Emere horfyd hys lorde agayne, 
And loovyd god he was not flayne. 

And fafte to fyght they fownde. 

Syr Emcre lokyd a lytyll hym fro, 
And fawe hys brodur fuffer woo, 
In a ftowre fyghtande ; 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 31 

The Grekys had fyred hym abowte, 
That he myght on no fyde owte, 

But ftyftely can he ftande. 
He rescowde h3'^m full knyghtly ; 
Many a doghty made he to dye, 

That he abowte hytn fande ; 
Evyll quytt he hym hys mede, 
For Mylys was the falfyft lede 

That evyr levyd in lande. 

When he had rescowde hys broder Mylon, 
Of hys fomen camen thretty bowne, 

Stelyng on hym ftylle ; 720 

All ther fperys on hym they fett, 
He drewe hys fwyrde, wythovvten let, 

And Mylys fledde to an hylle. 
He feyde, Brodur, al fo mote y the, 
Thou fchalt not be rescowde for me, 

Loke whedur that he dud ylle. 
But ftryked yn at a nodur ftowre, 
And mett hys lorde the cmperowre, 

Layeng on wyth gode wylle. 

Mylys, he feyde, where ys thy brodur ? 730 

At the devyll, quod the todur, 
I trowc befte that he bee. 



S2 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

He ys belefle wyth fyr Garcy 
Ageyn yow, he tolde me why, 

He myght geve more then ye. 
Be god, he feyde, that all may, 
He ys falfe, that dare y lay, 

Trewly trowe ye me. 
The emperowre lykyd hyt ylle, 
And leyde upon with gode wylle, 7^0 

Tyll he myght the fothe fee; 

Forthe then lokyd the emperowre, 
And fawe fyr Emere in a ftowre, 

Fyghtyng agenfte hys foys ; 
He ftroke the ftede with the fpurrys, 
He fpared nodur rygge nor forows, 

But evyn to hym he govs ; 
All that he abowte hym fonde 
He and hys men broght to grownde, 

That nevyr oon up rofe ; 750 

And there was Mylys prevyd falfe, 
Wyth hym and odur lordys alfe. 

And lofte all hys gode lofe. 

Than Emere toke harle hym too, 
Full doghtely then can he doo, 
Florence hym bchclde. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 33 

And tolde hur maydyns bryglit of ble, 
In the felde befte doyth he, 

Wyth the whyte dowve yn hys fchylde, 
And therto the black lyoun. 7^0 

Sche cryed to hym, wyth grete fowne, 

Thou be my fadurs belde. 
And thou fchalt have all thy defyre, 
Me, and all thys ryche enipyre, 

Aftur my fadur to vvelde. 

When he harde the maydyn bryght, 
Hys hedd he lyfte upon hyght. 

The vvedur waxe full hate ; 
Hur fadur nere hande can talme, 
Soche a fweme hys liarte can fvvalme, 770 

For hete he waxe neie mate. 
When that they had fo none, 
A quarell came fleyng foone, 

And thorow the hed hym fmate, 
They fende aftur the pope Symonde, 
And he fchrofe hym and liofelde on that grounde, 

And asfoyled hyrjti, wej y wate. 

As foone as the emperowre yyldyd the gaft, 
A prowde garfon came in hafte, 

Syr Synagote hyght hee, 7 80 

VOL. III. D 



54 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

And broght an hundurd helmes bryght 
Of hard V men that cowde well t'yght, 

Of felde wolde never oon flee. 
Emere ftroke in to that flowre, 
And many oon made he for to cowre, 

And flewe them be two and thre j 
Soone thereaftur was he tane, 
And knyghtes kene wolde hym have flayne, 

But ther fovereygn bad let bee, 

" Unto fyr Garcy have hym feen, fQO 

I trowe hys lyfe he wyll hym leen, 

He ys fo feyre a knyght." 
Leve we fyr Emere in the ftowre, 
And fpeke more of the emperowre, 

How they on a here hym dyght, 
And how they broght hym to the tovvne, 
"Wythowten belle or procefcoun, 

Hyt was a drery fyght. • 
They layned hyt fro ther enmyes whyll they myght, 
And fro Florence that worthy wyght, 800 

Hys own dere doghtur bryght. 

Soone the ftandard yn they dud lede, 
And baners bryght that brode dud fprede, 
The Romans lykyd ylle. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 35 

And feyde they fchulde upon the morne 
Fyght vvyth Garcy yf he had fworne, 

Tliat hyely was on hylle. 
Florence lay in a Cornell, 
And hur maydyns, as y yow telle, 

That was curtes of wylle ; 810 

They feyde men brynge yn a here, 
And that wyth a full raornyng cliere, 

But all was hofcht and ftylle. 

Then can feyre Florence fayne, 
Yondur ys be gopnc an evyll bargayn, 

Y fee men brynge a here, 
And a knyght in handys leede, 
Bondynowre my fadurs ftede. 

Then all ehawngyd hur chere. 
Sche and hur maystres Awdygon fiUO 

Went into the halle allone, 

AUone wythowten fere, 
And cafte up the clothe, then was hyt fo, 
The lady fwowned, and was full woo, 

Ther myght no man hur ftere. 

Alias, fche feyde, that y was borne ! 
My fadur for me hys lyfe hath lorne, 
Garcy may have hys wylle, 



36 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

All my brode laiidys and me, 

That y welde yn Cryftyante ! 830 

Ther myght no man hur ftylle. 
Lordys and ladyes that there ware 
Tyll hur chaumbur can they fare, 

Lorde that them lykyd ylle ; 
Knyghtes and fquyers that there was 
Wrange ther hondys and feyde, alias ! 

For drede fche fchulde hur fpylle. 

Dewkys and erles ther hondys wronge, 
And lordys forowe was full ftronge, 

Barons myght have no roo : 840 

" Who fchall us now geve londes or lythe, 
Hawkys, or howndes, or ftedys ftythe, 

As he was wont to doo ?" 
Syr Garcy went crowlande for fayne, 
As rampande eyen do in the rayne, 

When tythynges came hym too, 
He bad hys men fchulde make them bowne, 
And haftelye go ftroye up the towne, 

** My byddyng that ye doo : 

Slo them down where ye them mete, 850 

And fyre falten in every ftrete, 
Loke now that tafte ; 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 37 

I fchall wyike, as have y yoye, 
As kyug Maynelay dud be Troye, 

And ftioye hyt at the luftc." 
When they harde that were vvythynne, 
To the yatys can they wynne, 

And barryd them full fafte, 
And they wythowte yngynes bende, 
And ftones to the walles they fende, 860 

And quarels wyth alablafte. 

They wythynne wolde have gone owte, 
Ther fovereygn marred them for dowte, 

And made them to kepe ther holde, 
They fygned to tlie yatys of the towne, 
An hundurd men in armes bowne, 

That hardy were and bolde. 
The pope came wythowten delyte, 
And enteryd the emperowre tyte, 

They wepte bothe yonge and olde. 870 

The boke feyth, god that us boght 
^Rlany myrakyls for hur he wroght, 

Many a oou and thyck folde. 

So longe logyd the fege there, 
That they wythynne nere famyfched were, 
Evyll lyfe can they lede ; 

Q 9 P. -, ^i 

O riJ --^ U O 



38 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

They were not ordeygned therfore. 
They had golde in warrae ftore, 

But mclc was them full nede. 
All they cowncelde Florence to take 880 

Oon of thes lordys to be hur make, 

That doghty were of dede ; 
For to raayntenc and upholde 
Agayne fyr Garcy that burne bolde, 

The towne levyth all in drede, 

And Awdegone hur cowncelde foo 
Oon of thes lordys for to too, 

Syr Mylys or fyr Emere ; 
" And let hyra wedde yow wyth a rynge ; 
Ther fadur was a ryche kynge, 890 

Knowyn bothe farre and nere." 
Ye, but now ys fyr Emere tane. 
And Garcys men have hym flayne, 

Scyde that maydyn clere. 
'* Ye behove to have a nodur. 
Take ^lylys, that ys hys eldyft brodur, 

Ilyt ys my cowncell wythowten were," 

To fyr Mylys Awdegon went. 
And afkyd yf he wolde asfent 
To wedde that maydyn free, flOO 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 39 

That ys whyte as lylly-flowre. 
And be lorde and empeTowre, 

The grettyft yn Cryftyante. 
*' But god for bede, and feynt Myghell, 
That thou undurtake hyt but thou do well, 

And trewe man thynke to bee." 
To hys fpeche anfweryd he noght, 
But ftylle he llode and hyra be thoght, 

And feyde, Y fchall avyfe me. 

Avyfe the, feyde that maydyn fey re, piO 

For to be my fadurs heyre ? 

Lyghtly may y thynke. 
Be hym that fuffurde woundys fyve, 
I fchall nevyr be thy wyfe, 

To fuffur dethys dynte. 
Kyngys and dewkys have me aflcyd. 
And all ther londes wolde have geve me at the lafte, 

And many a ryall thynke. 
Forthe he yede vvyth fyghyng and care, 
That he had gevyn that fowle anfware, 920 

For forowe nere wolde he fynke, 

Thys whyle had Synagot takyn Emere, 
And broght hyra before fyr Garcy in fere, 
And feyde, We have tane a knyght 



40 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROMfi. 

Agenfte yow fyghtyng in the ftowre, 
We refte hym hors and armowre, 

But he ys an hardy wyght. 
Felowe, he feyde, what dyd thou there ? 
" Syr, wyth my lorde on the to were> 

That now to dedd ys dyght ; ^0 

As fowdears, ray brodar and y^ 
We have noght ellys to leve by, 

Owre fadur fordyd owre ryght. 

Syr Phelyp of Hungary owre fadur was. 
Now ys he dedd, therfore alias ! 

Owre modur weddyd ys newe, 
In to Surry to fyr Justamownde, 
That ys abowte us to confownde, 

And owre bytter bales to brewe. 
He hath dysheryted us, wythowt lees, 540 

That we had levyr warre nor pees. 

Per chawnce that may hym rewe." 
Syr Synagot cowncelde fyr Garey foo, 
Syr, delyver hym qwyte, and let hym goo, 

He femyth covenawnt and trewc. 

Than anfweryd fyr Garcy, 
When y toke trewage of Turky 
Thy fadur in ftede ftode me, 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 41 

Therfore y fchal let the goo, 

And gcve hym all ye toke hym fro, QSQ 

Emere knclyd on hys knee : 
" Syr, when y come into the towne, 
I and my men mufte be bowne 

To greve bothe thyn and thee." 
Ye, godys forbode that thou fpare, 
But of thy warfte wylie ever mare : 

Garcy, thus fayde he. 

" What wenyft thou wyth thy bragg and booft 
For to dyftroye me and myn hooft ?" 

He toke hys leve and yede ; 96O 

Syr Synagot gave hym all togedur, 
Be the lefte thonge that he bare thedur, 

Emere lepe on hys ftede. 
He ledd hym thorov(^ the pavylons all, 
Tyll he came nere to Romes walle, 

And pafte the mooft drede. 
Than they wythynne were full fayne, 
That they had getyn the gome a gayne, 

Ther blyffe be ganne to brede ; 

And agayne fyr Emere they went, 970 

And broght hym before that lady gente, 
And aflcyd yf he wolde 



42, LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME.'- 

Wedde the belle of hur elde, 
Aad all hur londys for to welde, 

Agayne Garcy to holde ; 
And helpe to venge hur fadurs dedd. 
He dud ryght as the lady bedd, 

That hardy was and bolde. 
He feyde, Prevely mufte me do, 
Tyll the baronage be fvvorne us to, 980^ 

Bothe the yonge and the olde. 

Syr Sarapfon, and fyr Egravayne, 
Syr Clamadore, and fyr Alayne, 

Wyfte of that bargen newe. 
They went aftur fyr Geffrey of Pyfe, 
And fyr Barnard of Mownt-devyfe, 

Tho fyxe were gode and trewe ; 
They made them to fwere they fchulde be lele, 
And fyr Euiers counfell hcyle, 

And Florence feyre of hewe : 990 

Thus he tylleth them be fowre and fyve, 
All they had fworne to hym be lyve, 

Thea INIylys hymfelfe can rewe. 

The pope came, as ye may here, 
For to crowne fyr Emere, 

And [wedd] them wyth a rynge. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 43 

- Sche feyde, Now are yc emperowre of Rome, 
The grettyft loitle in Ciyftendorae, 

And hcdd of every kynge ; 
Yyt fchall ye never in bedde me by, 1000 

Tyl yc have broght me fyr Garcy, 

For no maner of thynge ; 
Or lefte liym in the felde for dedd, 
Be hym y fawe in forme of bredd, 

When the preeft can fynge, 

Eraerc the emperowre can fay, 
I fchall do all that y may, 

But charge me wyth no mare, 
Then they wyfche, and to mete be gone : 
" Of mynftralcy we kepe none, 1010 

We have no fpace to fpare ; 
Nodur harpc, fedyll, nor geeft, 
But ordeygn yow wyth mooft and leeft,- 

That wyth me wyll fare ; 
And brynge my ftede Bondynere, 
And feche me forthe bothe fchylde and fpcre :" 

Full tyte then were thev thare. 

t 

Than was there no lenger bode, 

But up they lepe and forthe they rode, 

To prek§ aftur ther praye, 1020 



44 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

^Vhen worde came to fyr Garcy, 
A fory man was he forthy, ' 

That weddyd was that may, 
That was whyte as lylly-flowre, 
And fyr Emere crowned emperowre, 

Alias ! then can he fay, 
That ever y let that traytur goo, 
V\'heu he was in my bandoune foo, 

Me dawyd a drcry day ! 

Ther was lefte no man in that town 103d 

To kepe the lady of renowne, 

That was of temporalis, 
That mygbt wyth ony wepon wyrke, 
Owt-takyn men of holy kyrke, 

At home they let them bee. 
They beganne at the nerre fyde, 
And flewe down all that wolde abyde, 

Trewly trowe ye me ; 
On felde they faght as they were wodc, 
Ovyr the bentys ranne the blode, 1040 

All tho dyed that wolde not flee. 

Then on the felde they frefchcly faght, 
Many oon ther dethe there caght, 
That caiue on Garcyes fydc. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 45 

Syr Garcy tokc liym to the fyght, 
Vv'}!!! an hundurd in harncs bryght, 

lie diirfte no longer byde; 
Of all the men he thedur broght, 
Many on lyve levyd he noght, 

To fchypp went they that tyde ; 1050 

They fet up fayle and forthe are gone, 
To Coftantyne the nobuU towne, 

Al lb fafte as they myght glyde. 

A\ fo foone as fyr Emore wyfte 
Wei nere for forowe hys heite brefte, 

That he in fchyppe can lende, 
He bad fyr Mylys turne agayne, 
Syr Sampfon and fyr Egravayne, 

. " For y vvyll aftur wende : 1 

Take an hundurd men of armes bryght, 1060 

And kepe my lady day and nyght, 

That ys curtes and hende ; 
Say to hur y am on the fee, 
Chafyng aftur myn olde enraye, 
: That llewe hur derrell frende." 

Syr Mylys feyde to thes hundurd all, 
Thys herytage to me wyll falle, 
My brodur comyth never a gayne. 



46 LE BONE FLORENCE OF R05IE. 

I wylle wedde the yonge bryde, 

He flepyd nevyr be hur fyde, lO^O 

Nor hath hur not by layne. 
All that wyll asfent to me 
Crete lordys fchall they bee : 

To graunt hym they were fayne. 
Sampfon feyde, That wyll y never doo, 
Falfehedd my lorde unto ; 

The fame feyde Egravayne. 

All they asfentyd but they two, 
The todur parte was the moo, 

And that was there well fcen. 1080 

Soche wordys among them can falle, 
They prefyd abowte fyr Sampfon all, 
• And flewe hym in that tene. 
They made fyr Egraveyne to fwere foon. 
Or they wolde wyth hym the fame have done. 

To wote wythowten wene ; 
Sone a here have they ordeygncd. 
And the dcdd corfe theron leyde. 

The forte was falfc and kene ; 

And fcthyn to Rome they hym broght, 1C90 

And tolde Florence worthyly wroght, 
That Emere laye there dcdd ; 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 47 

When that fche had fwowned twyes. 
And thei-eaftur fyghed thryes, 

Sche wepyd in that ftedd. 
Mylys feyde, My lady fre, 
Thy cowncell wyll that y wedde the, 

Hyt was my brodurs redd. 
Sche feydc, Y wyll weddyd bee 
To a lorde that never fchall dye, 1 100 

That preeftys fchewe in forme of bredd. 

Furfte then was my fadur flayne, ^ 

And now my lorde ys fro me tane, 

Y wyll love no raa, 
But hym that boght me on the rode, 
Wyth hys fwete precyus blode. 

To hym y wyll me ta. 
Then Mylys made feven armed knyghtes 
To kepe the pales day and nyghtes, 

Sche myght not come them fra, 1110 

And alfo fwythe fyr Egravayne, 
Went to the pope, the fothe to fayne. 

To telle he was full thra, 

How that Emere was ovyr the fee, 
Chafyng Garcy to hys cuntre. 
And Mylys wolde have hys wyfe, 



48 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

He had a bundurd to bys asfent, 

And hyght them londys, lythys, and rente ; 

But Sarapfon hath lofte hys lyfe, 
And broght hym home upon a bere, 1 120 

And tolde Florence hyt was Emere, 

All Rome he hath made ryfe; 
And certys y am I'worne them too : 
Holy fadur, what fchall y do, 

That turned were ail thys ftryfe ? 

Then the pope was not lothe 
To asfoyle hym of hys othe, 

For hyt to tklfebed can clyne : 
** Syr, y fchall telle the a fekyr tale, 
Hyt ys bettur brokyn then hale, 1 130 

I fet my Ibwle for thyne." 
Than he garl arme of the fpyrytualte, 
And of the feculors hundurdys thre. 

Or evyr wolde he blynne ; 
To the pales he made ibera to brynge. 
For to dyftioye that falfe weddyng. 

The matrymony was not fyne, 

All that they wyth falfe Mylys fonde 
They bonde them bothe fote and honde. 

But they wolde flee not ane ; 1 140 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 49 

Mylys fet hys backe to a pyllere, 

And feyde all fchulde dye that came hym nere ; 

But fraartely was he tane, 
And put in an hye towre, 
Be the reverence of the emperowre, 

That was made of lyme and ftane ; 
And twenty of thes odur ay in a pytt, 
In ftrokkes and feturs for to fytt, 1150 

Or evyr pope Symonde blanne. 

Than the pope and Egravayne 
To telle the lady were full fayne 

Ilur lorde was on the fee, 
To Coftantyne the nobull ftrekk ; 
All the laffe can fche recke, 

Tho all bryghtenyd hur blee. 
They went to the bere wyihowten wone, 
And cafte up the clothe and fye Sampfon, 

That femely was to fee ; 1 i^O 

rhey dud wyth hym as wyth the dedd, , /- 

They beryed hym in a ryall ftedd, 

Wyth grete folerapnyt^. 

All thys whyle was fyr Emere 
Chafyng Garcy, as ye fchall here, 
As the romans tolde ; 

VOL. III. E 



50 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

But Garcy had getyn hys pales before, 
And vetaylyd hyt wyth warme ftore, 

Hys wylys were full olde. 
,Syr Emere fet hys fege therto, llfO 

Full doghtely there can he doo, 

That hardy was and bolde, 
Wyth men of armcs all abowte, 
That he myght on no fyde owte. 

But hamperde hym in hys holde : 

And thus they fegyd Garcy wyth ftrenkyth, 
In hys pales large of lenkyth, 

The Roraaynce had ther vvylle 
Of Coftantyne the nobull cyt& 
In ther pofcefcon for to bee, 1 1 80 

That many oon lykyd ylle, 
Syr Emere coraawndyd every man 
To brooke wele the trefur that they wan, 

So myght they ther cofurs fylle. 
When fyr Garcy fawe all yede to fchame, 
He callyd to Emere be hys name, 

Downe at a wyndowe ftylle : 

Syr, he fcyde, al fo mote y the, 
Thou holdyft full wele that thou hyghtyft me, 
When y let the goo, 1 1^0 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 51 

Ayeyn to Rome as men may lythe, 
Had y wetyn what fchulde be fythe, 

Thou fchuldyft not have fkapyd foo ; 
But fyn y qwyte-claymed the thore, 
Yyt mufte'thou be of mercy more, 

Thou graunt that hyt be foo. 
Nine thowfand pownde y fchall geve t!ie 
To wende home to thy cuntre, 

And wyrke me no more woo. 

" Nay, be hym that lorde ys befte, 1200 

Tyll y have thys londe conquefte, 

And efte be crowned newe j 
And yf my men wyll fo als, 
For y trowe ther be noon fals, 

And yf ther be themfelfe fchall rewe." 
Synagot feyde, Be godys wayes, 
He wyll holde that he fays, 

He ys hardy and trewe : 
I rede we do us in hys wylle. 
And yylde thys empyre hym tylle, 1210 

Or he us more bale brewe. 

Ther ys not, y undurftonde, 
An hundurd knyghtys in thy londe 
Moo then thou hafte here, 



52 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

Slewe he them not up at Rome ? 
In evyll tyme we thedur come, 

Or that thy lore can lere. 
When that thou went Florence to wowe, 
Ovyr the ftremes thou madyfte us to rowe, 

And boght thy pride full dere; 1220 

Many a chylde left thou thore 
Fadurles for evyrmore, 

And wedows in cuntreys fere. 

There they openyd ther yatys wyde, 
Syr Garcy came down that tyde, 

Wyth a drawyn fvvyrde in hys hande, 
And wyth a keye of golde clere, 
And yeldyd unto fyr Eraere, 

Hyt fygnyfyed all the lande. 
They ledd yn hys baner wyth honowre, 1230 

And fett hyt on the hyeft towre, 

That they [in] caflell fande ; 
And foone upon that odur day, 
They crowned hyra emperowre, y faye, 

Ther durfte no man agenlle hym ftando, 

Then he gaye londys to knyghtys kydde, 
And newe men in offyce dydd, 
The lande to ftabull and flere : 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 63 

He feyde unto fyr Garcye, 

Syr, ye mufte wende home wjih me, 1240 

Yf that yowre wylle were, 
For to fee Rome wythynne, 
That ye wende fome tyme to wynne, 

And Florence that ys to me dere ; 
Hyt fchall tume yow to no grefe. 
Whether he were lothe or lefe, 

Forthe they wente in fere. 

Soche a nave as ther was oon 
Was never feen but that allone, 

When hyt was on the fee ; 1250 

Then Emere thoght on Mylys hjrs brodur, 
And on Florence feyrefte of odur, 

At them then wolde he bee. 
He feyde unto fyr Garcy, 
And to odyr lordys that ftode hym by, 

To Hungary foone wyll wee, 
Justamownde for to forfare. 
And crowne Mylys my brodur tharcj, 

For kyndyft heyre ys hee. 

A mesfengere to londe wanne, 1260 

That fome tyme rode, and fome tyme ranne, 
Tyll he came Rome wythynne ; 



54 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

He tolde Florence, bryght of hewe, 
How hys lorde was crownyd newe. 

And the empyre can wynne ; 
And wyth hym bryngyth olde Garcy, 
The lady fayne was fche for thy, 

Sche was comyn of gentyll kynne. 
Sche gafe hym, for hys newe tythandys, 
Worthe a barony of landys, 1270 

Or evyr wolde fche blynne. 

Lorde, that ys bothe god and man, 
Gyf the emperowre had wetyn than 

The trefon of hys brodur. 
That he dud in hys abfence ; 
To Sampfon and to feyre Florence, 

And Egravayne the todur ! 
The lady went up to a towre. 
Be reverence of the emperowre, 
. And wyth hur many odur, 1280 

And toke hym downe that curfyd thefe, 
That afturward dud hur grete grefe, 

Ther was nevyr no fawe fotheyr. 

The lady preyed fyr Egravayne, 
And odur lordys, that they wolde laync 
The trefon of the knyght, .-.^i. 'j;iu 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 55 

And all that he hath done to me, 
AH forgevyn fchall hyt bee, 

For godys love mofte of myght. 
Sche fet hyra on a gode palfray, 12S0 

And bad hym wende upon hys way, 

Agenfte hys biodur ryght. 
When that he came to the fee, 
A falfe lefynge there made hee 

Of Florence feyre and bryght. 

Syr Egravayne fadylde hys ftede, 
And hyed hym aftur a gode fpede, 

He hopyd that he wolde lye ; 
When Mylys fawe the emperowre, 
He felle downe in a depe fowre, 1300 

Fro hys hors fo hye, 
Emere, feyde Mylys, what eylyth the ? 
" Syr, thus thy wyfe hath dyght me, 

For y fe^'de y fchulde hur bewrye. 

When y fonde Egravayne lygyng hur by, 

In prefon yut fche me forthy. 

And forowe hath made me to drye." 
I 

The emperowre fmote down wyth hys hevydd, 
All hys yoye was fro hym revydd 

Of Florence that he hadd, 1310 



56 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

All the lykyng of hys longe travayle 
Was away wythowten fayle, 

In forovve was he ftadde. 
All the lordys that were hym by, 
Recowmforde hym full kyndely, 

And bad hym not be adradd 
Tyll we the fothe have enqueryd, 
Bothe of lewde and of lernydd ; 

Thes wordys yyt made hym gladd. 

Then came Egravayne, wythowten lees, 1320 

Fafte prekynge into the prees. 

The fothe he wolde have tolde, 
But Mylys owte wyth a fwyrde kene, 
And wolde Egravayne teue, 

But he a mantell can folde 
Ofte fythys abpwte hys arme. 
And kepyd hym wele fro any harmc, 

That hardy was and bolde. 
The emperowre bad put them in fondur. 
And of yow fchall bye thys blundur 1330 

Whych hath the wronge in holde. 

Syr Egravayne fcyde, Syr, now y fchall 
Tell yow a full fekyr tale. 
And ye wyll here hyt wele. 



LE bone FLORENCE OF ROME. 57 

Syr, when ye went unto the fee, 

Ye Icfte an hundurd men, and us thre. 

Armed in yron and ftele, 
To kepc Florence tyll ye came agayne ; 
And that made my brodur Sampfon flayne. 

And wroght hath myn unhele. 13 tO 

Unnethe were ye on the fee 

When Mylys fcyde, here ftandyA he, 

That ye for evyr were gone. 
He feyde he wolde be emperowre, 
Aud wedde yowre lady whyte as flowrc. 

That worthy ys yn wone ; 
He had an hundurd at hys asfente, 
And hyght them londys and ryche rente ; 

That made fyr Sampfon fione : 
And broght hym home on a bere-tree, 1350 

And tolde Florence that hyt was ye, 

Thon made fche full grete moone ; 

And when he wolde hur have wedde, 
Fafte away fro hym fche fledde. 

And wolde have flolyn awaye. 
Then Mylys made to arme twelve knyghtes, 
To kepe the place day and nyghtys, 

And wach abowte hur lay; 



58 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

And certys y was to them fworne. 

And ellys had ray lyfe be lorne, 1360 

The certcn fothe to faye. 
1 went to the pope and toldo hym fa 
And he asfoyled me a pena et cufpa 

Wythowtyn any delay. 

Then he gart amc an hundurd clerkys, 
Doghty men and wyfe of werkys. 

To the pales he can them brynge, 
They bonde the falfe bothe hond and fote, 
And in pryfon cafte them, god hyt wote, 

And ther yn can them thrynge; 137® 

And Florence let owt IMylys nowe, 
For to wende agenfte yow, 

Be Jhefu, hevyn kynge ; 
Thys wyll wytnes pope Symond, 
He wolde not for a thoufand pownde. 

Telle yow a lefynge ; 

Ye fchall come home, as y yow fay, 
Be to-morne that hyt be day, 

And thys was at the none. 
The eraperowre in thys whylys, 1380 

Drewc a fwyrde to fyr Mylys, 

But lordys hclde hym foone ; 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 59 

He badd, Falfe traytur, flee ! 
That thou nevyr thy brodur fee, 
. For wykkydly haft thou done, 
Evyn to Rome ageyne he rode, 
Haftely wythowten bode, 

Or evyr he wolde avvey gone, ^ 

To feyre Florence can he faye, 

A lefyng that hur wele can paye, 1390 

My lorde byddyth that ye fchall 
Come agayne hym in the mornynge. 
Bly the therof was that maydyn yynge. 

And trowed hys falfe tale. 
Sche fente to the pope over nyght. 
And bad he fchulde be tymely dyght, 

Wyth mony a cardynale ; 
And fche ordeygned hur meyn6 als, 
And went wyth hym that was falfe. 

And pafsyd bothe downe and dale, 1400 

When they came wythowte the cyte 
Mylys feyde, My lady free, 

We two mufte ryde fafte, 
And let the pope and hys meyn^ 
Come behynde the and me, 

For thus th«n ys my cafte ; 



€0 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

That thou may fpeke wylh my lorde thy fylle, 
And wyth Garcy wykkyd of wylle, 

And be nothynge agafte. 
For when the emperowre the pope can fee, 1410 
Mekyll fpeche vvyll ther bee, 

And that full longe wyll lafle. 

Mylys, fche feyde, god yylde hyt the, 
That y foone my lorde may fee. 

Thou makyfl me full fayne. 
The ryght wey lay evyn efte. 
And he lad hur fowthe-wefte, 

And thus he made hys trayne, 
Tyll they came downe in a depe gylle ; 
The lady feyde. We ryde ylle, 1420 

Thes gates they are ungayne ; 
I rede we lyght unto the grownde, 
And byde owre fadur the pope a ftovvnde. 

He feyde, Nay, be goddys payne, 
Thou fchalt hym fee nevyr mare, 
Tho the lady fyghed wondur fare, 

And felle of on hur palfray. 

He bete hur wyth hys nakyd fwyrde, 
And fche cafte up many a rewfoll rerde, 
And feyde ofte Wele a fay€ ! 1430 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 6l 

Schall y nevyr my lorde fee ? 
No, be god that dyed on tre, 

The falfe traytur can faye. 
Up he hur cafte, and forthe they rode^ 
Haftely vvythowten any abode, 

Thys longe fomers day. 

They were nyghtyd in a wode thyck, 
A logge made that traytur wyck, 

Undurnethe a tree. 
There he wolde have leyn bur by, 1440 

And fche made hur preyer fpecyally, 

To god and Mary free. 
Let nevyr thys falfe fende 
My body nodur fchame nor fchende, 

MyghtfuU in mageft^ ! 
Hys lykyng vanyfched all away. 
On the morne, when hyt was day, 

Ther horfys bothe dyght hee. 

Up he hur cafte, and forthe they rode, 

Thorow a forefte longe and brode, 1450 

That was feyre and grene. 
Tyll eyder odur mekyll care, " 

The lady hungurd wondur fare. 

That was bryght and fchene ; 



62 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

She had levyr a lofe of brcdd 
Then mckyll of the golde redd 

That fche before had feen. 
To hyt drewe to the evcnynge, 
Then they herde a belle rynge, 

Thorow the grace that godd can lene, 14^0 

A holy armyte fownde he there, 
To greve god full lothe hym were, 

For he had fervyd hym ^e. 
Thedur they wente to afke mele. 
The arrayte feyde, Soche as y ete 

Ye fchall have, dere damyfell, y fay, 
A barly lofe he broght hur too. 
And gode watur : full fayne was fcho, 

That fwcte derworthe maye. 
Therof the yonge lady ete, 14'70 

Sche thoght never noon fo fwete, 

Be nyght nodur be day. 

Mylys iete ther of als, 

He feyde, Hyt flekyth in my hals, 

I may not gete hyt downe. 
Chorle, god yf the fchames dedd, 
Bryflge us of thy bettur bredd. 

Or y fchall crake thy crowne. 



LE RONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 63 

Be god, he feyde, that boght me dere, 

I had no bettur thys feveii yere. 1480 

The wykkyd man the made hym bowne, 
In at the dore he hym bete. 
And fethyn fyre upon hym fete, 

Ferre fro every towne. 

The holy armyte brente he thare, 
And lefte that bygly hows full bare, 

That femely was to fee. 
The lady beganne to cry and yelle, 
And fayde, Traytur, thou fchalt be in helle, 

There evyr to wonnc and bee. 14^0 

lie made the lady to fwere an othe, 
That fche fchulde not telle for lefe nor lothe, 

Nevyr in no cuntre, . ■ -^ 

Fro whens thou came, nor what thou ys. 
Nor what man broght the fro thy blyffe, 

Or here y fchall brenne the. 'l«^"'?r t*:,- 

To make that othe the lady was fayne, 
And there he wolde by hur have layne. 

But fche preyed god to be hur fchylde ; 
And ryght as he was at asfaye 1500 

Hys lykyng vanyfcht ail awaye, 

Thorow the myght of INIary mylde. 



64 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

Tymely as the day can dawe, 
He led her thorow a feyre fchawe, 

In wodes wafte and wylde ; 
Evyn at undurne lyghtyd he 
Downe undur a cheften tre. 

The feyreft in that fylde. 

He feyde, Thou hafte wychyd rae,- 

I may not have to do wyth the, 1510 

Undo or thou fchalt abye. 
Sche anfweryd hym wyth mylde mode, 
Thorow grace of hyra that dyed on rode, 

Falle traytur, thou fchalt lye. 
He bonde hur be the trefle of the heere, 
And hangyd hur on a tre there, 

That ylke feyre bodye ; 
He bete hur wyth a yerde of bvrke, 
Hur nakyd flefche, tyll he was yrke, 

Sche gaf many a rewfull crye, 1520 

There was a lorde that hyght Tyrry 
Wouned a lytyll there by. 

In a forefte fyde, 
Thedur was he comyn that day, 
Wyth hawkys and howndys hym for to play> 

In that wode fo wyde. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 65 

He harde the crye of that lady free, 
Thedur he went and hys raeyne, 

Al fo fade as they myght ryde ; 
When Mylys was warrc of ther comyng, 1530 

He lepe on hys hors and forthe can fpryng, 

And durfte no lenger byde. 

The feyreft palfrey lefte he there, 
And hurfelfe hangyd be the heere, 

And hur ryche wede, 
Hur faduU and hur bryduU fchone, 
Set wyth raony a precyus ftone, 

The feyreft in that thede. 
Sche was the feyreft creature, 
And therlo whyte as lylly flowre, ' 1540 

In romance as we rede ; 
Hur feyre face hyt fchone full bryght, 
To fe hyt was a femely fyght, 
Tyll hur full fafte they yede. 

Then they lowfyd hur feyre faxe, 
That was yelowe as the waxe, 

And fchone alfo as golde redd. 
Sche myght not fpeke, the romance feyde, 
On a lyter they hur leydc. 

And to the castell hur ledd. 1550 

TOL. HI. F 



66 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

They bathyd hur in erbys ofte, 
And made hur fore fydes fofte, 

For alraofte was fche dedd : 
They fed hur wyth full ryche fode, 
And all thyng that hur nede ftode, 

They fervyd hur in that ftedd. 

The lorde comawndyd hys men everychon 
That tythynges of hur they fhulde fper noon, 

Nor ones a(ke of whens fche were. 
Unto the ftabull they ledd hur ftede, 1560 

And all hur odur gere they dud Icde, 

Unto a chaumbur dere. 
The lorde had a doghtur feyre 
That hyght Betres, fchulde be hy^ heyre. 

Of vyfage feyre and clere ; 
To Florence they can hur kenne, 
To lerne hur to behave hur among men. 

They lay togedur in fere, 

In bedd togedur, wythowte lefynge, 

Florence that was feyre and yynge, 1570 

Yf any man hur bcfoght 
Of love, fche gaf them foche anfware 
That they wolde never aike hur mare. 

That was fo worthely wroght. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 67 

Sche preyed to god that boght hur dere, 
To fende hur fownde to fyr Emcie, 

That hur full dere had boght. 
Be that he was corny n to Rome, 
He thoght hyt a full carefuU come, 

Where Iche was he wyfte noght. 1-580 

Off Garcy y wyll telle yow mare, 
That was cawfer of hur evyll fare, 

And cawfyd hur fadur to be flaync, 
Emere vengyd well hys dedd, 
And broght hyra fro hys ftrenkyth full ftcdd, 

To grete Rome agayne. 
There lykyd hym noght to bee. 
And foone there-aftur dyed he, 

The fothe ys not to layne ; 
Sche fawe hym never wyth hur eye, 1590 

That cawfyd hur all that forowe to drye, 

Of hur have we to fayne. 

Wyth fyr Turry dwellyd a knyght 

That hardy was, and Machary he hyght, 

He was bolde as any bare : 
To hys lemman he wolde have had that bryght, 
And fpyed hur bothe day and nyght, 

Therof came mekyll care. 



68 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

Tyll hyt befelle upon a day, 

In bur chaumbur ftode that maye, I6OO 

To bur than can he fare ; 
lie leyde hur dovvne on hur bcdd, 
The lady wepyd fore for dredd, 

Sche had no focowre tbare. 

Before hur bedd lay a ftone, 
The bidy toke hyt up anon, 

And toke hyt yn a gethe, 
On the mowthe fche hym hyt, 
That hys for tcthe owte he fpytt, 

Above and alfo bcnethe. I6IO 

Hys mowthe, hys nofe, brafte owt on blood, 
Forthe at the chaumbur dore he yode. 

For drede of more wrethe ; 

And to hys chaumber he hyed hym ryght. 
And dwellyd forthe a fowrtenyght, 

And then he came agayne, 
And tolde hys lorde that he was fchent, 
Evyll betyn in a turnement, 

The fothe ys not to layne : 
The tethe be fmetyn owt of my mowthe, 1620 

Therforc my forowe ys full cowthe, 

^le bad levyr to be flayoe. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 69 

He wolde have be vengyd of that dede, 
Florence myght full fore hui* drede, 

Had fche wetyn of hys trayne ; 
A fcharpe knyfe he had hym boght, 
Of yron and ftele well ywroght. 

That bytterly wolde byte. 

And evyn to hur chaumbur he yode, 

And up behynde a curten he ftode, 1630 

Therof came forowe and fyte ; 
When he wyfte they were on flope 
To Betres throte can he grope, 

In fonder he fchaie hyt tyte. 
And yyt the thefe, or he wolde leeve, 
He put the hafle in Florence neeve. 

For fche fchulde have the wyte. 

Forthe at the chaumbcr dore he yode, 
And Betres lay burlyiig in hur blode, 

And Florence flepyd falte. l640 

Hur fadur thoght in a vyfyon, 
Hys doghtur fchulde be ftrekyn downe, 

Wyth a thonder blafte ; 
And as a thyck leyghtenyng abowte hur ware : 
Up he ftarte wyth mekyll care, 

And a kyrtell on he cafte ; 



70 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

A candyll at a lawmpe he lyght, 
And to hur chaumber reykyd he ryght, 
Thorowly on he thrafte ; 

And fonde Betres hys doghtur dedd, l650 

The bedd was full of blode redd, 

And a knyfe in Florence hande. 
Me callyd on PLglantyne hys wyfe, 
Knyghtys and ladyes came belyfe, 

Wondur fore wepeande ; 
Gentyll wemen fore dud wepe, 
x\nd evyr can feyre Florence flepe, 

That was fo. feyre to fande. 
Sche glyfte up wyth the hedeows ftore, 
A forowfull wakenyng had fche thore, 1660 

Soche a nodur was nevyr in lande ; 

Abowte the bedd they prefyd thyck, 
Among them came that traytur wyck, 

The whych had done that dede. 
lie feyde, Syr, y fchall fet a ftake. 
Wythowie the towne a fyre to make, 

And Florence thedur lede. 
Ye myght fee, be hur feyre clothyng, 
That fche was nojerthely thynge, 

And be hur grete feyre-hede. 167O 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 71 

But fome falfe fende of helle 
Ys comyn thy doghtur for to qwelle, 
Let me quyte hur hur mede. 

They dyght hur on the raome in fympull atyr, 
And led hur forthe unto the fyre, 

Many a oon wyth hur yede ; 
Sche feyde, God, of myghtys mooft, 
Fadur and fone, and holy gooft, 

As y dud nevyr thys dede, 
Yf y gyltlcs be of thys, 1^80 

Brynge me to thy bygly blys, 

For thy grete godhede. 
All that ever on hur can fee> 
Wrange ther hondes for grete pyt^, 

And farde as they vvolde wede. 

The lorde, that had the doghtur dcdd, 
Hys herte turned in that ftcdd, 

To wepc he can begynne. 
He feyde, Florence, al fo mote y the, 
I may not on thy dethe fee, 16^0 

For all the worlde to wynne. 
To hur chaumbur he can hur Icde, 
And cled hur in hur own wede, 

And feyde, Y hold hyt fynne. 



72 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

They fet hur on hur own palfrayc, 
In all hur nobull ryqhe arraye, 
Or evyr wolde he blynne ; 

And gaf hur the bryduU in hur hande, 

And broght hur to the wode ther he hur fande, 

And than he lefte hur thare. 17OO 

And betaght hur god and gode day, 
And bad hur wende on hur way, 

And then fche fyghed fare ; 
Syr, fche feyde,for charytci, 
Let none of thy men folowe me 

To worche me no more care. 
Nay for god, he fcyde, noon fchuldc 
For nync tymes thy weyght of goldc : 

Home then can he fare. 

Thorow the forefte the lady rode, 17IO 

All glemed there fche glode 

Tyll fche came in a felde. 
Sche fawe men undur a galows ftande, 
Thedur they ledd a thcfe to hange, 

To them then fche helde ; 
And haylefed them full curteslye. 
They afkyd fro whens fche came in hye, 

That worthy was to welde. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 73 

Sche feyde ye fchall wete of me no mare 
But as a woman dyscownfortyd fare 1720 

VVythowten bote or belde ; 

No levyng lefe wyth me y have, 
Woldc ye graiint me to be my knave, 

The thefe that ye thynke to hynge. 
The more buxum wyll he bee, 
That he were borowyd fro the galow tree, 

I hope be hevyn kynge. 
Then ther councell toke thay, 
They were lothe to feye hur nay, 

Sche was fo fey re a thynge. 1730 

They gaf hym to hur of ther gyfte, 
He was full lothe to leeve hys thefte ; 

Sche thankyd them olde and yynge, 

Sche feyde, Wokle thou ferve me wele, 
I fchulde the quyte every dclo. 

He feyde to hur, Yaa, 
Ellys were y a grcte fole, 
And worthy to be drowned in a pole, 

The galowfe thou delyvyrd me fra. 
Sche thynkyth, Myght y come ovyr the fee, 1740 
At Jcrufalem wolde y bee, 

Thedur to ryde or ga ; 



74 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

Then myght y fpyr tythandes of Rome, 
And of my lordys home come ; 
But now wakenyth hur waa, 

A burges that was the thefys reyfet, 
At the townes end he them mett, 

The lady rode ovyr an hylle, 
I wende thou hadyft be hangyd hye, 
And he twynkylde wyth hys eye, 1750 

As who feyth, holde the ftylle : 
Thys gentyll woman hath borowed me, 
For y fchulde hur knave bee, 

And ferve hur at hur wylle ; 
And fythyn he rowncd in hys eere, 
I behete the all thys ryche gere. 

Thy hows y wyll brynge hur tylle. 

He led hur up into the towue, 

At thys burges hows he toke hur downe. 

There was hur harburgerye. I76O 

On the hye deyfe he hur fett. 
And mete and drynke he hur felt, 

Of the wyne redd as cherye. 
The burges wyfe welcomed hur ofte, 
Wyth mj'lde wordys and wyth fofte. 

And bad hur ofte be merye. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 75 

Tho two falfe wyth grete yre, 
Stode and behelde her ryche atyre, 
And beganne to lagh and flerye. 

The biirges wyfe wylte ther thoght, 1770 

And feyde in feytlie we do for noght, 

Yf fo be that y may. 
At nyght to chaumbur fche hur ledd. 
And fparrycl the dore and went to bedd, 

All nyght togedur they laye. 
Sche caldc on Clarebolde hur knave, 
A lytyll errande for fothe y have, 

At the fee fo graye ; 
Yf any fchepe wende ovyr the ftreme 
To the cyte of Jerufaleni, 1780 

Gode fone wytt nie to faye. 

Clarebalde feyde the burges tylle, 
Thys nyght had we not owre wylle, 

We mufte cafte a nodur wyle. 
To the fee they went in fere, 
And fold hur to a marynere, 

Wythynne a lytyll whyle ; 
On covenawnt fche ys the feyreft thynge, 
That evyr ye fye olde or yynge. 

And he at them can frayle. 1790 



76 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

So mekyll golde for hur he hyght, ' 
That hyt pafsyd ahnooft hur weyght, 
On eyther parte was gyle. 

'* Take here the golde in a bagg, 
I fchall hyt hynge on a knagg, 

At the ichypp borde ende : 
When ye have broght that clere, 
Put up yowre hande and take hyt here :" 

Aftur hur can they wende. 
They feyde afchypp ys hyred to the, 1800 

That wyll to Jerufalem ovyr the fee, 

Sche thankyd them as fche was hende, 
Sche gaf the burges wyfe hur palfray, 
Wyth fadyll and brydyll, the fothe to fay. 

And kyfte hur as hur frende. 

Alther furfte to the kyrk'e fche went, 
To here a mafle verament, 

And preyed god of hys grace, 
That he wolde bryng hur to that ryke, 
That evyr more ys yoye in lyke, 1810 

Before hys worthy face j 
And or fche dyed Emere to fee, 
That hur own lorde fchulde bee, 

In Rome that ryall place. 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 77 

To the fcliypp they went in fere, 
And betoke hur to the marynere,. 
That lovely undur lace. 

They toke the bagg, they went hyt had be golde, 
And had hyt home into ther hohle, 

They lokyd and then hyt was ledd ; 1820 

The burges feyde to Clarebalde, 
Thou hafte made a fory frawde, 

God gyf the fcharaes dedd : 
For certenly, wythowten wene, 
Thou haft bcgyled a lady fchene. 

And made hur evyll of redd. 
To the fee hyed they fafte. 
The fayle was up unto the mafte, 

And remevyd was fro that ftedd. 

All men that to the fchypp can longe, ] 830 

They went Florence to leman have fonge, 

Ylke oon aftur odur had done ; 
But they faylyd of ther praye, 
Thorow grace of god that myghtes may, 

That fchope bothe fonne and moone. 
Sche calde on Clarebalde hur knave. 
The marynar feyde, Y hope ye rave. 

And tolde how he hade doone : 



78 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

Sche prayde god fchulde hym forgeve, 

A dreiyer woman myght noon leeve, 1840 

Undur hevyn trone. 

The maryner fet hur on hys bedd, 
Sche hadd foone aftur a byttur fpredd, 

The fchypp fayled bely ve ; 
He feyde, Damyfell, y have the boght, 
For thou art fo worthely wroght, 

To wedde the to my wyve. , 
Sche fe) dc, Nay that fchall not bee, 
Thorow helpe of hym in trynyte 

That fuffurde woundys fyve ; 1850 

In hys armes he can hur folde, 
Hur rybbes crakyd as they breke woldc, 

In ftruglynge can they ftryve. 

Sche feyde, Lady Mary free. 
Now thou have mercy on me, 

Thou faylyft me nevyr at nede ; 
Here my errande, as thou well may, 
That y take no fchame to-day. 

Nor lofe my maydynhede. 
Then beganne the ftorine to ryfe, I860 

And that upon a doleful! wyfe, 

The marynere rofe and yede; 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 79 

He hyed to the toppe of the maftc, 
They ftroke the fayle, the gabuls brafte, 
They hyed them a bettur fpede. 

He feyde but yf thys ftorme blynne, 
All mun be drowned that be hereynne, 

Then was that lady fayne ; 
Sche had levyr to have be dedd 
Then there to have lofte hur maydynhcdd, 1870 

Or he had hur by layne. 
Then the fchypp clave in fondur, 
All that was yn hyt foone went undur, 

And drowned bothe man and fwayne. - 
The yonge lady in that tyde, 
Fletyd forihe on the fchyp fyde, 

Unto a roche ungayne ; 

The marynere fate upon an are, 
But nodur wyfte of odur fare, 

The todur were drowned perd^, 1880 

The lady lleppyd to a Hon, 
Sche fonde a tredd and forthe ys gon, 

Loudyng the trynyte, 
To a noonre men calle Beverfayre, 
That ftondyth on the watur of Botayre, 

That rennyth into the Grekys fee. 



so LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

A ftepuU then the lady fye, 
Sche thoght the wey ihedur full drye, 
And thereat wolde fche bee. 

Syr Lucyus Ibarnyus was fownder there, I89O 
An hundurd nonnes theryn were, 

Of lad^^es wele lykeande. 
When that fche came nere the place, 
The bellys range thorow godys grace, 

Wythovvten heljie of hande. 
Of feynt Hyllary the churche ys, 
The twenty day of yowle y wys, 

' As ye may undurftande. 
They lokyd and fawe no Icvyng wyght, 
But the lady feyre and bryght 1900 

Can in the cloyftur ftande. 

The abbas be the honde hur toke, 
Annd ladd hur forthe, fo feyth the boke, 

Sche was redd for ronne. 
Sche knelyd downe before the crofle, ■ 
And looveyd god wyth mylde voyce, 

That fche was thcdur wonne. 
They afkyd hur yf fche had ony fere. 
Sche feyde. Nay, now noon here 

Leveyng undur the fonne. 191O 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROMK. 81 

Sche aflcyd an hows for charyttS, 
They broght an habyte to that fre, 
And there fche was made nonne. 

The lady, that was bothe gode and feyrei 
D welly d as nonne in Beverfayre, 

Loveyng god of hys loone, 
And hys modur, Mary bryght, 
That fafe and fownde broght hur ryght 

Unto the loche of ftone. 
A fystur of the hows was feke, 1 920 

Of the gowte, and odur evyls eke, 

Sche myght not fpeke nor goon ; 
Florence vyfyted hur on a day, 
And helyd hur or fche went away, 

Sche wolde ther had wytten therof none. 

The abbas, and odur nonnes by, 
Tolde hyt full openlye, 

That hyt was fo verraye, 
Ther was noon fyke nor fare, 
That corae there the lady ware, 1930 

But they went fownde away. 
The worde fprang in mony a cuntr^, 
And into Rome the ryche cyt^, 

There hur lorde in laye, 

VOL. III. G 



82 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

Whych had an evyll in hys hevedd, 
That all hys yoye was fro hyra revedd, 
Bothe be nyght and daye. 

He was fo tuggelde in a toyle, 

For he werryd on the kyng of Poyle, 

And he on hyra agayne ; 19*0 

And as he fchulde hys helme avente, 
A quarell fmote hym verament, 

Thorowowt bothe bonne and brayne. 
The leche had helyd hyt ov}?! tyte. 
And hyt was festurd wythowte delyte, 

Theryn he had grete payne ; 
He had levyr then all hys golde, 
That he had ben undur the roolde, 

Or flyly had be flayne. 

He calde Egfevayne hym too, H^SO 

And feyde, What ys befte to do ? 

Myn evyll encrefyth yerne, 
" Syr, at Beverfayre dwellyth a nonne, 
The weyes thedur we nc conne, 

But we fchall fpyr and lerne." 
Mekyll golde wyth them they toke, 
And went forihe, fo feyth the bok«f 

Prevely and derae j 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 83 

And yyt for all ther mekyll fare, 
Hyt was a grete whyle or they Ciirae thare, 196O 
Thogh all they haftyd yerne. 

The emperowre toke hys ynne therby, v 

Alther next the nonnery, 

For there then wolde he dvvelle ; 
And Mylys hys broder, that graceles fole, 
Dwellyd wyth oon Gyllam of Pole, 

And was woxyn a fowle mefelle. 
He harde telle of that lady lele, 
And thediir was comyn to feeke hys hele, 

The certen fothe to telle ; 19fO 

He harberde hym far therfro 
All behynde men, y telle yow foo, 

Hys fekenes was fo felle; 

And Machary was comyn alfe, 
Agenfte the lady that was fo falfe, 

That flewe Betres and put hyt hur too, 
God had fende on hym a wrake. 
That in the palfye can he fchake. 

And was crompylde and crokyd therto. 
He had geten fyr Tyrry thedur, I98O 

And hys wyfe bothe togedur, 

D»me Eglantyne hyght fchoo, 



84 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

The holy nonne for to praye, 
For to hele hym and fche maye, 
That oght fche evyll to doo. 

Syr Tyrrye the chaftlayne 
. Harbarde the emperowre full gayne, 

On the todur fyde of the ftrete ; 
And the marynere that har boght, 
That wolde have had hur hys leman to a wroght, 

That on the ore can flete, 1991 

He came thedur wyth an evyll 
Hyppyng on two ftavys lyke the devyll, 

Wyth woundys wanne and wete ; 
And Clarebalde, that was the thefc, 
Came wyth an evyll that dud hym grefe ; 
• Thes four there all can meete. 

The emperowre to the church went, 
To here a mafle in gode entent, 

Hende, as ye may here ; 2000 

When that the mafle was done, 
The abbas came and haylefyd hym foone, 

On hur befte manere, 
The emperowre feyde, Well thou bee, 
The holy nonne wolde y fee, 

That makyth the fyke thus fere ; 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 85 

An evyll in my hedd fraetyn ys, 

That y have lofte all odur blys j 

They fente aftur that clere. 

At hur preyers there as fche ware, 2010 

"When fche fawe hur own lorde tharej 

Sche knewe hym wele ynogh : 
So dud he hur he wolde not fo faye, 
Abowte the cloyftur goon are thay, 

Spekyng of hys woghe. 
Then was fche warre of the four thare, 
That had kyndylde all hur care, 

Nere to them fche droghe. 
They knew hur not be no kyns thynge, 
Therof thankyd fche hevyn kynge, 2020 

And lyghtly at them loghe, 

Mylys that hur aweye ledd, 
He was the fowleft mefell bredd, 

Of pokkys and bleynes bloo ; 
And Machary, that wolde hur have flayne, 
He ftode fchakyng, the fothe to fayne, 

Crokyd and crachyd thertoo. 
The maryner, that wolde have layne hur by, 
Hys yen ftode owte a ftrote for thy, 

Hys lymmes were roton hym froo. ' 2030 



86 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

They put Clarebalde in a whelebarowe, 
That ftrong thefe, be ftretys narowe, 
Had no fote on to goo. 

Sche feyde, Ye that wyll be hale, 
And holly broght owt of yowre bale 

Of that ye are yniiei 
Ye muft fchryve yow openlye^ 
And that wyth a full lowde cryc, 

To all that be here bothc more and mynnc. 
That they thoght full lothe to doo, 204O 

Mylys feyde, Syth hyt mufte be foo, 

Soone fchall y begynuc. 
I lykyd never wele, day nor nyght, 
Syth y ledd awey a lady bryght, 

From kythe and all hur kynne. 

Than he feyde to thera verament, 
How he the lady wolde have fchent. 

And tolde them to the lafte ; 
And that he wolde have be empcrowre, 
And vvcddyd the lady whyte as flowre,. 52050 

And all hys falfe cafte ; 
And fythe awey he can hur lede, 
« For y wolde have refte fro hur hur maydynhede. 

That fche defendyd fafte. 



LE bone FLORENCE OF ROME. 87 

I had never wyth hur to doo, 
For y myght not wynne hur to, 
But clene fro me fchc pafte :" 

And fythyn he tolde them of the barley bredd, ' 
And how he brent the armyte to dcdd, 

And hangyd hur up be the hare : 2060 

" Then y fye men and howndys bathe, 
And to the wode y went for wrathe." 

There Tyrry gaf anfware : 
Then came y and toke hur downed 
And had hur wyth me unto the towne, 

And that rewyd me full fare ; 
Sche flewe Betres my doghtur fchene, 
That fchulde my ryght heyre have bene, 

And yyt let y hur fare ; 

For fche was fo bryght of blee, 2070- 

And fo femely on to fee, 

Therfore let y hur goo. 
Then Machary, for he mufte nede, 
" Sche dyd me oonys an evyll dode, 

My harte was wondur throo. 
When y wolde have leyn hur by, 
My for tethe fmote fche owt for thy, 

That wakenyd all my woo j 



88 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

I flewe Betres wyth a knyfe, 

For y wolde fche had lofte hur lyfe, 2080 

Trewly hyt was foo." 

'llien Tyrry farde as he wolde wede, 

And feyde, Falfe traytur, dyd thou that dede ? . 

Then wepyd dame Eglantyne, 
And feyde, Alias that we came here, 
T hys falfe traytur for to fere, 

That wroght us all ihys pyne, 
Yyt y am-warfe for that feyre maye 
That was fo unfrendely flemed away, 

And was gyltles therynne. • 2090, 

Clarebalde feyde, Sche came be me, 
1 ftode undur a galowe-tree, 

And a rope abowte hals myne ; 

Fro the galowfe fche borowed me. 
For y fchulde hur knave have bee, 

And ferve hur to hur paye. 
We were togedur but oon nyght. 
At the fee y folde that bryght, 

On the feconde day. 
-Then fpake the maryner that hur boght, 2100 

When y wolde hur to wyfe have wroght 

Soonc fche feyde me naye j 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 89 

Sche brake my fchypp wyth a tempefte, 
Sche fletyd fowthe and y north-wefte, 
And fyth fawe y never that maye. ~ 

Upon an ore to londe y wanne, 
And ever fyth have be a drery man, 

And nevyr had happe to hele ; 
And fyth.y have be in forowe and fyte, 
Me thynkyth we four be in febull plyte, 2110 

That cawfyd hur to wante hur wylle. 
She handylde them wyth hur hande, 
Then were they hoole, y undurftande, 

And odur ft)lke full feele. 
Hur own lorde, alther lafte, 
The venom owt of hys hedd bi*aftc, 

Thus can fche wyth them dele ; 

The venome brafte owt of hys ere. 
He feyde, Y fynd yow four in fere. 

Hys herte was full throo. 2120 

He made to make a grete fyre, . 
And cafte them yn wyth all ther tyre, 

Then was the lady woo. 
The emperowre toke dame Eglantyne, 
Tynye, and Florence, feyre and fyne, 

And to the halle can goo, * 



50 LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

They loovcyd god, leflc and more, 
That they had fownde the lady thore. 
That longe had be them froo. 

Soche a fefte as there was oon, 2136 

In that lande was never noon, 

They gaf the nonnes rente. 
And all ther golde, wythowt lefynge, 
But unnethys that that rayght them home brynge. 

And thankyd them for that gente. 
Florence feyde, Syr, wyth yowre leeve, 
Tyrrye fome thynge mufte yow geve, 

That me my lyfe hath lente. 
He gaf hym the cyte of Florawnce. 
And bad hym holde hyt wythowt dptawnce: 2140 

They toke ther leve and wente. 

Tyrrye wente home to hys cuntr^. 

And the emperowr to Rome hys ryche cyti, 

As farte as evyr they maye. 
When the pope harde telle of ther comyng, 
He went agayne them wythowt lefynge, 

In full ryall arraye, 
Cardynals were fomned be ther names, 
And come fyngyng TV deum laudamvs, 

•The certen fotfte to faye; 2150 



LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME, gt 

They loovyd god bothe more and leffe, 
That they had getyn the eiaperes, 
That longe had bene awaye. 

Soche a brydale as there was oon 
In that lande was nevyr noon. 

To wytt wythowten wene ; 
There was grete myrthe of mynftrals ftevyn. 
And nobuU gyftys alfo gevyn, 

Bothe golde and robys fchene ; 
Soone aftur, on the fowretenyth day, 2l50 

They toke ther leve and went ther way, 

And thankyd kynge and quene. 
They loovyd god wyth myght and mayne 
That the lady was comyn agayne, 

And kept hur chafte and clene. 

They gate a chylde the furfte nyght, 
A fone that fyr Otes hyght, 

As the boke makyth mynde ; * 

A nobuU knyght, and a ftronge in flowre, 
lliat aftur hym was erapcrowre, 2170 

As hyt was full gode kynde. 
Then the emperowre and hyS wyfe, 
In yoye and blyffe they lad ther lyfe, 

That were comyn of gentyl ftrynde. 



<W LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

Pope Symonde thys ftory wrate, 
In the cronykyls of Rome ys the date, 
Who fekyth there he may hyt fynde. 

For thy fchulde men and women als 
Them bethynke or they be falfe, 

Hyt makyth fo fowle an ende. 2180 

Be hyt nevyr fo flylye cafte, 
Yyt hyt fchamyth the mayftyr at the lafte, 

In what londe that ever they lende. 
I meene be thes four fekyll, 
That harmed feyre Florence fo mykyll, 

The treweft that men kende : 
And thus endyth thys romance gode. 
Jhefu, that boght us on the rode, 

Unto hys blyfle us fendcj 



[93] 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 



Jhesu Cryfte, yn trynyt^, 
Oonly god and perfons thre, 

Graunt us wele to fpede, 
And gy{ us grace fo to do, 
That we may come thy blys unto, 

On rode as thou can blede ! 
Leve lordys, y fchall you telle, 
Of a tale fome tyme befelle, 

Farre yn unkowthe lede ; 
How a lady had grete myschefe, 10 

And how fche covyrd of hur grefe ; 

Y pray you take hede. 

Some tyme ther was in Almayn 
An emperrour of moche mayn, 



S4 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Syr Dyaclyfyon he hyght ; 
He was a bolde man and a ftowte, 
All Cryftendome of hym had dowte, 

So ftronge he was yn fygbt. 
He dysheryted many a man, 
And falfely ther londys wan, 20 

Wyth mayftry and wyth myght ; 
Tyll hyt be felle, upon a day, 
A warre wakenyd, as y yow fay, 

Betwene hym and a knyght ; 

The erle of Tollous, fyr Barnard, 
The emperrour wyth hym was harde. 

And gretly was hys foo ; 
He had rafte owt of hys honde 
Thre hundurd poundys worth be yere of londc, 

Therfore hys herte was woo. 30 

He was an hardy man and a ftronge, 
And fawe the emperour dyd hym wronge, 

And other men alfo ; 
He ordeyned hym for batayle, 
Into the emperours londe faunfayle, 

And there he began to brenne and floo. 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 95 

Thys emperour had a wyfe, 

The fayreft oon that evyr bare lyfe^ 

Save ISIary raekyll of myght ; 
And therto gode in all thynge, 40 

Of almesdede and gode berynge, 

Be day, and eke be nyght. 
Of hyr body fche wa* trewe, 
As evyr was lady that men knewe. 

And therto mooft bryght ; 
To the emperour fche can fay, 
My dcre lorde, y you pray, 

Delyvyr the erle hys ryght. 

Dame, he feyde, let that Ijee, 

That day fchalt thou nevyr fee, 50 

Yf y may ryde on ryght ; 
That he fchall have hys londe agayne, 
Fyrfte fchall y breke hys brayne, 

Os y am trewe knyght. 
He warryth fafte on my londe, 
I fchall be redy at hys honde, 

Wythyn thys fowretenyght. 
He fent abowte every whare 
That all men fchulde make them yare, 

Agayne the erle to fyght. ^0 



S5 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

He let crye in every fyde, 
Thorow hys londc ferre and wyde, 

Bothe in felde and towne, 
All tliat myght wepon bare, 
Sworde, alablaft, fchylde, or fpere, 

They fchoulde be redy bowne. 
The erle on hys fyde alfo, 
Wyth forty thoufand and moo, 

Wyth fpere and fchylde browne, 
A day of batayle there was fett, 70 

In felde when they togedur mett, 

Was crakydd many a crowne. 

The emperour had bataylys fevyn. 
He fpake to them wyth fterne ftevyn, 

And fayde, fo mote he thryve, 
Be ye now redy for to fyght, 
Go ye and bete them dpwne ryght, 

And lecveth non on lyve. 
Loke that none raunfomyd bee, 
Nothyr for golde ne for fee, SO 

But flc them wyth fwerde and knyfe : 
For all hys bofte he faylyd yyt. 
The erle manly hym mett, 

Wyth ftrokjs goode and ryfe. 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 97 

They reryd batayle on every fyde, 
Bodely togedur can they ryde, 

Wyth fchylde and many a fpere : 
They leyde on fafte, as they were wode, 
Wyth fwerdys and axes that were gode, 

Full hedeous hyt was to here. 90 

There were fchyldys and fchaftys fchakydd, 
Hedys thorogh helrays crakydd, 

And hawberkys all to tere ; 
The erle hymfelfe an axe drowe, 
An hundurd men that day he flowe, 

So wyght he was yn were. 

Many a ftede there ftekyd was, 
Many a bolde baron in that place 

Lay burland yn hys own blode ; 
So moche blode there was fpylte 100 

That the felde was ovyr hylte, 

Os hyt were a flode. 
Many a wyfe may fytt and wepe, 
That was wonte fofte to flepe, 

And now can they no gode ; 
Many a body and many a hevyd, 
Many a doghty knyght ther was levyd, 

That was wylde and wode. 
VOL. III. H 



98 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

The erle of Tollous wan the fclde, 

The cmperour ftode and bchelde, 110 

Wele fafte can he flee, 
To a castell there befyde, 
Fayne he was hys hedd to hyde, 

And wyth hym erlys thro : 
No moo forfothe fcapyd away, 
But they were flayn and takyn that day, 

Hyt niyght non othyr bee ; 
The crle tyll nyght folowed the chace, 
And fythcn he thanked god of hys grace. 

That fyttyth in trynyt^. * 120 

There were flayne in that batayld, 
Syxty thoufand wythowte fayle. 

On the emperours fyde ; 
Ther was takyn thre hundurd and fyfty, 
Of grete lordys fekyrly, 

Wyth woundys gi-ymly wyde. 
On the erlys fyde ther were flayne, 
But twenty, fotliely to fayne. 

So boldely they can abyde ; 
Soche grace god hym fcnde, 130 

That falfe quarell comcth to evell endc, 

For oght that may betydc. 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 99 

Now the emperour ys full woo, 
He hath lofte men and londe alfo, 

Sore then fyghed hee ; 
He fware, be hym that dyed on rode, 
Mete nor diynke fchulde do hym nogode 

Or he vengedd bee. 
The emperes feyde, Gode lorde> 
Hyt ys better ye be acorde, 140 

Be oght that y can fee ; 
Hyt ys grete parell, fothe to telle, 
To be agayne the ryght quarell, 

Be god thus thynketh me. 

Dame, feyde the eraperoure, 
Y have a grete dyshonoure, 

Therfore myn herte ys woo ; 
My lordys be takyn, and fome dede, 
Therfore careful! ys my rede, 

Sorowe nye wyll me floo. 150 

Then feyde dame Beulybon, 
Syr, y rede, be feynt John, 

Of warre that ye hoo ; 
Ye have the wronge and he the ryght, 
And that ye may fee in fyght, 

Be thys and othyr moo. 



100 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

The emperour was evyll payde, 
Hyt was fothe the lady fayde, 

Therfore hym lykyd ylle j 
He wente awey, and fyghed fore, 100 

Oon worde fpake he no more, 

But helde hym wonder flylle. 
Leve we now the emperour in thoght, 
Game ne gle lyked hym noght, 

So gretly can he grylle. 
And to the crle turne we agayn, 
That thanked god wyth all hys raayn, 

That grace had fende hym tylle. 

The erle Barnard of ToUous, 

Had fele men chyvalrous I70 

Takyn to hys prefon, 
Moche gode of them he hadd, 
Y can not tell, fo god me gladd. 

So grete was ther raunfome. 
Among them had he oon 
Was gretteft of them everychon, 

A lorde of many a towne, 
Syr Trylabas of Turky, 
The emperour hym lovyd fekurly, 

A man of grete rcuowne, 180 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. J 01 

So hyt befelle upon a day 
The erle and he went to play, 

Be a rever fyde, 
The erle feyde to Trylabas, 
Telle me, fyr, for goddys grace, 

Of a thyng that fpryngyth wyde ; 
That youre emperour hath a wyfe, 
The fayreft woman that is on lyfe, 

Of hewe and eke of hyde : 
Y fwere by boke and by belle, 190 

Yf fche be fo feyre as men telle, 

Mekyll may be hys pryde. 

Then faydc that lord anon ryght, 
Be the ordre y here of knyght, 

The fothe y fchall telle the, 
To feeke the worlde more and leffe, 
Bothe cryftendorae and hethynnelfe, 

Ther ys none fo bryght of blee : 
Whyte as fnowe ys hur coloure, 
Hur rudde ys radder then the rofe flour, 200 

Yn fyght who may hur fee ; 
All men that evyr god wroght 
Myght not thynke nor cafte in thoght 

A fayrer for to bee. 



102 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Then feyde the erle, Be goddes grace 
Thys worde in mornyng me mas, 

Thou feyeft fche ys fo bryght ; 
Thy raunfom here y the forgeve, 
My helpe my love whyll y leve, 

Therto my trowlhe y plyght, 210 

So that thou wylt brynge me 
Yn fafe garde for to bee 

Of hur to have a fyght, 
An hundurd pownde wyth grete honoure, 
To bye the horfes and ryche armoure, 

Os y am trewe kuyght. 

Than anfweryd fyr Trylabas, 
Yn that covenaunt in thys place 
My trowthe y plyght thee, 

Y fchall holde thy forward gode, 220 
To brynge the, wyth mylde mode. 

In fyght hur for to fee; 
And therto wyll y kepe counfayle, • 

And never more, wythowte fayle, 

Agayne yow to bee ; 

Y fchall be trewe, be goddys ore, 
To lofe myn own lyfe therfore, 

Hardely trylle to race. 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 103 

The erle anfweryd wyth wordys hende, 

Y tryfte to the as to my frende, 230 
Wythowte any ftryfe ; 

Anon that [we] were bufkyd yare, 
On owre jurney for to fare, 
For to fee that wyfe. 

Y fwere be god and feynt Andrewe, 
Yf hyt be fo y fynde the trewe 

Ryches fchall be to the ryfe, 
They lettyd nothyr for wynde nor wedur, 
But forthe they wente bothe togedur, 

Wythowte any ftryfe. 240 

Thefe knyghtes never ftynte nor blanne 
Tyll to the cyte that they wan, 

There the emperes was ynne, 
The erle hymfelfe for more drede 
Cladcl hym in armytes wede, 

Thogh he were of ryche kynne ; 
For he woldc not knowen bee, 
He dwellyd there dayes three, 

And refted hym in hys ynne. 
The knyght bethoght hym on a day 250 

The gode erle to betray 

Falfely he can beg ynne. 



104 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Anone he went in a refe 

To chaumbur to the empercs, 

And fett hym on hys knee ; 
He feyde, Be hym that harowed helle, 
He kepe yow fro all parelle, 

Yf that hys \vylle bee. 
Madam, he feyde, be Jhefus, 
Y have the erle of Tollous, 260 

Our mooft enemye ys hee. 
Yn what manere, the lady can fay, 
Ys he comyn ? y the pray, 

Anone telle thou me. 

" Madam, y was in hys prefon. 
He hate forgevyn me my raunfom, 

Be god full of myght ; 
And all ys for the love of the. 
The fothe ys he longyth yow to fee, 

Madam, onys in fyght. 270 

An hundurd pownde y have to mede, 
And armour for a nobull ftede ; 

For fothe y have hym hyght. 
That he fchall fee yow at hys fylle, 
Ryght at hys owne wylle, 

Ther to ray trow the y plyght. 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 105 

Lady, he ys to us a foo, 
Therfore y rede that we hym floo, 

He hath done us grete grylle." 
The lady feyde, So mut y goo, 280 

Thy foule ys lofte yf thou do fo. 

Thy trowthe thou fchalt fulfylle. 
Sythe he forgaf the thy raunfom, 
And lovvfydd the owt of prefon. 

Do away thy wyckyd wylle ; 

To-morne, when they rynge the mas-belle, 
Brynge hym in to my chapelle, 

And thynke thou on no falfe flouthe. 
There fchall he fee me at hys wylle. 
Thy covenaunt to fulfylle, 250 

Y rede the holde thy trowthe, 
Ccrtys, yf thou hym begyle, 
Thy foule ys in grete peryle, 

Syn thou haft made hym othe; 
Certys hyt were a traytory. 
For to wayte hym velany, 

Me thynkyth hyt were rowthe. 

The kn3'ght to the erle wente, 

Yn herte he helde hym foule fchente, 

For hys wyckyd thoght j 300 



106 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

He feyde, Syr, fo mote y the, 
To-morne thou fchalt my lady fee, 

Thciforc dysmay the noght. 
When ye here the mas-belle, 
Y fchall hur brynge to the chapelle, ' 

Thedur fche fchall be broght. 
Be the oryall-fyde ftonde thou ftylle, 
Then fchalt thou fee hur at thy wylle, 

That ys fo worthyly wroght. 

The erle feyde, Y holdc the trewe, 310 

And that fchall the nevyr rewe, 

As fane forthe as y may. 
Yn hys herte he waxe gladd, 
Fylle the wyne, wyghtly he badd, 

Thys goyth to my pay. 
There he reftyd that nyght, 
On the morne he can hyra dyght, 

Yn armytes array ; 
When they rongc to the maffe, 
To the chapell conne they paffe, 320 

To fee that lady gay. 

They had ftonden but a whyle, 
The mowntaunfe of halfe a myle, 
Then came that lady free j 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 107 

Two erlys hur ladd, 

Wondur rychely fche was cladd, 

In golde and ryche pene. 
Whan the erle fawe hur in fyght, 
Hym thoght fche was as bryght 

Os blosfome on the tree : 330 

Of all the fyghtys that ever he fye 
Rayfyd never none hys herte fo hye, 

Sche was fo bryght of blee. 

Sche ftode ftylle in that place, 
And fchewed opynly hur face, 

For love of that knyght ; 
He behelde yuly hur face, 
He fware there, be goddys grace, 

He fawe never none fo bryght. 
Hur eyen were gray as any glas, 340 

Mowthc and nofe fchapen was 

At all maner ryght ; 
Fro the forhedd to the too, 
Bettur fchapen myght non goo, 

Nor none femelyer yn fyght. 

Twyes fche turnyd hur abowte, 
Betwene the erlys that were ftowte, 
For the erle fchulde hur fee ; 



108 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

When fche fpake wyth raylde ftevyn, 

Sche femyd an aungell of hevyn, 350 

So fcyre fche was of blee, 
Hur fyde longe, hur myddyll fmall, 
Schouldurs, armes, therwythall, 

Fayrer myght non bee ; 
Hur hondys whyte as whallys bonne 
Wyth fyngurs longe and ryngys upon 

Hur nayles bryght of blee. 

When he had beholden hur welle, 
The lady wente to hur chapell 

Mafle for to here ; 360 

The erle ftode on that odur fyde, 
Hys eyen fro hur myght he not hyde 

So lovely fche was of chere. 
He feyde, Lorde god, full of myght, 
Leve y were fo worthy a kuyght 

That y myght be hur fere ; 
And that fche no husbonde hadd. 
All the golde that evyr god made 

To me were not fo dere. 

When the maffe come to ende, 370 

The lady, that was feyre and hende, 
To the chaumbur can fche fare ; 



THE ERI.E OF TOLOUS. 109 

The erle fyghed, and was full woo, 
Owt of hys fyght when fche fchulde goo, 

Hys mornyng was the mare. 
The erle feyde. So god me fave. 
Of hur almes he wolde crave, 

Yf hur wylle ware ; 
Myght y gete of that free 
Eche a day hur to fee, 380 

Hyt wolde covyr me of my care. 

The erle knelyd down anon ryght. 
And afkyd gode for god allmyght, 

That dyed on the tree, 
The emperes callyd a knyght : 
Fourty floranfe, that ben bryght, 

Anone brynge thou mee. 
To that armyte fche hyt payde. 
Of on hyr fyngyr a rynge fhe layde 

Amonge that golde fo free ; $90 

He thankyd hur ofte, as y yow fay. 
To the chaumbyr wente that lady gay, 

There hur was levefte to bee. 

The erle went home to hys ynnys, 
And grete yoye he begynnys. 
When he founde the rynge ; 



no ^ THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Yn hys herte he waxe blythe, 
And kyfsyd hyt fele fythe, 

And feyde, My dere derlynge, 
On thy fyngyr thys was, 40O 

Wele ys me y have thy grace. 

Of the to have thys rynge ; 
Yf evyr y gete grace of the quene. 
That any love betwene us bene, 

Thys may be cure tokenyng. 

The erle, al fo foone os hyt was day 
Toke hys leve, and wente hys way, 

Home to hys cuntr^ ; 
Syr Trylabas he thanked fafte, 
Of thys dede thou done me hafte, 410 

Well qwyt fchall hyt bee. 
They kyfsyd togedur as gode frende, 
Syr Tiylabas home can wende, 

There evell mote he thee ! 
A traytory he thoght to doo, 
Yf he myght come thertoo, 

So fchrewde in herte was bee. 

Anon he callyd two knyghtys, 
Hardy men at all fyghtys, 
Bothe were of hys kynne ; 4-20 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. Ill 

Syrs, he feyde, wythowt fayle, 
Yf ye wyl do be my counfayle, 

Grete worfchyp fchulde ye wynne. 
Knowe ye the erle of Tollous ? 
Mochc harme he hath done us, 

Hys bofte y rede we blynne ; 
Yf ye wyll do aftur my redd, 
Thys day he fchall be dedd, 

So god mc fave fro fynne. 

That oon knyght Kamiters, that odur Kaym 43* 
Falfer men myght no man ray me, 

Certys then were thoo ; 
Syr Trylabas was the thrydde, 
Hyt was no myslur them to bydd 

Aftur the erle to goo. 
At a brygge they hym mett, 
Wyth harde ftrokes they hym befett, 

As men that were hys foo ; 
The erle was a man of raayn, 
Fafte he faght them agayne, 440 

And foone he flew twoo. 

The thrydd fledd, and blewe owt fafle, 
The erle ovyrtoke hym at the lafte, 
Hys hedd he clofe in three ; 



112 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

The cuntrey gedyrd abowte hym fafte, 
And aftur hym yorne they chafte, 

An hundurd there men myght fee. 
The erle of them was agafte, 
At the lafte fro them he parte, 

Fayne he was to flee ; 450 

From them he went into a wafte, 
To refte hym there he toke hys cafte, 

A wery man was hee. 

All the nyght in that forefte 
The gentyll erle toke hys refte, 

He had no nodur woon ; 
When hyt dawed he rofe up foone. 
And thankyd god that fyttyth in trone. 

That he had fcapyd hys foon. 
That day he travaylyd many a myle, 450 

And ofte he was in grete parylle, 

Be the way os he can gone, 
Tyll he come to [a] fayre caftell, 
There hym was levyft to dwelle, 

Was made of lyme and ftone. 

Of hys comyng, hys men were gladd, 
Be ye mery, my men, he badd, 
For nothyng ye fpare ; 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 113 

The emperour, wythowte lees, 

Y trowe wyll let us be in pees, 470 

And warre on us no mare. 
Thus dwellyd the erle in that place^ 
Wyth game myrthe and grete folafc, 

Ryght OS hyra levyft ware< 
Let we now the erle alloon, 
And fpeke we of dame Beulyboon, 

How fche was cafte in care. 

The emperour loVyd hys wyfe, 
Al fo moche os hys own lyfe, 

And more yf he myght } 480 

"He chofe two knyghtys that were hym dere, 
Whedur that he were ferre or nere, 

To kepe hur day and nyght. 
That oon hys love oti hur Cafte, 
So dud the todur at the lafte, 

Sche was feyre and bryght ; 
Nothyr of othyr wyfte ryght nogUt, 
So derne love on them wroght, 

To dethe they were nere dyght. 

So hyt befelle upon a day 490 

That oon can to that othyr fay, 
Syr, al fo mufte y thee, 
VOL. III. J 



114 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Methynkyth thou fadylle all away, 
Os man that ys clongyn in clay, 

So pale waxeth thy blee. 
Then feyde that other, Y make a vowe, 
Ryght fo methynkyth farefte thou, 

Why fo evyr hyt bee ; 
Telle me thy caufe, why hyt ys, 
And y fchall telle the myn, y vrys, 500 

My trouthey plyght to thee. 

Y graunte, he feyde, wythowt fayle. 
But loke hyt be trewe counfayle. 

Therto hys trowthe he plyght. 
He feyde, My lady the emperes. 
For love of hur y am in grete dyftrefie, 

To dethe hyt wyll me dyght. 
Then feyde that othyr, Certenly, 
Wythowte drede, fo fare y 

For that lady bryght ; 510 

Syn owre lovfe ys on hur fett, 
How myght owre bale befte be bett ? 

Canlle thou rede on ryght I 



Then feyde that othyr, be feynt John 
Bettur counfayle can y noon 
Methynkyth then ys thys ; 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 115 

Y rede that oon of us twoo 
Prevely to hur goo, 

And pray hur of hur blys j 

Y myfelfe wyll go hur tylle, 520 
Yn cafe y may gete hur wylle, 

Of myrthe fchalt thou not mys ; 
Thou fchalt take us wyth the dede, 
Lefte thou us wrye fche wyll drede. 

And graunte thy wylle, y wys, 

Thus they were at oon asfent, 
Thys falfe thefe forth© wente, 

To wytt the ladyes wylle ; . 
Yn chaumbyr he founde hyr fo free, 
He fett hym downe on hys knee, 530 

Hys purpofe to fulfylle. 
Than fpake that lady free, 
Syr, y fee now well be the. 

Thou hafte not all thy wylle ; 
On thy fekenes now y fee, 
Telle me now thy prevyt^, 

Why thou mornyft fo ftylle. 

Lady, he feyde, that durfte y noght. 
For all the gode that evyr was wvoght, 

Be grete god invyfybylle ; 540 



116 THE ERLE OF T0L0U9. 

But on a booke yf ye wyll fwere 
That ye fchuU not me dyskere, 

Then were hyt posfybyll. 
Then feyde the lady, How may that bee, 
That thou durfte not tryfte to mee ? 

Hyt ys full orybylle : 
Here my trowthe to the y plyght, 

Y fchall heyle the day and nyght, 
Al fo trewe as boke or belle. 

** Lady, in yow ys all my tryfte, 550 

Inwardely y wolde ye wyfte. 
What payne y fuffur you fore ; 

Y drowpe, y dare, nyght and day, 
My wele, my wytt, ys all away, 

But ye lene on my lore, 

Y have yow lovyd many a day, 
But to yow durfte y nevyr fay. 

My mornyng ys the more ; 
But ye do aftur my rede, 
Certenly y am but dede, 560 

Of my lyfe ys no ftore." 

Than anfweryd that lovely lyfe, 
Syr, wele thou wottyft y am a wyfe, 



My lorde ys emperoure 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 117 

He chafe the for a trewe knyght, 
To kepe me bothe day and nyght, 

Undur thy focowre. 
To do that dede yf y asfente 

Y were worthy to be brente, 

And broght in grete doloure ; 570 

Thou art a traytour in thy fawe, 
Worthy to be hanged and to-drawe, 

Be Mary that fwete floure, 

A, madam, feyde the knyght, 
For the love of god almyght, 

Hereon take no hede, 
Yn me ye may full wele tryfte ay, 

Y dud nothyng but yow to affray, 
Al fo god me fpede. 

Thynke, madam, your trowthe ys plyght, .580 

To holde counfayle, bothe day and nyght. 
Fully wythowte drede ; 

Y afke mercy for goddys ore. 
Hereof yf y carpe more 

Let drawe me wyth a llede. 

The lady feyde, Y the forgeve, 
Al fo longe os y leve, 
Counfayle fchall hyt bee ; 



118 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Loke thou be a trewe man, 

In all thyng that thou can, 590 

To my lorde fo free, 
" Yys, lady, ellys dyd y wronge, 
For y have fervyd hym longe, 

And wele he hath qwytt mee." 
Here of fpake he no mare, 
But to hys felowe can he fare. 

There evyll muft they the. 

Thus to hys felowe ys he gon, 
And he hym frayned anon, 

Syr, how hafte thou fpedd ? 600 

Ryght noght, feyde that othyr, 
Syth y was borne, lefe brothyr. 

Was y nevyr fo adredd. 
Certys hyt ys a boteles bale 
To hur to touche foche a tale. 

At borde or at bedde. 
Then fayde that odur, Thy wytt ys thynne, 
Y myfelfe fchall hur wynne, 

Y lay my hedd to wedde. 

Thus hyt pafsyd ovyr, os y you fay, 6lO 

Tyl aftur, on the thrydde day, 
Thys knyght hym bethoght, 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 119 

Certys, fpede os y may, 

My ladyes wylle that ys fo gay, 

Hyt fchalle be thorowly foght. n 
When he fawe hur in befte mode, . 
Sore fyghyng to hur he yode, 

Of lyfe OS he ne roght : 
Lady, he feyde, wythowte fayle, 
But ye helpe me wyth yowre counfayle, 629 

Yn bale am y broght. 

Sche anfweryd full curtesly. 
My counfayle fchall be redy. 

Telle me how hyt ys. 
When y wott worde and ende, '' 

Yf my counfayle may hyt mende, 

Hyt fchall, fo have y blyffe. 
Lady, he feyde, y undurftonde 
Ye mufte holde up yowre honde 

To holde counfayle, y wys. 630 

Yys, feyde the lady free. 
Thereto my trouthe here to the, 

And ellys y dude amys. 

Madam, he feyde, now y am in tryfte. 
All my lyfe thogh ye wyfte, 
Ye wolde me not dyskere ; 



120 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

For you y am in fo grete thoght, 
Yn mochc bale y am broght, 

Wythowte olhe y fwere : 
And ye may full wele fee 640 

How pale y am of blee, 

Y dye nere for dere ; 
Dere lady, graunt me youre love, 
For the love of god that fytteth above, 

That (^ongen was wyth a fpere. 

Syr, fche feyde, ys that youre vvylle ? 
Yf hyt were myne then dyd y ylle ; 

What woman holdyft thou me ? 
Yn thy kepeyng y have ben. 
What hade thou herde be me or fene GoQ 

That touchy th to any velanye ? 
That tliou in herte art fo bolde, 
Os y were a hore, or a fcolde : 

Nay that fchall nevyr bep. 
Had y not hyght to holde counfayle. 
Thou fchouldeft be honged, wythowt fayle, 

Upon a galowe-tree. 

The knyght was never fo fore aferde, 
Syth he was borne into myddyllerd, 
Certys os he was thoo : 66o 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 121 

Mercy, he feyde, gode madam ! 
Wele y wott y am to blame, 

Therfore myn herte ys woo; 
Lady, let me not be fpylte, 
Y afke mercy of ray gylte, 

On lyve ye let me goo. 
The lady feyde, Y graunte wele 
Hyt fchall be counfeyle every dele, 

But do no more foo. 

Now the knyght forthe yede, 670 

And feyde, Felowe, y may not fpede, 

What ys thy befte redd ? 
Yf fche telle my lorde of thys. 
We be but dedd, fo have y blys, 

Wyth hym be we not fedd : 
Womans tongue ys evell to tryfte, 
Certys and my lorde hyt wyfte, 

Etyn were all owre bredd. 
Felow, fo mote y ryde or goo, 
Or fche wayte us wyth that woo, 680 

Hur felfe fchall be dedd. 

How myght that be ? that othur fayde, 
Yn herte y wolde be wele payde, 
^lyght we do that dedc. 



IJ2 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Yys, fyr, he feyde, fo have y roo, 
y fchall brynge hur wele thertoo, 

Therof have thou no drede ; 
Or hyt paffe dayes three 
In mekyll forowe fchall fche bee, 

Thus y fchall qwyte hur hur mede. 690 

Now are they bothe at oon asfente, 
In forow to brynge that lady gente ; 

The devell mote them fpede ! 

Sone hyt drowe toward nyght. 
To foper they pan them dyght. 

The emperes and they all. 
The two knyghtys grete yapys made, 
For to make the lady glade, 
/ That was bothe gentyll and fmall ; 

When the foper-tyme was done, 7OO 

To the chaumbyr they went foone, 

Knyghtys cladd in palle. 
They daunfed and revelyd os they noght dredd 
To brynge the lady to hur bedde. 

There foule mufte them falle. 

That oon thefe callyd a knyght. 
That was carver to that lady bryght, 
An erleys foue was hee, 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 123 

He was a feyre chylde, and a bolde^ 

Twenty wyntur he was oolde, 710 

In londe was none fo free. 
'* Syr, wylt thou do os we the fay ? 
And we fchall ordeygne us a play, 

That my lady may fee ; 
Thou fchalt make hur to lagh fop, 
Thogh fche were gretly thy foo, 

Thy frende fchuld fche bee." 

The chylde anfweryd anon ryght, 
Be the ordur y here of knyght, 

Therof wolde y be fayne ; 720 

And hyt wolde my lady plefe, 
Thogh hyt wolde me dysefe, 

To renne yn wynde and rayne. ^ 

** Syr, make the nakyd, fave thy breke, 
And behynde the yondur curtayn thou crepe, 

And do OS y fchall fayne ; 
Then fchalt thou fee a yoly play." 
Y graunte, thys yonge knyght can fay, 

Be god and feynte Jerraayne. 

Thys chylde thoght on no ylle, 730 

Of he cafte hys clothys ftylle, 

And behynde the curtayn he went ; 



124 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

They fcyde to hym, what fo befalle, 
Come not out tyll we thee calle ; 

And he feyde, Syrs, y asfente. 
They revelyd forthe a grete whyle, 
No man wyfte of ther gyle, 

Save they two veraraente ; 
They voyded the chaumber fone anon, 
The chylde they lafte fyttyng alone, 740 

And that lady gente. 

Thys lady lay in bedd on flepe, 
Of trefon toke fche no kepe. 

For therof wyfte fche noght ; 
Thys chylde had wonder ever among 
Why thefe knyghtys were fo longe. 

He was in many a thoght : 
Lorde, mercy, how may thys bee ! 
Y trowe they have forgeton me 

That me hedur broght ; 7^^ 

Yf y them calle fche wyll be adrcdd, 
My lady lyeth here in hur bedde, 

Be hyn> that all hath wroght. 

Thus ne fate fiylle as any ftone. 
He durft not ftore, nor make no mono, 
To make the lady afryght ; 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 125 

Thes falfe men, ay worthe them woo ! 
To hur chaumbur can they goo, 

And armyd them full ryght. 
Lordys owte of bedd can they calle, 7^0 

And badd arme them grete and fmalle : 

*' Anone that ye were dyght ; 
And helpe to take a falfe traytour, 
That with my lady, in hur boure, 

Hath playde hym all thys nyght." 

Sone they armyd everychone, 

And with thefe traytours can they gone, 

The lordys that there wore ; 
To the emperes chaumber they cam ryght, 
Wyth torchys and with fwerdys bryght, ffO 

Brennyng them before. 
Behynde the curtayne they wente, 
The yonge knyght, verrament, 

Nakyd founde they thore ; 
That oon thefe wyth a fwerde of were 
Thorow the body he can hym here, 

That worde fpake he no more. 

The lady woke, and was afryght, 
Whan fche fawe the giete lyght. 

Before hur beddys fyde, 780 



126 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Sche feyde, Benedycyte ! 
Syrs, what men be yee ? 

And wonder lowde fche cryeddr 
Hur enemyes my^anfweryd thore, 
We are here, thou falfe hore, 

Thy dedys we have afpyedd ; 
Thou hafte betrayed ray lorde. 
Thou fchalt have wonduryng in fhys worde, 

Thy loos fchall fprynge wyde. 

The lady feyde, Be feynte John, 790 

Hore was y nevyr none. 

Nor nevyr thoght to bee. 
Thou lyeft, they feyde, thy love ys lorne, 
The corfe they leyde hur befome ; » 

Lo here ys thy lemraan free : 
Thus we have for the hym hytt, 
Thy horedara fchall be wele qwytte, 

Fro us fchalt thou not flee. 
They bonde the lady wondyr fafte, 
And in a depe prefon hur cafte, 800 

Grete dele hyt was to fee, 

Leve we now thys lady in care, 

And to hur lorde wyll we fare, 

That ferre was hur froo : 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 127 

On a nyght, wythowt lette, 
In hys flepe a fwevyn he mett, 

The ftory telleth us foo : 
Hyra thoght ther come two wylde berys, 
And hys wyfe all to-terys, 

And rofe hur body in twoo ; 810 

Hymfelfe was a wytty man, 
And be that dreme he hopyd than 

Hys lady was in woo. 

Yerly when the day was clere, 
He bad hys men all in fere, 

To bufke and make them yarc ; 
Somer-horfys he let go before. 
And chary ettys ftuffud wyth ftore, 

Wele twelve myle and more. 
He hopud wele in hys herte 620 

That hys ,wyfe was not in querte, 

Hys herte therfore was in care ; 
He ftyntyd not tyll he was dyght, 
Wyth erlys, barons, and many a knyght. 

Homeward can they fare. 

Nyght ne day nevyr they blann«, 
Tyll to that cyte they came 
There the lady was ynne, 



12d THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Wythovvt the cyte lordys them kepyj, 

For wo ill herte many oon wepyd, 830 

There teerys myght they not blynne. 
They fuppofvd wele yf he hyt wyfte 
That hys wyfe had feche a bryfte 

Hys yoye wolde be full thynnci 
They ladden ftedys to the ftall, 
And the lorde into the halle, 

To worfchyp hym wyth wynne. 

Anon to the chaurabur wendyth he, 
He longyd hys feyre lady to fee, 

That was fo fwete a wyght ; 840 

He cailyd them that fchoulde hur kepe, 
Where ys my wyfe ? ys fche on flepe ? 

How fareth that byrde bryght ? 
The two traytours anfweryd anon, 
Yf ye wyfte how fche had done, 

To dcthe fche fchulde be dyght* 

A, devyll ! he feyde, how foo ? 

To dethe that fche ys worthy to goo,- 

Tellc me in what manere, 
Syr, he feyde, be goddys ore, 850 

The yonge knyght, fyr Antore, 

That was hur kervere, 



THE ERI.E OF TOLOUS. 129 

Be that lady he hath layne, 
And therfore we have him flayne, 

We founde them in fere. 
Sche ys in prefon, verrament, 
The lawe wyll that fche be brente, 

Be god that boght us dere. 

Alias ! feyde the emperoure, 

Hath fche done me thys dyshonoure, 860 

And y lovyd hur fo wele ? 
Y wende, for all thys worldys gode 
That fche wolde not have turned hur mode ; 

My yoye begynnyth to keele. 
He hente a knyfe wyth all hys mayn, 
Had not a knyght ben he had hym flayn, 

And that traytour have broght owt of heele ; 
For bale hys amies abrode he bredd, 
And fell in fwowne upon hys bedd ; 

There myght men fee grete dele. 870 

On the morne, be oon asfent, 
On hur they fett a perlyament, 

Be all the comyn rede ; 
They myght not fynde in ther counfayle, 
Be no lawe, wythowt fayle, 

To fave hur fro the dede. 
VOL. III. K 



130 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Then befpake an olde knyght, 
Y have wondur, be goddys myght, 

That fyr Antore thus was beftedd ; 
In chaumbyr thogh they naked were, 880 

They let hym gyf none anfwere, 

But flowe hym, be my hedd. 

Ther was nevyr man, fekurly, 
Tliat be hur founde any velany, 

Save they two, y dar wele fay ; 
Be fome hatered hyt may be, 
Therfore doyth aftur me. 

For my love y yow pray. 
No mo wyll prove hyt but they twoo, 
Therfore we may not fave hur fro woo, 89O 

For fothe, 03 y yow fay. 
In hyr (luarell but we myght fynde 
A man that were gode of kynde. 

That durft fyght agayn them tway. 

All they asfcntyd to the fawe. 

They thoght he fpake relbn and lawe, 

Then anfweryd the kyng wyth crowne, 
Fayre falle the for thyn avyfe ; 
He callyd knyghtys of nobyll pryce, 

And badd them be redy bowne, 900 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 131 

For to crye, thorow all the londe, 
Bothe be fee, and be fonde, 

Yf they fynde mowne 
A man that ys fo moche of myght 
That for that lady dar take the fyght, 

He fchall have hys warefon. 

Mesfangerys, y undurftonde, 
Cryed thorow all the londe, 

In many a ryche cyt^, 
Yf any man durfte prove hys myght, 910 

In trewe quarell for to fyght, 

Wele avaunfed fchulde he be. 
The erle of TuUous harde thys telle 
What anger the lady befelle. 

Thereof he thoght grete pyt6 ; 
Yf he wyfte that fche had ryght. 
He wolde aventure hys lyfe to fyght 

For that lady free. 

For hur he morned nyght and day, 

And to hymfelfe can he fay 920 

He wolde aventure hys lyfe : 
" Yf y may wytt that fche be trewe, 
They that have hur accufed fchuU rewe, 

But they ftynte of ther ilryfe." 



132 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

The erle feyde, Be feynte John, 
Ynto Almayn wyll y goon, 

Where y have fomen ryfe; 
I prey to god full of myght, 
That y have trewe quarcU to fyght, 

Owt of wo to Wynne that wyfe. 930 

He rode on huntyng on a day, 
A marchand mett he be the way, 

And afked hyra of whens he was. 
Lorde, he feyde, of Almayn. 
Anon the erle can hym frayne 

Of that ylke cafe : 
" Wherefore ys yowre emperes 
Put in fo grete dystreffe ? 

Telle me for goddys grace ; 
Ys fche gylte, fo mote thou the ?" 940 

" Nay, be hym that dyed on tree. 

That fchope man aftur hys face." 

Then feyde the erle, wythowte lett 
When 3's the day fett 

Brente that fche fchulde bee ? 
The raarchande feyde, Sekyrlyke, 
Evyn thys day thre wyke, 

And therfore wo ys mee. 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. i33 

The erle feyde, Y fchall the telle, 

Gode horfys y have to felle, 950 

And ftedys two or thre ; 
Certys, myght y felle them yare, 
Thedur wyth the wolde y fare, 

That fyght for to fee. 

The raarchaiid feyd wordys hende, 
Into the londe yf ye wyll wende, 

Hyt wolde be for yowre prowe j 
There may ye felle them at your wylle. 
Anon the erle feyde hym tylle, 

Syr, herkyn me nowe ; g60 

Thys yurney wylt thou wyth me dwelle ? 
Twenty pownde y fchall thee telle, 

To mede y make a vowe. 
The marchand grauntyd anon. 
The erle feyde, Be feynt John, 

Thy wylle y alowe. 

The erle tolde hym in that tyde 
Where he fchulde hym abyde, 

And homeward wente hee ; 
He bulked hym that no man wyfte, Q/O 

For mekyll on hym was hys tryfte : 

He feyde, Syr, go wyth mee. 



134 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Wyth them they toke ftedys fevyn, 
Ther were no fayrer undyr hevyn, 

That any man myght fee : 
Into Almayn they can ryde ; 
As a corefur of mekyll pryde 

He femyd for to bee. 

The marchand was a trewe gyde, 

The erle and he togedur can ryde, 980 

Tyll they came to that place j 
A rayle befyde the castell 
There the emperour can dwelle 

A ryche abbey ther was. 
Of the abbot leve they gatt 
To foyorne, and make ther horfys fatt ; 

That was a nobyll c^s : 
The abbot was the ladyes eme, 
For hur he was in grete wandreme, 

And moche mornyng he mafe. 99O 

So hyt be felle upon a day 

To churche the erle toke the way, 

A maffe for to here ; 
He was a fayre man and an hye, 
When the abbot hym fye, 

He feyde, Syr, come nere j . 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS,. 135 

Syr, when the maffe ys done, 

Y pray yow ete wyth me at noone, 

Yf you re wy lie were. 
The erle grauntyd all wyth game, lOOO 

Afore mete they wyfche all fame. 

And to mete they wente in fere. 

Afiur mete, as y yow fay, 

Into an orchard they toke the way, 

The abbot and the knyght ; 
The abbot feyde, and fyghed fare, 
Certys, fyr, y leve in care 

For a lady bryght. 
Sche ys accufyd, my herte ys woo, 
Therfore fche fchall to dethe goo, 1010 

All agayne the ryght ; 
But fche have helpe, verrament, 
fn fyre fche fchall be brente, 

Thys day fevenyght. 

The erle feyde, So have y blyffe. 

Of hyr methynkyth grete rewthe hyt ys, 

Trewe yf that fche bee. 
The abbot feyde, Be feynte Poule, 
For hur y dar ley my foule. 

That nevyr gylte was fche ; 1020 



1S6 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Soche werkys new fche wroght, 
Neythyr in dede, nof in thoght, 

Save a rynge fo free. 
To the erle of TuUous fche gafe hyt wyth wynne, 
Yn efe of hym, and for no fynne, 

In fchryfte thus tolde fche me. 

The erle fayde, Syth hyt ys foo, 
Cryfle wreke hur of hur woo, 

That boght hur wyth hys bloode ! 
Wolde ye fekyr me, wythowt fayle, 1030 

For to holde trewc counfayle, 

Hyt myght be for youre gode. 
The abbot feyde, be bokes fele, 
And be hys profesfyon, that he wolde hele, 

And ellys he were wode, 
" Y am he that fche gaf the rynge, 
For to be oure tokenynge, 

Now heyle hyt for the rode. 

Y am comyn, lefe fyr, 

To take the batayle for hyr, 1040 

There to ftonde wyth ryght. 
But fyrfte myfelfe y wole hur fchryve, 
'And yf y fynde hur clene of lyve. 

Then wyll my herte be lyght. 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 137 

Let dyght me in monkys wede, 

To that place that men fchulde'hyrlede, 

To dethe to be dyght ; 
When y have fchrevyn hyr wythowt fayle, 
For hur y wyll take batayle, 

As y am trcwe knyght." 1050 

The abbot was never fo gladd, 
Nere for yoye he waxe madd, 

The erle can he kyffe ; 
They made mere, and flewe care, 
All that fevcnyght he dwellyd thare, 

Yn myrthe wythowt myffe. 
That day that the lady fchulde be brent 
The erle wyth the abbot wente, 

In monkys wede, y wys ; 
To the emperour he knelyd blyve, IO6O 

That he myght that lady fchryve, 

Anon refceyved he ys. 

He examyned hur wyttyrly, 
As hyt feythe [in] the ftory, 

Sche was wythowtc gylte, 
Sche feyde, Be hym that dyed on tree, 
Trespas was never none in me, 

Wherefore y fchulde be fpylte ; 



138 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Save oonys, vvythovvte lefynge, 

To the erie of Tollous y gafe a rynge ; 1070 

Asfoyle me yf thou wylte; 
But thus my destanye is comyn to ende, 
That in thys fyre y mufte be brendc, 

There godd wylle be fulfyllyt. 

The eric asfoyled hur wyth hys honde, 
And fythen pertely he can up ftonde, 

And feyde, Lordyngys pefe ! 
Ye that have accufed thys lady gente, 
Ye be worthy to be brcnte. 

That oon knyght made a rees, 1080 

Thou carle mouke, wyth all thy gynne, 
Thowe youre abbot be of her kynne, 

Hur forowe fchalt thou not cees ; 
Ryght fo thou woldeft fayne, 
Thowe all youre covent had be hyr layn, i 

So are ye lythyr and lees. 

The erle anfweryd, wyth wordys free, 
Syr, that oon y trowe thou bee 

Thys lady accufed has ; 
Thowe we be men of relygyon, 109O 

Thou Ichalt do us but rcfon, 

For all the fare thou mas. 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 139 

Y prove on hur thou fayft not ryght, 
Lo here my glove wyth the to fyght, 

Y undyrtake thys cafe ; 
Os falfe men y fchall yovv kenne, 
Yn redd fyre for to brenne, 

Therto god gyf me grace. 

All that ftoden in that place 

Thankyd god of hys grace, 1100 

Wythowte any fayle. 
The two knyghtys were full wrothe, 
He fchulde be dedd they fwerc grete othe : . 

But hyt myght not avayle. 
The erle wente there-befyde, * 
And arrayd hym wyth mekyll pryde, 

Hys enemycs to asfayle ; 
Manly when they togedur mett, 
They hewe thorow holme and bafenet, 

And martyrd many a mayle. 1110 

They redyn togedur wythowt lakk, 
That hys oon fpere on hym brakk, 

That othyr faylyd thoo ; 
The erle fmote hym wyth hys fpere, 
Thorow the body he can hym bere, 

To grounde can he goo. 



140 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

That fawe that odyr, and fafte can flee, 
The erle ovyrtoke hym undyr a tre, 

And wroght hym mekyll woo. 
There thys tray tour can hym yylde, 1120 

Os recreaunt yn the fylde, 

He myght not fle hym froo. 

Before the emperour they wente, 
And thcr he made hym, verrament, 

To telle for the noonys ; 
He feyde, We thoght hur to fpylle, 
For fche wolde not do oure wylle. 

That worthy ys in vvonnys. 
The erle anfweryd hym then, 
Therfore, traytours, ye fchall brennc 1130 

Yn thys fyre, bothe at onys. 
The erle anon hym hente, 
And in the fyre he them brente, 

Flefche, felle, and boonys. 

When they were brent bothe twoo. 
The erle prevely can goo 

To that ryche abbaye, 
Wyth yoye and procesfyon 
They fett the lady into the towne, 

Wyth myrthe, os y telle may. 1140 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. Ul 

The eraperoure was full gladd, 
Fette me the monke, anon he badd, 

Why wente he fo awaye ? 
A byfchoperyke y wyll hym geve, 
My helpe, my love, vvhyll y leve, 

Be god that owyth thys day. 

The abbot knelyd on hys knee, 
And feyde, Lorde, gone ys hee 

To hys owne londe ; 
He dwellyth wyth the pope of Rome, 1150 

He wyll be gladd of hys come, 

Y do yow to undurftonde. 
Syr, quod the emperoure. 
To me hyt were a dyshonoure, 

Soche wordes y rede thou wonde ; 
Anone yn hafte that y hym fee. 
Or thou fchalt nevyr have gode of me, 

And therto here myn honde. 

Lorde, he feyde, fythe hyt ys foo, 

Aftur hym that y mufte goo, ll50 - 

Ye mufte make me fewrt^, 
Yn cafe he have byn youre foo, 
Ye fchall not do hym no woo. 

And then, al fo mote y thee, 



142 THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Aftur hym y wyll wynde, 
So that ye wyll be hys frende, 

Yf youre wylle bee. 
Yys, feyde the emperoure full fayne, 
All ray kynne thogh he had flayne, 

He ys welcome to mee. 

Then fpake the abbot wordys free, 
Lorde, y tryfte now on thee, 

Ye wyll do os ye fey ; 
Hy t ys fyr Barnard of Tollous, 
A nobyll knyght and a chyvalrous, 

That hath done thys jurney. 
Now certys, feyde the emperoure, 
To me hyt ys grete dyshonoure ; 

Anon, fyr, y the pray, 
Aftur hym that thou wende. 
We fchall kyffe and be gode frende, 

Be god that owyth thys day. 

The abbot feyde, Y asfente ; 
Aftur the erle anon he wente, 

And feyde, Syr, go wyth mee ; 
My lorde and ye, be feynt John, 
Schull be made bothe at oon, 

Goode frendys for to bee. 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 143 

Thereof the erle was full faync, 

The emperoure came hym agaync, 1190 

And fayde, My frende fo free, 
My wrath here y the forge ve, 
My helpe, my love, whyll y leve, 

Be hym that dyed on tree. 

Togedur lovely can they kyffe, 
Therof all men had grete blyffe, 

The romaunfc tellyth foo ; 
lie made hym fteward of hys londe, 
And fefyd agayne into hys honde 

That he had rafte hym froo. 1200 

The emperoure levyd but yerys thre, 
Be alexcion of the lordys free 

The erle toke they thoo, 
They made hym ther emperoure, 
For he was ftyffe yn ftoure, 

To fyght agayne hys foo. 

He weddyd that lady to hys wyfe, 

Wyth yoye and myrthe they ladd ther lyfe, 

Twenty yere and three ; 
Betwene them had they chyldyr fyftene 1210 

Doghty knyghtys all bedene, 

Arid femely on to fee. 



IF* THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

Yn Rome thys gefle ys cronyculyd, y wys, 
A lay of Bretayne callyd hyt ys, 

And evyr more fchall bee. 
Jhefu Cryfte to hevyn us brynge, 
There to have ovrre wonnyng: 
Amen, amen, for charytee ! 



[ 14.5 ] 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 



It was a fquyer of lowe degr^ 

That loved the kings doughter of Hungr^. 

The fquir was curteous and hend, 

Ech man him loved and was his frend ; 

He ferved the kyng, her father dere, 

Fully the tyme of feven yere ; 

For he was marfliall of his hall, 

And fet the lords both great and fmal. 

An hardy man he was, and wight, 

Both in batayle and in fyght ; 10 

But ever he was.ftyll mornyng. 

And no man wyfte for what thyng ; 

And all was for that lady. 

The kynges doughter of Hungry. 

VOL, III. L 



U6 THE SQUYll OF LOWE DEGRE. 

Tliere wyfte no vvyghte in Chriftente 

Howe wcUe he loved that lady fre. 

He loved her more then feven yere, 

Yet was he of her love never the nere. 

He was not ryche of golde'and fc, 

A gentyll man forfuth was he. 20 

To no man durft he make his mone, 

But fyghed fore hym felfe alone. 

And evermore, whan he was wo, 

Into his chambre would he goo ; 

And through the chambre he toke the waye, 

Into the gardyn, that was full gaye ; 

And in the garden, as i wene, 

Was an arber fayre and grene, 

And in the arber was a tre, 

A fayrer in the world might none be ; 30 

The tre it was of cypreffe, 

The fyrll tre that Jefu chefe ; 

The fothcr-wood, and fykamoure, 

The reed rofe, and the lyly-floure, 

The boxe, the beche, and the larcl-tre, 

The date, alfo the damyf^, 

I'he fylbyrdcs hangyng to the ground, 

The fygge-tre, and the maple round, 



•# 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 14/ 

And other trees there was manu ane, 

The pyany, the popler, and the plane, 40 

With brode braunches all aboute. 

Within the arbar, and eke withoute ; 

On every braunche fate byrdes thre, 

Syngynge with great melody, 

The lavorocke, and the nightyiigale. 

The ruddocke, the woodwale, 

The pee, and the popinjaye, 

The thruftele fange both nyght and daye, 

The marlyn, and the wrenne alfo, 

The fwalowe whippynge to and fro, 50 

The jaye jangled them amonge, 

The laike began that mery fonge, 

The fparowe fpredde her on her fpraye. 

The raavys fonge with notes full gaye, 

The nuthake with her notes newe, 

The fterlynge fet her notes full trewe. 

The goldcfynche made full mery chere, 

Whan fhe was bente upon a brere, 

And many other foules mo. 

The ofyll, and the thruffhe alfo ; 60 

And they fange wyth notes clcre, 

In confortynge that fquyere ; 



148 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

And evermore, whan he was wo, 

In to that arber wolde he go, 

And under a bente he layde hym lowe, 

Ryght even under her chambre wyndowe ; 

And lened hys backe to a thorne, 

And fayd, Alas, that i was borne ! 

That i were ryche of golde and fe. 

That i rayght wedde that lady fre ! 70 

Of golde good, or fome trcafure. 

That i myght wedde that lady floure ! 

Or elles come of fo gentyll kynne, 

The ladyes love that i myght wynne ! 

Wolde god that i were a kynges fonne, 

That ladyes love that i myght wonne ! 

Or els lb bolde in eche fyght, 

As was fyr Lybius that gentell knyght, 

Or els fo bolde in chyvalry, 

As fyr Gawayne, or fyr Guy ! 80 

Or els fo doughty of my hande 

As was the g^'aunte fyr Colbrande ! 

And [it] were put in jeoperde, 

What man flioulde wynne that lady fre. 

Than (hould no man have her but i. 

The kinges doughter of Hungry. 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 149 

But ever he fayde, Wayleawaye ! 

For poverte pafseth all my paye ! 

And, as he made thys rufuU chere, 

He fowned downe in that arbere. 90 

That lady herde his raournyng all, 

Ryght under the charabre wall j 

In her oryall there (he was, 

Clofed well with royall glas, - — ' 

Fulfylled it was with ymagery, 

Every wyndowe by and by, 

On eche fyde had there a gynne, 

Sperde with many a dyvers pynne. 

Anone that lady, fayre and fre, 

Undyd a pynne of yverfe, v 100 

And wyd the windowes Ihe open fet, 

The funne fhone in at her clofet, 

In that arber fayre and gaye 

She fawe wliore that fquyre lay. 

The lady fayd to hym anone, 

Syr, why makeft thou that mone ? 

And whi thou mourneft night and day ? 

Now tell me, fquyre, i thee pray ; 

And, as i am a true lady, 

Thy couufayl (hall i never dyfcry ; IJiO 



150 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

And, yf it be no reprefe to thee, 

Thy bote of bale yet fliall i be : 

And often was he in wele and wo, 

But never fo well as he was the. 

The fquyer fet hym on hys kne, 

And fayde, Lady, it is for thee, 

I have thee loved this feven.yere, 

And bought thy love, lady, full dere. 

Ye are fo ryche in youre aray, • 

That one word to you i dare not fay, 120 

And come ye be of fo hye kynne. 

No worde of love durft i begynne. 

My wyll to you yf i had fayde. 

And ye therwith not well apayde. 

Ye might have bewraied rae to the kinge, 

And brought rae fone to my endynge. 

Therfore, my lady, fayre and fre, 

I durft not fhewe my harte to thee ; 

But i am here, at your wyll, 

Whether ye wyll me fave or fpyll ; 130 

For all the care i have in be 

A worde of you might comfort me ; 

And, yf ye wyll not do fo, 

Out of this land i mufl nedes go ; 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 151 

I wyll forfake bolh lanJe and lede, 

And become an herrayte in uncouth ftede ; 

In many a lande to begge my bread, 

To feke where Chrift was quicke and dead ; 

A ftaffe i wyll make me of ray fpere, 

Lynen cloth i (hall none were; 140 

Ever in travayle i fhall wende, 

Tyll i come to the worldes ende ; 

And, lady, but thou be my bote. 

There fliall no (ho come on my fote ; 

Therforc, lady, i the praye, 

For hym that dyed on good frydaye, 

Let me not in daunger dwell, 

For his love that harowed hell. 

Than fayd that lady, milde of mode, 

Ryght in her clofet there the ftode, 1,50 

By hym that dyed on a tre. 

Thou llialt never be decey ved for me ; 

Though i for thee fliould be flayne, 

Squyer, i fhall the love agayne. 

Go forth, and ferve my father the kynge, 

And let be all thy ftyl mournynge ; 

Let no man wete that ye were here, 

Thus all alone in ray arbere ; 



152 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

If ever ye wyll come to your wyll, 

Here and fe, and holde you ftyll. l60 

Beware of the flewarde, i you praye, 

He wyll decey ve you and he maye ; 

For, if he wote of your woyng, 

He wyl bewraye you unto the kynge ; 

Anone for me ye fliall be take, 

And put in pryfon for my fake ; 

Than muft ye nedes abyde the lawe, 

Peraventure both hanged and drawe ; 

That fyght on you i would not fe, 

For all the golde in Chriftente. 170 

For, and ye my love ihould wynne, 

With chyvalry ye muft begynne, 

And other dedes of armes to done, • 

Through whiche ye may wynne your Ihone; 

And ryde through many a peryllous place, 

As a venterous man to feke your grace. 

Over hylles and dales, aud hye mountaines, 

In wethers wete, both hayle and raynes^ 

And yf ye may no harbroughe fe, 

Than muft ye lodge under a tre, 180 

Among the beaftes wyld and tame, 

And ever you wyll gette your name ; 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 153 

And in your annure muft ye lye, 

Every nyght than by and by ; 

And your meny everychone, 

Til feven yere be comen and gone ; 

And pafle by many a peryllous fee, ' 

Squyer, for the love of me. 

Where any war begynneth to wake, 

And many a batayll undertake, 1£0 

Throughout the land of Lumbardy, 

In every cytie by and by ; 

And be avifed, when thou fhalt fight, 

Loke that ye ftund aye in the right ; 

And, yf ye wyll take goode hede. 

Yet all the better fhall ye fpede ; 

And, whan the warre is brought to ende. 

To the Rodes then muft ye wende ; 

And, fyr, i holde you not to prayes. 

But ye there fyght thre good frydaye^ ; 200 

And if ye paffe the batayles thre. 

Than are ye worthy a knyght to be. 

And to here armes than are ye able, 

Of gold and goules fete with fable ; 

Then fhall ye were, a ihelde of blewe. 

In token ye fliall be trewe, 



154 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

With vines of golde fet all aboute 

Within your fhelde, and eke without, 

Fulfylled with ymagery, 

And poudred with true loves by and by. 210 

In the myddes of your (held ther ftial be fet 

A ladyes head, with many a frete, 

Above the head wrytten fhall be 

A reafon, for the love of me, 

Both O and R (hall be therin, 

With A and M it (liall begynne. 

The baudryke, that (hall hange therby, 

Shall be of white, fykerly, 

A crofle of reed therin fliall be. 

In token of the trynytJ^. 220 

Your bafenette Hiall be burnyffhed bryght, * 

Your ventall (lial be well dyght. 

With ftarres of gold it fhall be fet. 

And covered with good velvet. 

A coronall clene corven newe, 

And oyftryche fethers of dyvers hewc. 

Your plates unto your body fhal be enbrafte, 

Sail fyt full femely in your wafte. 

Your cote armoure of golde full fyne. 

And poudred well with good armyne. 230 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 155 

Thus in your warres fhall you ryde, 

With fyxe good yemen by your fyde, 

And whan your warres are brought to ende, 

More ferther behoveth to you to wende, 

And over many perellous ftreme, 

Or ye come to Jerufalem, 

Through feytes, and feldes, and foreftes thicke, 

To feke where Clirifle were dead and quycke ; 

There mull you drawe your fwerde of were. 

To the fepulchre ye muft it here, 240 

And laye it on the ftone, 

Amonge the lordes everychone ; 

And offre there florences fyve, 

Whyles that ye are man on lyve ; 

And offre there florences thre. 

In tokenyng of the trynyt^ ; 

And whan that ye, fyr, thus have done. 

Than are ye worthy to were your fhone ; 

Than may ye fay, fyr, by good ryght, 

That you ar proved a venturous knyght. 250 

I Oiall you geve to your rydinge 

A thoufande pounde to your fpendinge ; 

I Ihall you geve hors and armure, 

A thoufande pounde of my treafure ; 



156 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

Wherethrough that ye may honoure wynn, 

And be the greateft of your kynne. 

I pray to god and our lady, 

Sende you the whele of vyctory, 

That my father fo fayne may be, 

That he wyll wede me unto thee, 260 

And make the king of this countr^, 

To have and holde in honeftfe, 

Wyth welth and vvynne to were the crowne. 

And to be lorde of toure and towne ; 

That we might our dayes endure 

In parfyte love that is fo pure ; 

And if we may not fo come to, 

Othervvyfe then muft we do ; 

And therfore, fquyer, wende thy way, 

And hye the faft on thy journay, 2/0 

And take thy leve of kinge and quene, 

And fo to all the courte bydene. 

Ye fliall not want at your goyng 

Golde, nor fylver, nor other thyng. 

This feven yere i (hall you abyde, 

Betyde of you what fo betyde ;' 

Tyll feven yere be comen and gone 

1 fhall be mayde all alone. v 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 157 

The fquycr kneled on his kne, 

And ihanked that lady fayre and fre ; 280 

And thryes he kyfsed that lady tho, 

And toke his leve, and forth gan go. 

The kinges fteward ftode full nye, 

In a chambre faft them bye, 

And hearde theyr wordes wonder wele, 

And all the woyng every dele. 

He made a vowe to heaven kynge, 

For to bewraye that fwete thynge, 

And that fquyer taken fhoulde be, 

And hanged hye on a tree ; 290 

And that falfe ftewarde full of yre, 

Them to betraye was his defyre ; 

He bethought hym nedely, 

Every daye by and by, 

How he myght venged be 

On that lady fayre and fre, 

For he her loved pryvely. 

And therfore dyd her great envye. 

Alas ! it tourned to wroth her heyle 

That ever he wyfte of theyr counfayle. 30O 

But leve we of the ftewarde here. 
And fpeke we more of that fquyer, 



158 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

Howe he to his chain bre wente, 

Whan he paft from that lady gente. 

There he araicd him in fcarlet reed, 

And fet his chaplet upon his head, 

A belte about his fydes two, 

With brode barres to and fro ; 

A home about his necke he cafte ; 

And forth he went, at the laft, ' 310 

To do hys office in the hall, 

Among the lordes both great and fmall. 

He toke a white yeard in his Iiande, 

Before the kynge than gane he ftande, 

And fone he fat hym on his knee, 

And ferved the kynge ryght royally. 

With deynty meates that were dere, 

AVith partryche, pecoke, and plovere. 

With byrdes in bread ybake, 

The tele, the ducke and the drake, 320 

The cocke, the curlewe, and the crane, 

With fefauntes fayre, theyr were no wane. 

Both ftorkes and fnytes ther were alfo, 

And venyfon freOie of bucke and do. 

And other deyntes many one. 

For to fet afore the kynge anone : 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 159 

And when the fquyer had done fo, 

He ferved the hall to and fro, 

Eche man hym loved in honeft^, 

Hye and lowc in theyr dcgr^, 330 

So dyd the kyng full fodenly, 

And he wyll not whcrfore nor why. 

The kynge behelde the fquyer wele, 

And all his rayment every dele, 

He thought he was the fcmlyeft man 

That ever in the worlde he fawe or than. 

Thus fate the kyng and eate ryght nought, 

But on his fquyer was all his thought. 

Anone the ftewarde toke good hede, 

And to the kyng full foone he yede, 340 

And i'oone he tolde unto the kynge 

All theyr wordes and theyr woynge ; 

And how flie hyght hym lande and fe, 

Golde and fylver great plcntye, 

And how he fliould his leve take, 

And become a knight for her fake : 

" And thus they talked both in fere, 

And i drewe me nere and nere, 

Had i not come, in verayly, 

The fquyer had layne her by, 350 



l60 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

But whan he was ware of me, 

Full fall away can he fle ; 

That [this] is fothe here my hand 

To fight with him while i may ftand." 

The kyng fayd to the fteward tho, 

I may not beleve it fhould be fo ; 

Hath he be fo bonayre and benynge, 

And ferved mc fyth i was yynge, 

And redy with me in every nede, 

Bothe true of word, and eke of dede, S60 

I may not beleve, be nyght nor daye, 

My doughter dere he wyll betraye. 

Nor to come her chambre nye, 

That fode to longe with no foly ; 

Though fhe would to hym confente. 

That lovely lady fayre and gente, 

1 trufte hym fo well, withouten drede, 

That he would never do that dede ; 

But yf he myght that lady wynne, 

In wedlocke to welde withouten fynne, 370 

And yf fhe asfent hym tyll, 

The fquyer is ^orlhy to have none yll. 

For i have fene that many a page 

Have become men by manage ; 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. l6l 

Than it is femely that the fquyer 
To have my doughter by this manere, 
And eche man in his degre, 
Become a lorde of ryallye, 
By fortune and by other grace, 
By herytage and by purchace: 380 

Therfore, ftewarde, beware hereby, 
Defame hym not for no envy: 
It were great reuth he fhould be fpylte, 
Or put to death withouten gylte; 
And more ruthe of my doughter dere, 
For chaungyng of that ladyes chere ; 
I woulde not, for my crowne fo newe, 
That lady chaunge hyde or hewe ; 
Or for to put thyfelfe in drede, 
But thou myght take hym with the dede : 390 

For yf it may be founde in thee, 
That thou them fame for enmyte, 
Thou fhalt be taken as a felon, 
And put full depe in my pryfon. 
And fetered faft unto a ftone, 
Tyl twelve yere were come and gone. 
And drawen wyth hors throughe the cyt6, 
And foone hanged upon a tre ; 
VOL, m. M 



162 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

And thou may not thyfelfe excufe, 

This dede thou (halt no wife refufe; 4|00 

And therfore, fteward, take good hed, 

How thou wilt anfwere to this ded. 

The ftewarde anfwered, with great envy, 

That i have fayd that i wyll (land therby ; 

To fuffre death and endlefle wo, ^ 

Syr kynge, i wyl never go therfro; 

For, yf that ye wyll graunt me here 

Strength of men and great power, 

I Ihall hym take, this fame nyght. 

In the chambre with your doughter bright; 410 

For i fliall never be gladde of chere, 

Tyll i be venged of that fquyer. 

Than fayd the kynge, full curteysly, 

Unto the llewarde, that ftode hym by, 

Thou flialte have ftrength ynough with the, 

^Icn of armes thirty and thre. 

To watche that lady, muche of pryce, 

And her to kepe fro her enemyes. 

For there is no knyght in Chryftent^, 

That wold betray that lady fre, 4-20 

But he (hould dye under his flielde 

And i myght fe hym in the feldde; 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. l6i 

And therfore, ftewarde, i the pray, 

Take hede what i fhall to the fay; 

And if the fquiere come not to-night. 

For to fpeke with that lady bryght, 

Let hym fay whatfoever he vvyll, 

And here and fe and holde you ftyll ; 

And herken well what he wyll fay, 

Or thou with him make any fray; 450 

So he come not her chambre within, 

No bate on hym loke thou begyn, 

Though that he kyfle that lady fre, 

And take his leave ryght curteysly, 

Let hym go, both hole and founde. 

Without wemme or any wounde; 

But yf he wyl her chamber breke, 

No worde to hym that thou do fpeke. 

But yf he come with company, 

For to betraye that fayre lady. 440 

Loke he be taken foone anone, 

And all his meyne everychone, 

And brought with ftrength to my pryfon, 

As traytour, thefe, and falfe felon ; 

And yf he make any defence, 

Loke that he never go thence ; 



164 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

But loke thou hew hym al fo fmall, 

As flefflie whan it to the potte Ihall: 

And yf he yelde hym to thee, 

Brynge him both faufe and founde to me. 450 

I fhall borowe for feven yere 

He fhall not wedde my doughler dere : 

And therfore, ftewarde, i thee praye, 

Thou watche that lady nyght and daye. 

Tlie ftewarde fayde the kynge untyll, 

All your byddyng i fhall fulfyll. 

The flewarde toke his leave to go, 

The fquyer came fro chambre tho, 

Downe he went into the hall. 

The officers fone can he call, 460 

Both usfher, panter, and butler. 

And other that in office were; 

There he them warned, fone anone, 

To take up the hordes everychone. 

Than they dyd his commaundement, 

And fythe unto the kyng he went; 

Full lowe he fet hym on his kne. 

And voyded his horde full gentely ; 

And whan the fquyre had done fo, 

Anone he fayde the kynge unto, 470 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 165 

As ye are lorde of chyvalry, 

Geve me levc to pafle the fea, 

To prove my ftrenthe with my ryght hande, 

On godes enemyes in uncouth land; 

And to be knowe in chyvalry, 

In Gafcoyne, Spay ne, -and Lumbardy; 

In eche batayle for to fyght, 

To be proved a venterous knyght. 

The kyng fayd to the fquyer tho, 

Thou fhalt have good leve to go ; 480 

I fhall the gyve both golde and fe, 

And ftrength of men to wende with thee ; 

If thou be true in worde and dede, 

I (hall thee helpe in all thy nede. 

The fquyer thanked the kyng anone, 

And toke his leve and forth can gone ; 

With joye, and blyffe, and much pryde, 

With all his meyny by his fyde. 

He had not ryden but a whyle, 

Not the mountenaunce of a myle, 49O 

Or he was ware of a vyllage, 

Anone he fayde unto a page, 

Our fouper foone loke it be dyght, 

Here wyll we lodge all to-nyght. 



166 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

They toke theyr ynnes in good intente. 

And to theyr fupper foone they wente. 

Whan he was fet, and ferved at meate, 

Than he fayd he had forgete 

To take leve of that lady fre, 

The kynges doughter of Hungre, iOO 

Anone the fquyer made him ayre, 

And by hym felfe forth can he fare, 

Without ftrength of his raeyn^. 

Unto the castell than went he. 

Whan he came to the pofterne-gate, 

Anone he entred in thereat. 

And his drawen fwerd in his hande, 

There was no more with him wolde ftande : 

But it flode with hym full harde 

As ye fhall here nowe of the ftewarde. 510 

He vvende in the woride none had be 

That had knowen of his pryvit^, 

Alas ! it was not as he wende, 

For all his counfayle the ftewarde [kende]. 

He had bewrayed him to the kyng 

Of all his love and his woyng; 

And yet he laye her chambre by, 

Armed with a great company, 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 167 

And befet it one eche fyde, 

For treafon walketh wonder wyde. 520 

The fquyer thought on no mystrulle 

He wende no man in the worlde had wyfte, 

But yf he had knowen, ne by faynt John 

He had not come theder by his owne ; 

Or yf that lady had knowen his wyll, 

That he fhould have come her chamber tyll, 

She would have taken hym golde and fe, 

Strength of men and royalte ; 

But there ne wyft no man nor grorae 

Where that fquyer was become ; 530 

But forth he went hymfelfe alone 

Amonge his fervauntes everychone. 

Whan that he came her chambre to, 

Anone, he fayde, Your dore undo ! 

Undo, he fayde, nowe, fayre lady ! 

I am befet with many a fpy. 

Lady, as whyte as whales bone, 

There are thyrty agaynft me one. 

Undo thy dore ! my worthy wyfe, 

I am befette with many a knyfe. 540 

Undo your dore ! my lady fvvete, 

I am befet with enemyes great ; 



168 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

And, lady, but ye wyll aryfe, 

I ftiall be dead with myne enemyes. 

Undo thy dore ! my frely floure, 

For ye are myne and i am your. 

That lady with thofe wordes awoke, 

A mantell of golde to her fhe toke ; 

She fayde, Go away, thou wicked wyght, 

Thou fhalt not come here this nyght; 550 

For i wyll not my dore undo 

P'or no man that cometh therto. 

There is but one in Chriftent^ 

That ever made that forwarde with me; 

There is but one that ever bare lyfe, 

That ever i hight to be his wyfe ; 

He fhall me wedde, by Mary bryght, 

Whan he is proved a venterous knyghtj 

For we have loved this feven yere, 

There was never love to me fo dere. 560 

There lyeth on me both kyng and knyght, 

Dukes, erles, of muche might. 

Wende forth, fquyer, on your waye. 

For here ye gette none other praye ; 

For i ne wote what ye fliould be, 

That ihus befecheth love of me. 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 169 

I am your owne fquyr, he fayde, 

For me, lady, be not dysmayde. 

Come i am full pryvely 

To take my leave of you, lady. 570 

Welcome, fhe fayd, my love fo dere, 

Myne owne dere heart, and my fquyer ; 

I fliall you geve kyfses thre, 

A thoufande pounde unto your fe, 

And kepe i fhall ray maydenhede ryght 

Tyll ye be proved a venturous knyght. 

For yf ye fhould me wede anone, 

My father wolde make flee you foone. 

I am the kynges doughter of Hlmgr^, 

And ye alone that have loved me, 580 

And though you love me never fo fore, 

For me ye flidll never be lore. 

Go forth, and alke me at my kynne, 

And loke what graunt you may wynne; 

Yf that ye gette graunte, in faye, 

Myfelfe therto fliall not fay nay ; 

And yf ye may not do fo, 

Otherwyfe ye fliall come to. 

Ye are bothe hardy, ftronge, and wight, 

Go forth, and be a venterous knight. 590 



170 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

I pray to god, and our lady, 

To fend you the whele of Victory, 

That my father fo leve he be 

That wyll profer me to thee. 

I wote well it is lyghtly fayd, 

Go forth, and be nothyng afrayde. 

A man of worftiyp may not do fo, 

He mull have what neds him unto ; 

He muft have gold, he muft have fe, 

Strength of men and royalty. 609 

Golde and fylver fpare ye nought, \ 

Tyll to manhode ye be brought ; 

To what batayll foever ye go, 

Ye fhall have an hundreth pounde or two ; 

And yet to me, fyr, ye may faye, 

That i would e fayne have you awaye. 

That profered you golde and fe, 

Out of myne eye-fyght for to be. 

Neverthelcffe it is not (o. 

It is for the worfhyp of us two, 6lO 

Though you be come of fymple kynnc, 

Thus my love, fyr, may ye wynne, 

Yf ye have grace of victory, 

As ever had fyr Lybyus, or fyr Guy, 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 171 

Whan the dwarfe, and mayde Ely, 

Came to Arthoure kyng fo fre, 

As a kyng of great renowne 

That wan the lady of Synadowne. 

Lybius was graunted the batayle thO; 

Therlore the dwarfi was full wo, ^ 620 

And fayd, Arthur, thou art to blame ; 

To bydde this chylde go fuckc his dame, 

Better hym femeth, fo mote i thryve. 

Than for to do thefe batayles fyve, 

At the chapell of Salebraunce. 

Thefe wordes began great distaunce, 

They fawe they had the victory, 

They kneled downe and cryed mercy ; 

And after%vard, fyr, verament 

They called hym knyght abfolent. 630 

Emperours, dukes, knyghtes, and quene. 

At his commaundement for to bene, 

Suche fortune with grace now to you fall, 

To Wynne ihe worthyeft within the wall. 

And thynke on your love alone, 

And for to love that ye chaunge none. 

Ryght as they talked thus, in fere, 

Theyr enemyes approched nere and nere, 



172 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

Foure and thyrty, armed bryght, ' 
The fteward had aiayed hym to fyght. 
The fteward was ordeyned to fpy, 
And for to take them utterly. 
He wende to death he fhould have gone, 
He felled feven men agaynft hym one ; 
Whan he had them to grounde brought, 
The ftevvarde at hym full fadly fought. 
So harde they fmote together tho, 
The ftewardes throte he cut in two, 
And fone he fell downe to the grounde. 
As a traitour untrewe with many a wound. 
The fquyer fone in armes they hente. 
And of they dyd his good garmente. 
And on the ftewarde they it dyd, 
And fone his body therin they hydde. 
And with their fwordes his face they ftiare, 
That fhe Ihould not knowe what he ware, 
They caft hym at her chambre-dore. 
The ftewarde that was ftyffe and ftore. 
Whan they had made that great affraye, 
Full pryvely they ftale awaye ; 
In arme they take that fquyer tho. 
And to the kynges chambre can they go, 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 173 

Without wemme or any wounde, 
Before the kynge bothe hole and founde. 
As foone as the kynge him fpyed with eye, 
He fayd, Welcome, fonne, fykerly; 
Thou haft caft thee my fonne to be, 
This feven yere i fhall let thee. 

Leve we here of this fquyer wight, 
And fpeake we of that lady bryght, ^70 

How fhe rofe, that lady dere, 
To take her leve of that fquyer ; 
Al fo naked as fhe was borne, 
She ftod her chambre-dore beforne. 
Alas! fhe fayd, and wealeaway! 
For all to long now have i lay ; 
She fayd, Alas! and all for wo! 
Wi thou ten men why came ye fo ? 
Yf that ye wolde have come to me. 
Other werninges there might have be. 680 

Now all to dere my love is bought, 
But it fhall never be loll for nought ; 
And in her armes flie toke hym there, 
Into the chamber fhe dyd hym here ; 
His bowels foone flie dyd out-drawe, 
And buryed them in goddes lawe. 



174 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

She fered that body with fpecery, 

With wyrgin waxe and commendry ; 

And clofed hym in a mafer-tre, 

And fet on hym lockes thre. 69O 

She put hira in a marble-ftone, 

With quaynt gynnes many one; 

And fet hym at hir Ijeddes head, 

And every day fhe kyil that dead. 

Soone at morne, whan fhe uprofe, 

Unio that dead body flic gofe, 

Therfore wold fhe knele downe on her kne, 

And make her prayer to the trynite, 

And kyfle that body Iwyfe or thryfe, 

And fall in a fwowne or fhe myght ryfe, 7OO 

Whan fhe had fo done, 

To chyrche than wolde fhe gone, 

Than would fhe here mafses fyve, 

And offre to them whyle fhe myght lyve: 

" There fliall none knowe but heven kynge 

For whom that i make myne ofTrynge." 

The kyng her father anone he fayde 

My doughter, wy are you dysraayde? 

So feare a lady as ye are one, 

And fo femely of flefhe and bone, 7^0 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 175 

Ye were whyte as whales bone, 

Nowe are ye pale as any ftone ; 

Your ruddy read as any chery, 

With browes brent, and eyes full mery ; 

Ye were wont to harpe and fyng, 

And be the merieft in chambrc comyng ; 

Ye ware both golde, and good velvet, 

Clothe of damafke, with faphyres fet ; 

Ye ware the pery on your head, 

With ftones full oryent, whyte, and read ; 720 

Ye ware coronalles of golde, 

With diamoundes fet many a foulde ; 

And nowe ye were clothes of blacke, 

Tell me, doughter, for whofe fake? 

If he be fo poore of fame, 

That ye may not be wedded for (hame, 

Brynge him to me anone ryght, 

I fliall hym make fquyerand knight; 

And, yf he be fo great a lorde, 

That your love may not accorde, 73© 

Let me, doughter, that lordynge fe, 

He fhall have golde ynoughe with thee. 

** Gramercy, father, fo mote i thryve, 

For i raourne for no man alyve. 



176 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

Ther is no man, by heven kyng, 

That fhal knovve more of my mournynge." 

Her father knewe it every deale, 

But he kept it in counfele : 

" To-morowe ye fhall on hunting fare, 

And ryde, my doughter, in a chare, 7^0 

It fhal be covered with velvet reede, 

And clothes of fyne golde al about your hed, 

With damafke white, and afure blewe, 

Wei dyapred with lyllyes newe ; 

Your pomelles ihal be ended with gold, 

Your chaynes enameled many a folde ; 

Your mantel of ryche degre, 

Purpyl palle, and armyne fre ; 

Jennettes of Spayne, that ben fo wyght, 

Trapped to the ground with velvet bright ; 750 

Ye fhall have harp, fautry and fonge, 

And other myrth^s you amonge ; 

Ye fhall have rumney and malmefyne. 

Both ypocraffe, and vernage wyne. 

Mount rofe and wyne of Greke, 

Both algrade, and refpice eke, 

Antioche, and bastarde, 

Pyment, alfo, and garnarde ; 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 177 

Wyne of Greke, and muscadell, 

Both clare, pyment, and Rochell. 76O 

The reed your ftomake to defye, 

And pottos of ofey fet you by. 

You fhall have venifon ybake, 

The beft wylde foule that may be take, 

A lefe of grehound with you to ftryke, 

And hert and hynde and other lyke, 

Ye fhal be fet at fuch a tryft 

That herte and hynde (hall come to your fyft. 

Your dyseafe to dryve you fro, 

To here the bugles there yblow, 770 

With theyr begles in that place, 

And fevenfcore raches at his rechafe. 

Homward thus fhall ye ryde, 

'On haukyng by the ryvers fyde, 

With goshauke, and with gentyll fawcon, 

With eglehorne, and merlyon. 

Whan you come home, your men amonge, 

Ye fliall have revell, daunces, and fonge ; 

Lytle chyldren, great and fmale, 

Shall fyng, as doth the nyghtyngale. 7 SO 

Than fhall ye go to your evenfong, 

With tenours and trebles among ; 

VOL. III. N 



178 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

Threfcore of copes, of daraafke bryght. 

Full of perles they fhal be pyght; 

Your aulter clothes of taffata, 

And your ficles all of taffetra. 

Your fenfours fhal be of golde, 

Endent with afure many a folde. 

Your quere nor organ fonge Ihall wante^' 

With countre note, and dyscant, 790 

The other halfe on orgayns playeng, 

With yonge chyldren full fare fyngyng. 

Than fliall ye go to your fuppere, 

And fytte in tentes in grene arbere, 

With clothes of aras pyght to the grounde, 

With faphyres fet and dyamonde, 

A cloth of golde abought your heade. 

With popinjayes pyght with pery reed. 

And offycers all at your wyll, 

All maner delightes to bryng you till, 800 

The nightingale fitting on a thorne, 

Shall fynge you notes both even and raorne. 

An hundreth knightes, truly tolde, 

Shall play with bowles in alayes colde, 

Your diseafe to drive awaie, 

To fe the fiffhes in poles plaie ; 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE, 179 

And then walke in arbere up and downe, 

To fe the floures of gi-eat renowne, 

To a drawbrydge than fhall ye, 

The one halfe of ftone, the other of tre ; 810 

A barge Ihall mete you, full ryght, 

With twenty-four ores full bryght, 

With trompettes and With claryowne, 

The frefflie water to rowe up and downe. 

Than fhall ye go to the falte fome. 

Your maner to fe, or ye come home, 

With eighty fhyppes of large towre, 

With dromedary es of great honour, 

And carackes with fayles two. 

The fwefteft that on water may goo, S20 

With galyes good upon the haven. 

With eighty ores at the fore ftaven. 

Your maryners fliall fynge arowe 

Hey how and rumby lowe. 

Than fhall ye, doughter, afke the wyne, 

With fpices that be good and fyne, 

Gentyll pottes with genger grene, 

With dates and deynties you betwene. 

Forty torches, bvenynge bryght, 

At your brydges to brynge you lyght. 830 



180 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

Into your chambre they (hall you brynge, 

With muche myrthe and more iykyng. 

Your costerdes covered with whyte and blewe, 

And dyapred with lyles newe. 

Your curtaines of camaca, all in folde, 

Your felyoles all of golde. 

Your fefter pery at your heed, 

Curtaines with popinjayes white and reed. 

Your hyllynges with furres of armyne, 

Powdred with golde of hew full fyne. 840 

Your blankettes fliall be of fustyane. 
Your fhetes fhall be of clothe of rayne. 
Your head-fhete fliall be of pery pyght. 

With dyamondes fet and rubyes bryght. 

Whan you are layde in bedde fo fofte, 

A cage of golde (hall hange alofte. 

With longe-peper fayre burnning. 

And cloves that be fwete fmellyng, 

Frankenfence, and olibanum, 

That whan ye flepe the tafte may come. 850 

And yf ye no reft may take, 

All night minitrelles for you (hall wake. 

" Gramercy, father, fo mote i the, 

For all thefe thinges lyketh not me." 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 181 

Unto her chambre flie is gone, 
And fell in fownyng fone anone, 
With much forpw and fighing fore, 
Yet feven year fhe kept hym thore. 

But leva we of that lady here, 
And fpeake we more of that fquyer, 860 

That in pryfon fo was take, 
For the kinges doughters fake. 
The kyng hymfelfe, upon a daye, 
Full pryvely he toke the waye, 
Unto the pryfon fone he came, 
The fquyer fone out he name, 
And anone he made hym fwere 
His counfayl he ftiould never diskere. 
The fquyer there helde up his hande, 
His byddyng never he fliould withftande. 87O 

The kyng him graunted ther to go 
Upon his jorney to and fro. 
And brefely to paffe the fea, 
That no man wefte but he and he, 
And whan he had his jurnay done, 
That he wolde come full foone : 
" And in my chambre for to be, 
The whyles that i do ordayne for thee : 



182 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

Than (halt thou wedde my doughter dere. 

And have my landes both farre and nere." 880 

The fquyer was full mery tho, 

And thanked the kynge, and forth gan go. 

The kyng hym gave both lande and fe. 

Anone the fquyer pafsed the fe. 

In Tuskayne and in Lumbardy, 

There he dyd great chyvalry, 

In Portyngale, nor yet in Spayne, 

There myght no man fland hym agayne ; 

And where that ever that knyght gan fare, 

The worfhyp with hym away he bare : 8^0 

And thus he travayled feven yere, 

In many a land both farre and nere ; 

Tyll on a day he thought hym tho 

Unto the fepulture for to go; 

And there he made his offeryng foone, 

Right as the kinges doughter bad him don. 

Than he thought hym on a day 

That the kynge to hym dyd faye. 

He tokc his leve in Lumbardy, 

And home he came to Hungry. "900 

Unto the kynge foone he rade, 

As he before his covenaunce made, 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 183 

And to the kyng he tolde full foone 

Of batayles bolde that he had done, 

And fo he did the chyvalry 

That he had fene in Lumbardy. 

To the kynge it was good tydande, 

Anone he toke him by the hande, 

And he made hira full royall chere, 

And fayd, Welcome, my fonne fo dere. piO 

Let none wete of my meyne 

That out of prifon thou fhuldeft be, 

But in thy chamber holde the ftyll, 

And i fliall wete my doughters wyll. 

The kynge wente fort^ hymfelfe alone. 

For to here his doughters mone. 

Right under the chambre-window. 

There he might her counfeyle knowe. 

Had flie wyft, that lady fre, » 

That her father there had be, 920 

He fhulde not, withouten fayle. 

Have knowen fo muche of her counfayle, 

Nor nothing flie knew that he was there 

Whan flie began to carke and care. 

Unto that body fhe fayd tho, 

Alas, that we (hould parte in two ! 



184 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

Twyfe or thryfe fhe kyfsed that body, 

And fell in fownynge by and by. 

Alas ! than fayd that lady dere, 

I have the kept this feven yere, 930 

And now ye be in powder fmall, 

I may no lenger holde^ou withall. 

My love, to the earth i flaall the brynge, 

And preeftes for you to reade and fynge. 

Yf any man afke me what i have here, 

I wyll fay it is my treafure. 

Yf any man afke why i do fo, 

For no theves (hall come therto : 

And, fquyer , for the love of the, 

Fy oh this worldes vanyt^ ! 940 

Farewell golde, pure and fyne ; 

Farewell velvet, and fatyne ; 

Farewell castelles, and raaners alfb ; 

Farewell huntynge, and hawkynge to ; 

Farewell revell, myrthe, and play ; 

Farewell pleafure, and garmentes gay ; 

Farewell perle, and precyous ftone ; 

Farewell my juielles every chone; 

Farewell mantell, and fcarlet reed ; 

Farewell crowne unto my heed j 950 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 185 

Farewell hawkes, and farewell hounde ; 

Farewell markes, and many a pounde ; 

Farewell huntynge at the hare ; 

Farewell harte and hynde for evermare. 

Nowe wyll i take the mantell and the rynge, 

And become an ancreffe in my ly vynge : 

And yet i am a mayden for thee, 

And for all the men in Chryftentd. 

To Chryft i fhall my prayers make, 

Squyer, onely for thy fake ; 96O 

And i fliall never no maffe heare, 

But ye ihall have parte in feare : 

And every daye whyles i lyve, 

Ye fhall have your mafses fyve, 

And i (hall offre pence thre, 

In tokenynge of the trynyt^. 

And whan this lady had this fayde, 

In fownyng fhe fel at a brayde. 

The whyle fhe made this great mornynge, 

Under the wall flode har father the kynge. 970 

Doughter, he fayde, you mufl not do fo, 

For all thofe vowes thou mufl forgo. 

" Alas, father, and weleawaye ! 

Nowe have ye harde what i dyde faye." 



186 THE SQUYR OF LO\VE DEGRE. 

" Doughter, let be all thy mournynge, 

Thou Ihalt be wedede to a kynge." 

" I wys, father, that (hall not be 

For all the golde iu Chriftent^ ; 

Nor all the golde that ever god made 

May not my harte glade." 980 

My doughter, he fayde, dere derlynge, 

I knowe the caufe of your raournyng: 

Ye wene this body your love (hould be. 

It is not fo, fo mote i the. 

It was my ftewarde, fyr Maradofe, 

That ye fo longe have kept inclofe. 

" Alas ! father, why dyd ye fo ?" 

" For he wrought you all thys wo ; 

He made revelation unto me, 

That he knewe all your pryvyt^ ; ^90 

And howe the fquyer, on a day, 

Unto your chambre he toke the way, 

And ther he fhould have lyen you bi, 

Had he not come with company ; 

And howe ye hyght hym golde and fe, 

Strengthe of men and royalty ; 

And than he watched your chambre bryght, 

With men of armes hardy and wyght, 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 187 

For to take that fquyer, 

That ye have loved this feven yere ; 1000 

But as the ftcwarde ftrong and llout 

Befeged your chambre rounde about, 

To you your love came full ryght, 

All alone about mydnight, 

And whan he came your dore unto, 

Lady, he fayde, undo ; 

And foone ye bade hym wende awaye, 

For there he gate none other praye : ' 

And as ye talked thus in fere, 

Your enemyes drewe them nere and nere, 1010 

They fmote to him full foone anone, 

There were thyrty agaynft hym one : 

But with a baslarde large and longe 

The fquyer prefed into the thronge j 

And fo he bare hym in that ftounde. 

His enemyes gave hym many a wounde. 

With egre mode and herte full throwe, 

The ftewardes thrbte he cut in two ; • 

And than his meyn6 all in that place 

With their fwordes they hurte his face, 1020 

And than they toke him everichone 

And layd him on a marble ftone 



188 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

Before your dore, that ye myght fe, 

Ryght as your love that he had be ; 

And fone the fquier there they hent, 

And they dyd of his good garment, , 

And did it on the ftewarde there, 

That ye wift not what he were : 

Thus ye have kept your enemy here 

Pallyng more than feven yere : 1030 

And as the fquyer there was take, 

And done in pryfon for your fake, 

And therfore let be your mourning. 

Ye fhal be wedded to a kyng. 

Or els unto an emperoure. 

With golde and fylver and great treafure. 

" Do awaye, father, that may not be, 

For all the golde in Chryftente." 

Alas! father, anone (he fayde, 

Why hath this traytour me betraid ? 1040 

Alas ! (he fayd, i have great wrong 

That i have kept him here fo long. 

Alas ! father, why dyd ye fo ? 

Ye might have warned me of my fo ; 

And ye had tolde me who it had be. 

My love had never be dead for me : 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 189 

A none fhe tourned her from the kyng, 

And downe fhe fell in dead fownyng. 

The kyng anone gan go, 

And hente her in his armes two ; 1050 

Lady, he fayd, be of good chere, 

Your love lyveth and is here ; 

And he hath bene in Lombardy, 

And done he hath great chyvalry ; 

And come agayne he is to me, 

In lyfe and health ye fhall him fe. 

He fhall you wede, my dough ter bryght, 

I have hym made fquier and knyght ; 

He fhal be a lorde of great renowne. 

And after me to were the crowne. IO60 

Father, fhe fayd, if it fo be, ' 

Let me foone that fquyer fe. 

The fquyer forth than dyd he brynge, 

Full fayre on lyve and in lykynge. 

As fone as fhe fawe him with her eye, 

She fell in fownyng by and by. 

The fquyer her hente in armes two. 

And kyfsed her an hundreth tymes and mo. 

There was myrth and melody 

With harpe, getron and fautry, IO7O 



190 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

With rote, ribible and clokarde, 

With pypes, organs and bumbarde^ 

With other mynftrelles them amouge, 

With fytolphe and with fautry fonge 

With fydle, recorde, and dowcemere. 

With trompette, and with claryon clere, 

W^ith dulcet pipes of many cordes. 

In charabre revelyng all the lordes, 

Unto morne that it was daye, 

The kyng to his doughter began to faye, 1 080 

Have here thy love and thy lyking, 

To lyve and ende in gods blefsinge ; 

And he that wyll departe you two, 

God geve him forow and wo. 

A trewer lover than ye are one 

Was nevei fleflie ne bone ; 

And but he be as true to thee, 

God let him never thryve ne thee. 

The kyng in herte he was full blithe, 

He kifsed his doughter many a fithe. 1090 

With melody and muche chere, 

Anone he called his mesfengere, 

And commaunded him foone to go 

Through his cities to and fro, 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEC RE. 191 

For to warne his chevalry 

That they (hould come to Hungry, 

That worthy wedding for to fe, 

And come unto that manger^. 

That mesfenger full fone he wente, 

And did the kinges commaundement. 1100 

Anone he commaunded bothe olde aad yynge 

For to be at that weddyng, 

Both dukes and erles of muche rayght, 

And ladyes that were fayre and bryght : 

As foone as ever they herde the crye, 

The lordes were full foone redy. 

With rayrth and game and muche playe, 

They wedded them on a folempne daye. 

A royall feeft there was holde, 

With dukes and erles and barons bolde, 1110 

And knyghtes and fquyers of that countre, 

And fith with all the comunalt^ : 

And certaynly, as the ftory fayes, 

The revell lafted forty dayes j 

Tyll on a day the kyng himfclfe 

To hym he toke his lordes twelfe, 

And fo he dyd the fquyer 

That wedded his doughter dere, 



192 THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

And even in the myddes of the hall 

He made him kyng among them all ; * 1120 

And all the lordes everychone, 

They made him homage fone anon ; 

And fithen they revelled all that day. 

And toke theyr leve, and went theyr way, 

Eche lorde unto his owne countr6, 

Where that hym [thought] bed to be. 

That yong man, and the quene his wyfe, 

With joy and blyffe they led theyr lyfe ; 

For al fo farre as i have gone, 

Suche two lovers fawe i none : 11 30 

Therfore blefsed may theyr foules be ! 

Amen, amen, for charyte ! 



[ 193] 



THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 
THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. 



In Faguell, a fay re country, 

A great lorde fomtyme dyd dwell, 
Which had a lady fo fayre and fre 

That all men good of her dyd tel. 

Fayre and pleafaunt (he was in fight, 

Gentyl and amyable in eche degre, 
Chafte to her lorde, bothe day and nyght, 

As is the turtyll upon the tre. 

All men her loved, bothe yonge and olde, 

For her vertue and gentylneffe. 10 

Alfo in that lande was a knight bolde, 
Ryght wyfe, and ful of doughtinefle. 
VOL, III. O 



194 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 

Ail men fpake of his hardynefle, 

Ryclie and poore of eche degre, 
So tliat tliey called him, doutleffe. 

The noble knyght of curtefy. 

This knight fo curteys was and bolde, 

That the lorde herde therof anone. 
He fayd that fpeke with him he wolde, 

For hyra the mesfengere is gone, 20 

Wyth a letter unto this knight. 

And fayd, Syr, i pray god you fe; 
My lorde of Faguell you fendeth ryght 

An hundred folde gretynge by me. 

He praieth you in all haftynge • 

To come in his court for to dwell, 
And ye Ihal lake no maner of thynge. 

As townes, towres, and many a cast^ll. 

The curteyfe knight was foue content, 

And in all dilygence that might be 90 

Wyth the mesfyngere anone he went 

This lorde to ferxe with huraylit^. 



THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. 195 

Fall they rode bothe day and nyght, 

Tyll he unto the lorde was come ; 
And whan the lorde of hym had a fight, 

Right frendly he did him welcome. 

He gave hym towenes, castelles and towres, 

Wherof all other had envye, 
They thought to reve him his honoures, 

By fome treafon or trechery. 40 

This lady, of whome i fpake before, 
Seyng this knight fo good and kynde, 

Afore^all men that ever were bore 
She fet on hym her herte and minde. 

I His paramour fhe thought to be, 

Hym for to love wyth herte and minde, 

Nat in vyce but in chaftyt^. 

As chyldren that together are kynde. 

This knight alfo curteyfe and wyfe. 

With herte and mynde both ferme and fall, 50 
Lovyd this lady wythouten vyfe, 

Whyche tyll they dyed dyd ever lalle. ' 



196 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 

Both night and day thefe lovers true 
Suffred great paine, wo, and grevaunce, 

How eche to other theyr minde might fhewe ; 
Tyll at the laft, by a fodaine chaunce, 

This knight was in a garden grene, 

And thus began him to complayne, 
Alas! he fayd, with murnynge eyen, 

Now is my herte in wo and payne. 60 

From mournynge can i nat refrayne. 
This ladyes love dothe me fo wounde, 

I feare (he hath of me disdayne : 

With that he fell downe to the grounde. 

The lady in a wyndowe laye, 

With herte colde as any ftone, 
She wyft nat what to do nor faye 
. Whan fhe herde the knightes mone. 

Sore fighed that lady of renowne. 

In her face was no colour founde, 70 

Than into the gardein came flie downe, 

And fawe this knight lye on the grounde. 



THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. 197 

Whan flie fawe hym lye fo for her fake, 

Her hert for wo was alraooft gone, 
To her coraforte coude fhe none take, 

But in fwoune fell downe hym upon, 

So fadly that the knyght awoke, 

And whan that he fawe her fo nere. 
To hym coraforte anone he toke, 

And began the lady for to chere. 80 



? 



He fayd, Lady and love, alas, ' 

Into this cure who hath you brought i 

She fayd. My love, and my folas. 

Your beaute flandeth fo in my thought, 

That, yf i had no worldly make, 

Never none Ihould have my herte but ye. 

The knyght fayd, Lady, for your fake, 
I flial you love in chastyte. 

Our love, he fayde, ftial be none other 

But chafte and true, as is betwene ^0 

A goodly fyster and a brother, 

Fro lufte our bodyes to kepe clene. 



198 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 

And where fo ever mi body be, 

Bothe day and night, at every tyde, 

My fimpele herte in chaftit^ 

Shall ever more lady with you abide. 

This lady, white as any floure, 

Replete with feminine fhamefaftnefle, 

Begayn to chaunge her fare coloure, 

And to hym fayd, My love, doubtelefle, 100 

Under fuche forme i fhall you love, 

With faythful herte in chastite, 
Next unto god that is above 

Bothe in welthe and adverfyte. 

Eche of them kyfsed other truely. 

But, ever alas I ther was a fo 
Behynde the wall, them to efpye. 

Which after torned them to muche wo. 

Out of the gardyn whan they were gone, 

Eche from other dyd departe, 110 

' Awaye was all theyr wofull mone, 

The one had lyghted the others herte. 



THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. 199 

Than this fpye, of whome i tolde, 

Whyche ftode behinde the garden ^all, 

Wente unto his lorde ful bolde, 
And fayd^ Syr, fliewe you i (hall, 

By your gardyn as i was walkynge, 

I herde the knight of curtefye 
Which with your lady was tialkinge 

Of love unlawful! pry vely : 1 20 

Therfore yf ye fuffre him for to precede, 
Wyth your lady to have his joye, , 

He fhal bee lede fro you in dede 

Or elles they bothe fhall you distroye. 

Whan than the lorde had underftande 
The wordes that the fpye him tolde. 

He fware he would rydde him fro that pande], 
Were he never fo flronge and bolde. 

He fware an othe, by god almyght, 

That he fhould never be glade certayne 130 

While that knight was in his fight, 

Tyl that he by fome meane were flaine. 



200 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 

Than let he do crye a feeft, 

For every man that thider wolde come, 
For every man bothe mooft and leeft, 

Thyder came lordes bothe olde and yonge. 

The lorde was at the table fet, 

And his lady by him that tide, 
The knight of curtefy anone was fet, 

And fet downe on the other fyde. 140 

Theyr hartes ihould have be wo-begone, 
If they had knowen the lordes thought ; 

But whan that they were ftyll echone, 

The lorde thefe wordes anone forth brought : 

Me thinke it is fyttinge for a knight 

For aventures to enquyre, 
And nat thus, bothe day and night, 

At home to fojourne by the fyre. 

Therfore, fyr knight of curtefye, 

This thinge wyl i you counfeyll, 150 

To ryde and go throughe the countr^, 

To feke adventures for your avayle. 



THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. QOl 

As unto Rodes for to fight, 

Tlie chriften fayth for to mayntayne, 

To fliewe by armes your force and myght, 
In Lurabardy, Portyngale, and in Spayne. 

Than fpake the knyght to the lord anone, 
For your fake wyl i aventure my lyfe, 

Whether ever i come agayne or none, 

And for ray ladyes fake, your wyfe. l6o 

If i dyd nat i were to blame. 

Than fighed the lady with that worde, 
In dolour dope her herte was tane, 

And fore wounded as wyth a fworde. 

Than after dyner the knight did go 
His horfe and harneyfe to make redy, 

The woful lady came him unto, 
And to him fayd right pyteously : 

Alas ! yf ye go, i muft complayne 

Alone as a woful creature, 170 

If that ye be in batayle flayne, 

On lyve may i not endure. 



202 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 

Alas, unhappy creature ! 

Where flial i go, where fhal i byde ? 
Of dethe fothely nowe am i fure, 

And all worldly joye i fhal fet asfyde. 

A payre of fheres than dyd fhe take, 

And cut of her here bothe yelowe and bright; 

Were this, than fayd fhe, for my fake, 

Upon your helme, moche curteyfe knight. 1 80 

I fhall, dere lady, for your fake. 

This knyght fayd, with flyl mominge : 

No comforte to him coude he take, 

Nor abfleiue Him fro perfounde fyghinge. 

For grete pyte i can not wryte 

The forowe that was betwene them two; 

Alfo i have to fmall refpyte 

For to declare theyr payne and wo. 

The wofuU departinge and complaynt 

That was betwene thefe lovers twayne ipo 

Was never man that coude depaynt. 

So wofuUy did they complayne. 



THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. 203 

The teres ran from theyr eyen twayne, 
For doloure whan they did departe ; 

The lady in her castell did remayne, 

Wyth langour replenyfflied was her herte. 

Now leve we here this lady bryght, 
Within her castel makinge her mone, 

And tourne we to the curteys knyght, 

Whyche on his journey forth is gone. 200 

Unto hymfelf this knight fayd he, 
Agaynft the chryften i wyl not fyght, 

But to the Rodes wyl i go 
Them to fusteyne with all my myght. 

Than did he her heere unfolde, 

And one his helme it fet on hye, 
Wyth rede thredes of ryche golde, 

Whiche he had of his lady. 

Full richely his ihelde was wrought, 

Wyth afure ftones and beten golde, 210 

But on his lady was his thought, 

The yelowe heare whan he dyd beholde. 



204 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 

Than forth he rode by dale and downe, 

After aventures to enquyre, 
By many a castel. cyte and towne, 

All to batayl was his defyre. 

In every juftyng where he came 

None fo good as he was founde, 
In every place the pryce he wan. 

And fraote his adverfaryes to the grounde. 220 

So whan he came to Lumberdye, 

Ther was a dragon theraboute, 
Whyche did great hurt and vylanye, 

Bothe man and bcfte of hym had doubte. 

As this knight rode there alone, 

Save onely his page by his fyde, 
For his lady he began to mone, 

Sore fyghynge as he did ride. 

Alas ! he fayd, my lady fwete, 

God wote in what cafe ye be; 230 

God wote whan we two fliall mete, 

I feare that i flial never you fe. 



THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. 205 

Than as he loked hym aboute, 

Towarde a hyll that was fo hye, 
Of this dragon he harde a fhoute, 

Yonder is a feaft, he fayd, truly. 

The knight him blefsyd, and forthe dyd go, 

And fayd, I fhall do my travayle, 
Betyde me well, betyde me wo, 

The fyers fynde i (hall asfayle. 240 

Than wyth the dragon dyd he meate, 
Whan fhe him fawe fhe gaped wyde, 

He toke good hede, as ye may wete, 
And quyckely fterted a lytle afyde. 

He drewe his fwerde like a knyght, 

This dragon fyersly to asfayle, 
He gave her ftrokes ful of myght, 

Stronge and mortall was the batayle. 

The dragon gave this knight a wounde, 

Wyth his tayle upon the heed, 250 

That he fell downe unto the grounde. 
In a fowue as he had ben deed. 



206 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 

So at the laft he rofe agayne, 

And made his mone to god almyght, 

And to our lady he dyd corapleyne, 
Theyr helpe defyrynge in that fyght. 

Than fterte he wyth a fayrfe courage, 

Unto the dragon without fayle. 
He loked fo for his advauntage. 

That [quyckely] he fraote of her tayle. 260 

Than began the dragon for to yell, 

And tourned her upon her lydg, 
The knight was ware of her right well. 

And in her bodi made his fworde to flyde. 

So that flie coud nat remeve fcarcely. 
The knight, that feinge, approched nere, 

And fmote her heed of lyghtly, 
Than was he efcaped that daungere. 

Than thanked he god of his grace, 

Whiche, by his goodnes and mercye, 270 

Hym had preferved in that place, 

Through vertue of hys deyte. 



THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. 20? 

Than went he to a nourye there befyde, 

And there a furgean by his arte 
Heled his woundes that were fo wyde, 

And than fro thens he dyd departe, 

Towarde the Rodes, for to fyght, 

In bataill as he had undertake, 
The fayth to fusteyne with all his might, 

For his promyffe he wil not breke. 280 

Than of Sarazyns there was a route, 

Al redy armen and in araye, 
That fyeged the Rodes round aboute, 

Fyersly agaynft the, good fredaye. 

The knight was welcomed of echone, 

That within the cyte were. 
They provided forth batayle anone: 

So for this time i leve them there, 

And tourne to his lady bryght, 

Which is at home wyth wofuU mone, 290 

Sore morned [fhe] both day and night, 

Sayenge, Alas ! my love is gone. 



208 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 

Alas ! fhe fayd, my gentyl knight, 

For your fake is my herte ful fore, 
Myght i ones of you have a fyght 

Afore my dethe, i defyre no more. 

Alas ! what trefon or envye 

Hath made my love fro me to go ? 
I thynke my lorde for ire truely 

By treafon him to deth hatha do. 300 

Alas! my lorde, ye were to blame 

Thus my love for to betraye. 
It is to you a right great ftiarae, 

Sythe that our love was chaft alwaye. 

Our love was clene in chastyte, 

Without fynne ftyl to endure, 
We never entended vylanye; 

Alas, mooft curteyfe creature ! 

Where do ye dwell ? where do ye byde ? 

Wold god i knewe where you to fynde ! 310 
Wher ever ye go, where ever ye ride. 

Love, ye fliall never out of my mynde. 



THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. 20.9 

A, deth, where art thou fo longe fro me ? 

Come and departe me fro this paine, 
For dead and buried til i be 

Fro morning can i nat rcfraine. 

Fare wel, dere love, where ever ye be, 

Bi you pleafure is fro mc gone. 
Unto the time i may you fe, 

Without comforte ftill muft i monc. 320 

4 

Thus this lady, of coloure clere, 

Alone mourninge did complaine, 
Nothinge coulde her comforte ne chere, 

So was fhe opprefsed with wo and painei 

So leve we her here in this traine, 

For her love mourning alwaye, 
And to the knight tourne we againe, 

Which at Rodes abideth the day 

Of bataile, fo whan the daie was come. 

The knightes armed them eche one, 330 

And out of the citie wente ail and forae, 
Strongly to fight with goddes fone. 

VOL. III. P 



«10 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 

Faire and femely was the fight, 

To fe them redy unto the warre, 
There was many a man of might, 

That to that bataile was come full farre. 

The knight of curtefy came into the felde, 

Well armed right faft did ride, 
Both knightes and barans him behelde, 

How comely he was on eche fide. 340 

Above the helme upon his hede, 

Was fet, with many a precious ftone, 

The comely heare as golde fo rede, 
Better armed than he was none. 

Than the trumpettes began to founde. 
The fperes ranne and brake the raye; 

The noife of gonnes did rebounde, 
In this metingc there was no plaie. 

Great was the bataile on everi fide, 

The knight of curtefy was nat behinde, 350 

He fmote al downe that wolde abide. 

His mache coulde he no where fiado« 



THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. 211 

There was a Sarazin ftronge and wight, 
That at this knight had great envye, 

He ran to him with all his ntight, 
And faid, Traitour, i thee defie. 

They ranne together, with fperes longe, 
Anone the Saraziu lay on the gi ounde, 

The knight drewe out his fworde fo ftronge, 

And finote his head of in that ftounde. 3^0 

Than came twelve Sarazins in a rought, 

And the knight did fore asfaile, 
So they befet him rounde aboute, 

There began a ftronge bataile. 

The knight keft foure unto the grounde, 

With foure ftrokes by and by, 
The other gave him many a woundfey 

For ever they did multiplie. 

They laide on him on every fide, 

With cruell ftrokes and mortall, 370 

They gave him woundes fo depe and wide, 

That to the grounde doWne did he fall. 



212 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 

The Sarazins went, and let him lye, 
With mortall woundes piteous to fe, 

He called his page haftely, 

And faid. My time is come to die. 

In ray herte is fo depe a wounde 

That i rauft dye without naye, 
But, or thou me burye in the grounde. 

Of one thinge i thee praie : 380 

Out of mi body to cut my herte, 

And wrappe it in this yelowe here, 
And, whan thou doeft from hence departe. 

Unto my lady thou do it here. 

This promiffe thou me without delay, 

To here my lady this prefent, 
And burie mi body in the crofle waie. 

The page was fory and dolent. 

The knight yelded up the gooft anone, 
■ The page him buried as he had him bad, 390 
And towarde Faguell is he gone. 
The herte, and here, with him he had. 



THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. 213 

Somtime he went, fomtime he ran, 

With wofull mone and fory jeft, 
Till unto Faguell he came, 

Nere to a castell in a foreft. 

The lorde of Faguell, without let, 

Was in the foreft with his meyn^. 
With this page anone he met: 

Page, he faid, what tidinges with thee ? 400 

With thi maister how is the cafe ? 

Shew me lightly, or thou go, 
Or thou fhalt never out of this place. 

The page was afearde whan he faid fo. 

The page for feare that he had, 

The lierte unto the lorde he toke tho, 

In his courage he was full fad. 
He toke the heere to him alfo. 

He tolde him trothe of everi thinge. 

How that the knight in bataile was ilaine, 410 
And how he fent his lady that thinge. 

For a fpeciall token of love certaine. ; 



214 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 

The lorde therof toke good hede, 

And behelde the herte, that high prefentc ; 

Their love, he faid, was hote in dede, 
They were bothe in great torment. 

Than home is he to the kechin gone: 

Coke, he faid, herken unto me ; 
Drefle me this herte, and that anone, 

In the deintieft wife that may be ; 420 

Make it fwete and delycate to eate, 

For it is for my lady bryght, 
If that fhe wyft what were the meate, 

Sothely her hert wolde not be lyght, 

Therof fayd the lord full trewe, 
That meat was doleful and mortall, 

So thought the lady whan (lie it knewe, 
Than went the lorde into the hall. 

Anone the lorde to meate was fet, 

And this lady not farre him fro, 430 

The hert anone he made be fet, 

Wherof proceded muche wo. 



THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. J 15 

Madame, eate hereof, he fayd, 

For it is deynteous and plefaunte. 
The lady eate, and was not dismayde, 

For of good fpyce there dyd none wante. 

Whan the lady had eaten wele, 

Anone to her the lorde fayd there, 
His herte have ye eaten, every dele. 

To whom you gave your yelowe here. 440 

Your knight is dead, as you may fe, 

I tel you, lady, certaynly, 
His owne herte eaten have ye, 

Madame, at the laft we all muft dye. 

Whan the lady herde him fo fay. 

She fayd. My herte for wo fliall brail; 

Alas, that ever i fawe this day ! 

Now may my lyfe no longer laft. ' 

Up ihe rofe, wyth hert full wo, 

And ftreight up into her chambre wente, 450 
She confefsed her devoutly tho. 

And fhortely receyved the facrament. 



216 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, AND 

111 her bed mournyng (he her layde, 
God wote, ryght wofuU was her inone : 

Alas ! myne owne dere love, ftie fayd, 
Syth ye be dead my joye is gone. 

Have i eaten thy herte in ray body ? 

That meate to me fhal be full dere. 
For forowe, alas, now rauft i dye : 

A, noble knight, withouten fere ! 460 

That herte (halcertayne with me dye, 
I have received theron the facrament, 

All erthly fode here i denye. 

For wo and paine my Ufe is fpente. 

My husbande, full of cruelt^, 

Why have you done this curfcd dede ? 

Ye have him flaine, fo have ye me, 

The hie god graunte to you your mede ! 

Than fayd the lord, My lady fayre, 

Forgive me if i have misdone, 47O 

I repent i was not ware 

That ye wolde your herte opprefle fo fone. 



THE FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. 217 

The lady fayd, I you forgive, 

Adevv, my lorde, for evermore ; 
My tiiiie is come, i may not live, 

The lorde fayd, I am wo therfore. 

Great was the forowe of more and leffe, 
Bothe lordes and ladyes that were there, 

Some for great wo fwouned doubteleffe ; 

All of her dethe full wofuU were. 480 

Her complaynt py teous was- to here. 

Adieu, my lorde, nowe mufte we discover, 

I dye to you, husbande, a true wedded fere, 
As any in Faguell was found ever. 

I am clene of the knight of curtefy, 

And wrongfully are we brought to confufion ; 

I am clene for hym, and he for me. 
And for all other fave you alone. 

My lorde, ye were to blame truely. 

His herte to make me for to eate, 49O 

But fythe it is buryed in mi body, 

On it fhall i never eate other meate. 



218 THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY, &c. 

Theron have i recyved etemall fode, 

Erthly meate wyll i never none ; 
Now Jesu that was don on the rode, 

Have mercy on me, my lyfe is gone ! 

Wyth that the lady, in all theyr fyght, 
Yelded up her fpyrit, making her raone : 

The hyghe god moofl of myght 

On her have mercy and us echone ! 500 



ORIGINAL READINGS, 

CORRECTED IN THIS EDITION. 





VOLUME I. 




YWAINE AND GAWIN. 


V. 




V. 


33. 


bitwne. 


1057, tiyng. 


44. 


Thar. 


1394. fpered; the A above. 


53- 


Illegible. 


in a modern hand. 


207. 


te. 


1529. anger.] So in the 


353. 


tlorne. 


MS. but query 


471. 


fmeftly. 


danger. 


575. 


brring. 


1748. And than.] So in 


641. 


fleldes. 


the MS. but query 


712. 


Ye wil. 


that. 


723- 


favefe. 


1899. ye. 


881. 


y ane ; on an erafure 


1900. flikes. 




in a modern hand. 


2040. boght. 


989. 


Between that and 


2232. unliarmed, with a 




weded is a fy lia- 


dot over the h, as 




ble of two letters^ 


if intended to be 




interline'd, illegi- 


erafe'd. 




ble, and unneces- 


2237. murnyg. 




fary to thefenfe. 


2842 name. 


998. 


bo. 


2877. Luned. 


1056. 


kins. 


2924. Of fiyes. 



ORIGINAL READINGS. 



V. V. 

3160. thawaiig. parently plater hand, 

3230. nowyr. upon an trafure. 

3238. murnyg. 3853. mydlerde. 

3481. clAev.lSotdoubtUJ's, 3912. alyns. 

the MS . originally^ 3916. akyns. 

the word zonger 3930. faght. 

being writen by a 399J. misworoght. 

differentf and, ap- 



58. ylyke. 
141. tofour. 
149. the. 
372. thefchon. 
450. kyztes. 
616. let. 
656. fch. 



LAUNFAL. 

669. un Rryzt. 
675. marnere. 
799. fcluld. 
828. tydinde. 
933. wordly. 
1084. er. 

VOLUME ir. 



LYBEAUS 

103. After Artour, the 
word fete is im- 
properly infertedin 
the margin, as if 
an omisfon in the 
text. 

134. name. 

146. knyzte. 

172. fpyng. 

181. anfwercde. 

196. Yefhethyngyththe 
not wyght. 



DISCONUS. 
213. heftes. 
2 20. Gweyn. 
260. fwyw. 
328. lay. 

331' fte- 
438. welly ng. 
523. twayne. 
529. bandwon. 
770. viis. 
781. fchylle. 
819. leng. 
887. he. 



ORIGINAL READINGS. 



V. 
904. be. 

926. defcoverons. 

961. regge. 

1018. ynge. 

1043. y* 

1125. her. 

1139. though. 

1169. Though. 

1199. foward. 

1230. A. 

1295. tours. The poet cer- 
tainly intended a 
rime^ if ever fo bad. 

THE GESTR OF 

169. onfuerede. 

169. Whenne. Qjuery 

Whence; at leajl 

that mujl be its 

meaning. 
207. onfuerede. 
214. bront, or brout, 

where the u has^ 

every where^ the 
Jhape of an n, as 

in the MS. 
216. Bi dales and bi 

halles. 
240. wyfteft. 
330. fhende. 



V. 

1347- 
1376- 
»394. 
1430. 

»439- 
1448. 
1456. 
1586. 
»705« 
1785- 
1786. 
2119. 



wt. 

ftrout. 

heed. 

thouz. 

falf. 

thouz. 

fterne. 

though. 

hys. 

Brennyge. 

yede, 

dwellede. 



KYNG HORNE. 

443. thralhede. 

640, woldeft. 

778. b ridel ,fpoils the rime, 
and bride, in 
French, has the fame 
meaning. 

821. cure. T See 823 and 

822. ore. J 824. 
944. Whefo er. 

1007. felawe.] Knave 
would have been 
better for the rime. 

II 19. flienk. 

1203. lothe. 

1237. froth. 



22> ORIGINAL READINGS. 

KING OF TARS. 

V. V. 

3©. ryg. 398. thonzte. 

119. bi epac. 399. And. 

120. him. 421. thouzte. 

155. baneer. 770. 1 hat day that day. 

357. munt. 775. yin. 

316. wende. 

EMARE. 

218. dou. 730. (hewed, 

264. thorne. 780. the. 

287. un. 792. Lor. 

496. ftward. 867. Mentrelles. 

529. (he. 943. wat. 

593. drynke. 950. Wax. 

594. kygh. 968. non. 
635. blolde. 989. A. 

639. bond'. 1024. Egrarnouf. 

659. thonge. 1034. wene. 

SIR ORPHEO. 

29. fir Pilato. 302. Thidey. 

30. Yno (king Juno, Au- 305. came. 

chin leek MS.) 366. fo. 

272. he faw he hym. 465. myftreL 



CHRONICLE OF ENGLELAND. 

V. V. 

244. carte out. 352. fiich. 

340. y the. 889. rcigne. 

350. repreofing. 



ORIGINAL READINGS. 213 



VOLUME III. 


LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 


V. 

128. aveaunt. 


V. 
1248. or. 


598. yvar. 
695. bandome. 
778. gooft. 
866. And. 


1308. hedd. 
1442. and Mary and. 
1769. flyre. 
1916. loove. 


883. For mayntene. 
1028. bandome. 
1 1 40. oon. 


1935. hedd. 
1993. deyll. 
2181. flylylye. 


ERLE OF TOLOUS. 


91. tore. 
288. fleythe. 
297. rewthe. 
379. Myght y not gete. 
479. Alfo fo. 


635. dyskever. 
834. ftabylL 
863. kelee. 
973. fayre. 
1 30 1, alexcon. 


481. thofe. 





SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

15. chriftente. 158. arbery. 

32. chofe. 207. yet. 

33. lycumoure. 226. oytriche. 
39. one. 227. yon. 

48 . fay nge. 28 2 . he gan . 

69. goldy. 398. he dyd. 

83. ieopede. 328. they. 

85. goughter. 357' benyngne. 

124. dan. 358. younge. 

150. clofed. 392. enuyte. 



»«4 



ORIGINAL READINGS. 



V. 


V. 


398. vopn. 


771. bugles. 


42 S. made. 


784. thy. 


456. bydgyng. 


798. read. 


511. bene. 


824. rumbylawe. 


552. Duke. 


835. curtianes. 


564. he. 


868. discure. 


627. The. 


888. ftan. 


654- thy. 


981. mournyg. 


661. the. 


992. her. 


690. lackes. 


1009. And lady. 


714. bent. 


1013. bastarde. 


743. damflce. 


1063. befo. 


754. ypocrafFe. 


1087. trewe....that. 


765. therounde. ..ftreke. 


1103. yonge. 


KNIGHT OF CURTESY. 


17. ciirtefy. 


211. tohught. 


76. fwonne. 


265. fcartely. 


87. kynght. 


274. a furge and. 


92. For. 


299. truley. 


121. fufFce. 


306. Wichout. 


122. loue. 


408. herte. 


12S. where. 


427. though. 


14J. My...fyttinge. 


462. recived. 


1 60. me. 


463. My lorde and hus- 


163. hirte. 


bande. 


i8o. cutuyfe. 


500. us. 



NOTES. 

VOLUME I. 

YWAINE AND GAWIN.* 

1 HE original of tJiis romance is that of " Le chevalier 
au. lion, " hy Chrestien, or Christian, de Troyes, an 
""eminent French poet, who dye'd in 1191, That origi- 
nal, which is ftil extant, though not in this country, 
confifts of 7784 verfeea. See the Bibliotheque univerfelle 
des remans, Avril, 1777, premier volume, p. 95. It is 
prefume'd to be the fame with that which Du Fresnoy 
calls " Leroman d'Yvain, in folio, manitfcrit." 

This Ywaine, Erven, or Owen, was the fon of Urian, 
the brother of Augufel, king of Albania, now Scot- 
land, and of Lot, the conful of Loudonefia, being him- 
felf honour'd by king Arthur with the fceptre of 
Murray, according to that veracious historian, Geof- 
frey of Monmouth, who calls him Eventus : Augufel, 
king of Albania, he fays, who fel in the battle of 
Camblan \anno 542], was fncceeded in his kingdom by 
Eventus, his brother Urians fon, who afterward per- 
form'd many famous exploits in thefe wars." (B, 1 1, 
C. i). In Mort d' Arthur he is call'd Ewen as blanches 
mains. 

The Welfti have the ftory o{ Ouen ab Yrien, in their 
* 

• The MS. reads " Here bigyns Ywaine and Gavvin." 

VOL. III. Q^ 



226 NOTES. 

own language ; but whether an original, or a transla- 
tion from the French or Engleifli, cannot be ascer- 
tain'd. See Lhuyds MSS. Britan. Cata. (Archaeologia 
Britan. P. 265.) He is mention'd, however, by Talies- 
fin and Llywarch Hen, two celebrateed Britifii bards, 
of the fixth century ; both of them his contemporarys, 
and the latter, his relation. {Ibi. P. 259, 264 ; Lewises 
History of Great Britain, P. 20 1, (3c.; and " Heroic 
Elegies &c. of Llywarch Hen," P. 29, &c.) Urien, the 
father of Owen, petty king or prince of Reged in 
Cumbria, a little kingdom, part of Engleland and the 
fouth-weft of modern Scotland, was treacherously 
flain about the year 567, He was one of the greateft 
cncourageers of the bards of his age. Owen, his fon, is 
celebrateed in the ancient Welfli TriadeSf a compofi- 
tion, it is pretended, of the feventh century, as one of 
" The three blefsed princes of the ifle of Britain," 
and one of ** The three blefsed burdens of the womb 
of the ifle of Britain." The name of his bard wa« 
Dygynelw, one of the three " who tinged fpears with 
blood" (Lly. Hen, P. xix.) In a curious fragment 
of the life of St. Kentegern, writen by an unname'd 
authour, at the inftance of Herbert bifhop of Glasgow 
(1147 to 1164), the loveer of that faints mother is 
pointed out in thefe words: " Erat namque procus ejus 
juvenis quidam eiegantisjimus, Ewen videlicet, filius Er- 
wegende, nobilisjima Britonum profapia ortus.,,. In gestis 
hyftrionum vocatur Ewen filius Ulien [r. Urien]." 
^VitteSS. qui /laiitaverunt in Scotia, p. 203.) Kentegern, 
who was born about 516, is, in the Welfh pedigrees, 
made the fon of this Ewen or Owain, the fon of 
Urien : fo that he would feem to have come into th« 
vrorld before his father, no unufual anticipation in 



NOTES. zij 

Welfh pedigrees. (See Owens account of Llywarch 
Hen, &c.) Carte, fpeaking of Ida, king of Northhum- 
berland, fays, ♦* He was flain in battle by Owen, fon 
of Urian Rheged, as Taliesfin fays in an elegy which 
he compofed upon the death of this gallant Britain, to 
whofe bravery, vigilance, and conduct, his country 
had been chiefly indebted for its defenceand fecurity.** 
(History ot England, I, 209.)* The actual existence, 
therefor, of thefe two perfons feems unquestionable. 
Un'eTt^Urigenl is mention'd by Nennius, or his inter- 
polatour, C. 64: and this misnomer feems to have 
giveen birth to the " Urbgennim Badonenjis" of Geoffrey 
of Monmouth. 

King Urience, in the old romance of Mort d'ArtkuVf 
is the husband of Morgan k fay (half-fister to king 
Arthur), who unnaturally attempts to kil him fleep- 
ing; but is prevented by their ion fir Ewaine.f Now, 
it feems, the death of Urien was actually procure'd. 
by the inftigation of Morgant Mwynvaur, another of the 
four princees of Cam^n'a. Uriens wife, however, was 
not the fister of Arthur, but Modron, daughter of 
Avallach. Owain himfelf was twice marry'd, firft 
to Penarwen, daughter of Cul Vanawyd Prydairit and> 

* The death of Ida is place'd by the Saxon chronicle in 560; 
but it does not appear, from that authority, to have hapen'd 
in battle. 1 he pretended antiquitys of the Welfh abound with 
imaginary victorys. 

-f- The old romance of Merlin, (vo. I, fo. 116.) calls Yuain a 
bastard, fon, it ads, to king Urien, whom he begot on the wife 
of his fenefchal, who was of fuch great beauty that for the love 
of her he foi^ot his wife, and left her for more than five years, 
and held her in his castle in fpite of his fteward fe Ion; that 
he begot this child : but -all this is fcandal. 



228 NOTES. 

fecondly, to Denyw, daughter of LUwddyn Luyddawg of 
Edinburgh : according to what the literary Welfh 
idiots pubHfh, in the eighteenth century, as authentick 
history ; and which Geoffrey of Monmouth, lyeer as 
he was, would have disdain'd to retail in the twelfth. 
See the IJfe of Llywarch Hen, prefix'd to his ** Heroic 
elegies, £?c." P. vii. 

Gawain, call'd, by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Walga- 
vus, was another nephew of Arthur, being the fon of 
Lot oi Loudonejiay the nephew and fuccesfour oiSicAelin, 
king of the Norwegians, who had marry'd Anne his 
fister. According, however, to Mart d' Arthur, when 
Uther-Pendragon marry'd the lady Igrayne (or Igema), 
the widow of Gorlois, " king Lot of Lowthan and of 
Orkeny then weded Margazije [one of her three daugh- ■ 
ters by Gorlois], that was Gawayns mother." (Part i, 
C. 3.) This Gawain, or Walwenusy as we learn from 
William of Malmesbury, reign 'd in that part of Brir 
tain which is call'd Waltoertha, and his burying-place 
was found in the time of king William L in the pro- 
vince of Ros, in Wales, upon the margin of the fea, 
being fourteen feet longj* he haveing, as was asferted 
by fome, been wounded by enemys, and cafl up by 
fhipwreck ; or, by others, been kil'd, by the citizens, at 
a publick feaft. ( De gejlis regunif L. i.) He appears 
to have been highly celebrateed. His death, of courfc, 

* This feems the eftablifh'd fize of an ancient hero. " In 
Murray-land," according to that moft veracious historian 
maister Hector Bois, *• is the kirke of Pettc, quhare the banis 
of lytilI Johne remanis in gret admiratioun of pcpill. He 
hes bene fourtene fut of hycht, with fquare membris effering 
theirto." {Historie of Scotland, translatit be maister John* 
BeUendm, Edin. fo. b. 1.) 



NOTES. -2^9 

is otherwife reprefented by the old ronnanceers, wlio 
were not particularly converfant with William of 
Malmesbury. 

Sir Ewaine and fir Gawain were fincere friends; 
and, when the latter knew that fir Ewaine was banifli'd 
from court by king Arthur, on fufpicion that he was 
of council with his mother Morgan, who was con- 
llantly practifeing treafon agaiiift that monarch, he 
accompany'd him into baiiifhment. See Mart d' Arthur, 
P. I, C. 75. 

The-onely ancient copy of the prefent poem is con- 
tain'd in the Cotton MS. Galba E. IX. which feems 
to have been writen in the time of Richard II. or to- 
ward the clofe of the fourteenth century ; and not, as 
appear'd to Warton, who knew nothing of the age of 
MSS. and probablely never faw this, " in the reign of 
king Henry the fixtli" (III, P. 108). The language 
of all the poems in this MS. is a ftrong northern dia- 
leil, from which it may be reafonablely infer'd tliat 
they are the compofition of perfons, molt likely monks, 
refident in that part of Engleland, where, in former 
times, were feveral flourifiiing monastery?. One fin- 
gularity of this MS. is that the y is generally ufe'd at 
the commencement of a fyllable for tk, inftead of the 
Saxon p [properly ]?], (as Yai, yat, ye, &c. for tAai, 
that, the, &c.) which fometimes, though rarely, occurs : 
a fingularity which is ftil in ufe for the abbreviations 
yt, yy, ym, l[Sc, The letter z allfo is frequently ufe'd for 
y confonant at the begining of a fyllable.* Thefc, 

* It may be proper to obferve here, once for all, that in the 
MSS. made ufe of in this collection, and moft others in En- 
fleifti of the fame age, this letter or character 2, befide its 
ufual pronunciation, as in grantz, is ufcd with the powers of 



13© NOTES. 

however, have not been retain'd, thoHgh the ancient 
orthography is carefully preferve'd in every other 
refpeft. 

The prefent, or fome other, romance on the ftory of 
fir Ywain, may posfiblely have been printed, though 
no copy of it is knowrn to be preferve'd. In Wed- 
derburns Complainte of Scotlande, St. Andrews, 1549, 
among the ** ftoreis" or " flet taylis," rehearfe'd by 
the fhepherds, whereof " fum vas in profe and fum 
vas in verfe," we meet with " The tail of fyr Euan, 
Arthours knycht." See allfo the adventures of fir 
Percival in Mort d' Arthur. 

A romance of " SyrGawayne," mention'din Lane, 
haras Letter from Killingworth, 1575, was " Imprynted 
at London in Paules churcheyarde at the fygne of the 
Maydens heed by Thomas Petyt" (4to. b. 1.) It was 
in fix-line ftanzas, but no more than the laft leaf is 
known to be preferve'd. " A jefte of fyr Gawayne," 
probablely the fame book, was licenfe'd to John 
Kynge, in 1557-8. Two other romancees on the fame 
fubjeft, but in a dialedt and metre peculiar to Scotland, 
are printed in Pinkertons Scotifli peems ] the one from 
an edition at Edinburgh in 1508; the other from a MS. 
the property of the prefent editour, which the fay'd 
Pinkerton came by very dishoneftly. 

The history of Ywaine feems to have been popular 
in the north. In the library of Stockholm is a MS. 

y confonant, and gh, as in ze, zing, rizt, knyxth, &c. and, to 
ai'oid a falfe or equivocal pronunciation^ thofe letters, in the 
proper inftancces, have been fubftituteed in its place. Though, 
probablely, a corruption of the Saxon 5, it never, as fome pre- 
tend, had the power of that letter in old Engleifh ; which is the 
moK evident from the words zef, zong, &c. being in contem- 
porary MSS. actually writen with a y, as yef, yong. 



NOTES. 231 

intitle'd " Sagan of Ivent Ringland kappe ; Historia de 
Ivento regis Arturi in Anglia pugiU inter magnates caris- 
Jimo : continens ejus cum gigantibus atque Blamannis plu- 
rima atque periculofa certamina. Cap. 12." (Hickejii 
Thefaurus, III, 315.) Two modern copys of the fame, 
or a fimilar article (" Artur kongs og Iventi fagay" and 
*^ Ivents faga"), exprefsly from the French ('* Von 
Franfeyfen i Norranu"), are in the B. Mufeum (Sloanes 
MSS. 4857, 4859). TheyJ^, or tale, of Aerr Ywan und 
herr Gawan, was extant in German in the year 1450. 
(Symbola ad liter aturam Teuto. Haunia, 1787, 4to, 
P. xxxvi.) 

V. 7. Arthur, tfie kyng ofVngland.'] 

This monarch was the fon of Uther-Pendragon, 
king of Britain, by Igema, the beautyful wife of Gor- 
lois, duke of Cornwall, into whofe femblance (like 
another Jupiter) he was metamorphofe'd, by a miracle 
of the enchanter Merlin. Gorlois being flain in battle 
by the kings troops, while the monarch himfelf was 
pafsing his time with Igerna, they were fhortly after- 
ward uniteed in the bands of holy wedlock. Arthur, 
haveing fucceeded his father, conquers the Saxons, 
Pidts and Scots; ads to his government Ireland, Ife- 
land, Gothland, and the Orkneys ; fubdues Norway, 
Dacia, Aquitain, and Gaul ; and even the Romans in 
a pitch'd battle.* But, hearing, upon his march to 
Rome, that his nephew Modred, or Mordred, whom 
he had left vicegerent, had, by tyrannical and trea- 
. fonable practicees, fet the crown upon his own head, 
and that his queen Guanhu7nara, or Guenever, was 

* The French, or Engleifh, romance supposees him to come 
to Rome, and be there " crowned emperor by the popes own 
hands." Mort d' Arthur, P. l, C.99. 



432 NOTES. 

wickedly marry'd to this iindulyful relation, he re- 
tum'd with fpeed to Britain ; and, after a dreadful 
engagement, in which Modred was flain, being him- 
felf mortally wounded, and carry'd to the ile of Aval- 
Ion (now Glastonbury) to be cure'd of hishurts, he re- 
fign'd the crown in favour of his kinsman Conftantinc, 
the fon of Cador, duke of Cornwall, in the year 54a. 
Such, at lealt, is the account giveen by Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, in the Britijh history, which he profefses 
to have translateed from a very ancient book in that 
tongue, brought out of Armorica, and prefented to 
him for the purpofe by Walter \Calenius'\ archdeacon 
of Oxford, in or about the year 1138. It is unques- 
tionablely fabulous and romantick ; but that " Arthur 
was merely a name given by the Welch to Aurelius 
Ambrofius," or that " the Arthur of Welch history 
is a non-existence,*' as asferted by the authour of ** An 
enquiry into the history of Scotland" (I, 76), is a much 
more impudent and unqualify'd falfehood than any in 
that book. That he was a brave warriour, and, in all 
probability, a petty king, is manifeft from authentick 
history, which this mendacious impostour pretends to 
have confulted. See Nennius, C, 61; William of 
Malmesbury, De gijiis regum Anglorum, L. i ; Henry 
of Huntingdon, Historic, L. 2 ; Vita S. Gilda, per 
Caradocum Llancarvanenjem, among the kings MSS. 
13 B VII ; and Cartes history of Engleland, I, 202. 
Of thefc authours Nennius was dead three hundred 
years, at leaft, before the publication of Tht Britijh his- 
tory,* which the monk of Malmesbury never few, nor 

• The writecr allready mention'd has the impudence to as- 
fcrt " that the chapter on Arthur is not of Nennius, but an adr 
dition taken from Geoffrey's romance:" the falfehood of which 



NOTES. 233 

the archdeacon of Huntingdon til after he had pub- 
lifli'd his own. Caradoc, allfo, a contemporary writeer, 
certainly borrows nothing from Geoffrey ; and Carte, 
though a modern, feems to have made ufe of good 
materials. His fepulchre, if we may believe Girald 
Barry, furname'd CambrevfiSf who profefses to have 
feen the crofs and bones found therein, was discover'd 
at Glastonbury in the reign of king Henry II. — after 
that monarchs death. He has been the fubjevft of innu- 
merable romancees, as wel French as Welfh and En- 
gleifh; and old fongs, in the time of Malmesbury, 
fable'd that he was yet to come.* 

latter asfertion will be manifeft to every one who confults the 
two books: and, it is univerfally admited, that Samuel, the 
interpolatour of Nennius, was nearly of the fame age. 

* An interpolatour of the Scotichronicon obfer\'es that 
" becaufe in the monasterial church of Glofuileri he is fay'd 
to be bury'd with this fort of epitaph, 

Hicjacet Arthums, rex quondam atque futurus, 
it is believe'd by the vulgar that he ftil lives, and, as is fung in 
comedys, is hereafter to come to reft6re the disperfe'd and exile'd 
Britons to their own." (Hearnes edition, P. 218.) This tradition 
is mention'd by Girald and other old writeers ; but the epitaph 
found at Glastonbury is very different, and the cross delineateed 
by Camden, if not the whole transaction, a palpable forgery. 
Cervantes, upon whatever authority, makes don Quixote re- 
port, as an ancient and cominon tradition in the whole king- 
dom of Great-Britain, that king Arthur did not dye, but, by art 
of enchantment, was converted into a crow ; and that, in pro- 
cefs of time, he is to return again to reign, and recover his 
kingdom and fcepter; for which reafon, he ads, it cannot be 
■prove'd that fince that time any Englcifhman hath ever kil'd a 
crow." (Part 1, chap. 13.) The French have an old MS. inti- 
tle'd " Roman d'Artur le Rethorc" (i. e. le reftmire: Arthur 
reftore'd, or revive'd). 



234 NOTES. 

That there were llorys, and perhaps romancees and 
ballads, upon the fubjeft of Arthur, in the Wellh lan- 
guage, anterior to the publication of Geoffreys Britilh 
history, is manifeft, not onely from that very work, 
where he fays " cum et gesta eorum [Arthurii, fcilicet, 
&c.] a multis populis quafi infcripta vuntiius et jucunde 
et memoriter predicantur ;" but allfo from William of 
Malmesbury : " Hie ejl Arthurus de quo Brittonum nuga 
hodieque delirant." Maijlre Wace, likewife, a writeer of 
the fame age or century, fays, 

" Fiji Artur la ronde tabUy 
Dunt Breton dient meinte fable." 
Even William of Newbrough allows that the fables of 
Arthur in Geoffreys history were partly takeen " ex 
priscis Britonum Jigmentis." Nothing of this kind, 
however, appears to be now extant. 

V.f). Als fays the buke.] 

The book alludeed to is probablely Geoffrey of 
Monmouths Britijh historyy which gave rife, within a 
very (liort period, to a multitude of voluminous ro- 
mancees on the fubjcft of Arthur. The phrafe, how- 
ever, is common in the old French historysof the round 
table, £?<:. in winch a chapter is frequently introduce'd 
with " Or did lecompte. Sue." So, likewife, in La mart 
d' Arthur I " And as the boke telleth, 0c." or, fome. 
times, " As the French booke faith." 

F. 15. He made a fefte, thejotk to fay y 
Opon the Witfononday.] 

It was the custom of the ancient monarchs of France 
and Engleland, to hold what was then call'd a cour 
pUniere, or plenary court, at the three principal feafls 
of Eafter, Whitfuntide, and Chrilhnas; at which they 
were attended by the earls and barons of the kingdom, 



NOTES. 335 

their ladys, and children ; who dine'd at the royal table 
with great pomp and eclat ; minftrels flocking thither 
from all parts; jiifts and tournaments being perform'd, 
and various other kinds of divertifement, which lafted 
feveral days, A very elaborate defcription of the co- 
ronation of king Arthur, at the feaft of Pentecofl, is 
giveen by Geoffrey of Monmouth (B. ix, C. xii); 
which has ferve'd as a model to his fuccesfours ; and 
the ceremony is frequently notice'd by our early his- 
torians, as Roger Hoveden, Matthew Paris, &c. &c. 
It is, of courfe, ftil more common in the old romancees. 

r. 17. At Kerdyf that is in Wales.] 

Now Cardiff, in Glamorgan/hire. 

F. 43. Ya., /aid tAe 7nay den, Jiizun Jay le.^ 

This affirmation, which recurs in Le bone Florence of 
Rome (V, 1736) : 

" He feyde to hur, Yaa," 
may be regarded as a curious inftance of affinity be- 
tween the Engleifh idiom and the Low-Dutch. 

In the old Coventry Corpus-ChriJli-play (Vespafian 
D. VIII.) za (ya) is every where ufe'd for _y<rfl, or 
yes : — ♦' et clamabunt omnes, magna voce dicentes, za, za, 
za, {i. e. ya, ya, ya) I" fo. 178, b. 

The burgefs, in Emare, replys, Yoo. 

V. 49. And alfo went with him the quene.] 

Guenever, in the old French romancees, is the 
daughter of king I.eodegrance of the land of Came- 
liard. Geoffrey of Monmouth calls her Guanhumara^* 
and fays fhe was defcended from a noble family of Ro- 
mans ; had been educateed under duke Cador ; and in 
beauty furpafs'd all the women in theiland (8,9, C. 9), 
According to this authour, dureing Arthurs abfence in - 

* Guomreuif Winifred. LMuyd, P. 255. 



236 NOTES. • 

Gaul or Italy, flie niarry'd his nephew Mordred (whom 
the romance allfo makes his fonf ) j they haveing been 
left joint-regents of the kingdom by Arthur ; upon 
•whofe return fhe fled from York to Chester, where 
{he refolve'd to lead a chafte life, among the nuns, in 
the church of Julius the martyr, and enter herfelf one 
of their order. The romance, however, fuppofees her 
to have takecn refuge in the tower of London, which 
was befiege'd by Mordred ; and to have, afterward, 
become a nun at Ambresbury,* where fhe dye'd, and 
whence fhe was brought, by fir Lancelot, her former 
paramour, then a prieft, and his eight fellows, to Glas- 
tonbury, to be there inter'd in one and the fame tomb 
with the king her husband. It appears from the in- 
fcription on the crofs mention'd by Girald Barry, as 
found with her and her husbands remains, to have 
been Arthurs fecond wife: and the Welfh antiquarys, 
never deficient in abfurdity, asfert him to have had 
three wives, all of the name of Guenever.-f We know, 
at the fame time, from better authority, that fhe was 
actually violateed and ravifh'd by Melvas, king of 
Estiva, or Somerfetfhire, and takeen to Glastonbury, 
as a pi ;ce of fecurity, which Arthur befiege'd for a 
twelvemonth, til, by the mediation of the abbot, and 
Gildas, {ur name' djapiens, fhe waspeaceablely reflore'd. 

f By his fister Margaiife, the wife of king Lot, whom he 
did not, however, at the time know to be fo. L. du lac, 
tome 3, fo. 16, b. 

♦ The French romance of Launcdol does not name the 
nunnery to which the queeq retire'd, and onely fays it was 
near London. 

t See Prifei Historice Britan. dtfenjio, P. 134, and Lewises 
History of Britain, P. 185, 



NOTES. 137 

See the life of St. Gildas, by CarSdoc of Lancarvan 
(MSS. regioy 13 B Vll). He calls her Guennimar. 
This MelvaSf in all likelyhood, is the Meleagant of the 
old French romance, who achieves the queen in fingle 
combat with fir Kay, and carrys them both off to his 
fathers castle. In La mart d' Arthur, where the ftory 
is differently relateed, he is call'd Meliagrance. He 
was, afterward, flain by fir Lancelot. 
V. 55. Sir Dedyne and fir Segramore.] 
Sir Dedyne is probablcly the fame with Dynadam or 
Dinadan, fumame'd de EJlranger, one of the knights of 
the round table. 

Sagremors U desree, or Scgvamour U dcprom, wasallfo 
a knight of the round table, and is to be met with in 
Lancelot du lac. Mart d' Arthur, &c. 

F. 56. Sir Gawayn and fir Kaye fat t/iore."] 
This fir Kay, the Caius fenefchallus of Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, or Jire Keux lefenefchall of the old Frencli 
romancfees, was the fon of fir Ector, or Authon, young 
Arthurs tutor, and was, of courfe, that kings foster- 
brother. He has the fame character in Mort d' Arthur 
(P. I, C. 120, &c.) and is elfewhere call'd to his face 
" the fiiamefulleft knight of his tongue" that was then 
liveing in the world. 

^.58. AndCo\grtvar\Qcqfnukylmayn.'] 
So, in Mort d' Arthur, wliere he is fay 'd to be a knight 
of the round table. In the French romance of Lancelot 
du lac, he is call'd Gallogrenant . In the former book 
(P. 3, C. 80), he is flain by fir Lionell : the fir Col- 
grevance of Gore, flain by fir Lancelot, in C. 145, 
being, apparently, a different perfon. 

F. 85. Madame, he /aid, by goddes dome.] 
Oaths are frequent throughout thefe poems, and in 
1 



23t NOTES. 

niofl kinds of ancient poetiy; being, manifeftly, in 
common ufe aniongft our ancesfours, and even with 
young ladys, and princefses of the blood-royal ; by all 
of whom, it is prefmne'd, they were regarded as per- 
fectly innocent. Our ancient monarchs had their pecii- 
h'ar oaths: William the conquerour ufually fwore, By 
the refurrecticn of god ; William the red, By gods 
face, By the holy face of faint Luke ; John, by the feet 
of the lord; Henry the third, By gods head; Edward 
the firft. By the blood of god. As tlie lord liveeth ; 
Edward the third, By gods foul; Edward the fourth, 
By gods blefsed lady; Richard the third, By faint 
Paul; Henry the eighth was by no means fpareing ; 
and his daughter Elizabeth had By god in her mouth as 
frequently as a fifhwoman. Chaucers fellow-pilgrims 
have their feveral oaths, which are accurately enume- 
rateed by the historian of Engleifli poetry : fee vo- 
lume II, fig. f 3. Oaths and curfees, in facl, are, at 
this day, common to moft nations in the world, as they 
were, formerly, to the Greeks and Romans. 

F. 368. Itoke the bacynjone onane.'] 

This incident is introduce'd into ** The noble hys- 
tory of kyng Ponthus of Galyce," 1511,^ 4to. b. i. (a 
translation from the French): " The knyght toke a 
cuppe of golde, and put it in the well, and wette the 
ftone withall; and the water fprang abrode; "and it 
began to thonder and to hayle, and to be a ftronge 
tempcft ; but it dured not Jong; and moche mervaylled 
the ftraungers of that well, for alway he fpryncled it 
tofore that he went to fyghte." 
• y.6oi. Thanwas hejekerfortofe 

The wel and ihefayre tre - ^ 

The chapel _/aa/ he at the lajl 
■ And theder hyed hefulfaji. J 



NOTES. 239 

The poet, in this place, has either forgot himfelf, or 
inistakeen his original- Sir Ywain, according to fir 
Colgrevancees relation, as wel as to the ftory, neither 
could, nor did, fee thefe wonders til afterward. See 
V. 352. He means to fay that fir Ywain came in fight 
of the palace or castle, where fir Colgrevance had been 
fo kindly entertain'd, and where he himfelf finds fo 
much curtefy and honour. The mistake may be, in 
part, corrected by reading castel for chapel. 
V, 839. Als Lunet tkarjlode in the thrang.'] 
Lynet is the name of the damfel, in Mort d^ Arthur ^ 
fister of dame Liones, who comes for a champion to 
the court of king Arthur, where (he obtains fir 
Bcaumains, and accompanys him back. See Part i, 
C. 132. 

V. 1420. Andfo ii fir Gawayne the curtayfe.] 
1 his line feems alludeed to by Chaucer, where he 
fpeaks of 

" Sir Gawain with his olde curtefie." 
It is, however, his conftant character. 
V. 1651 . IJrdo the wod the way he nome,'\ 
A fimilar adventure is relateed in Mort d' Arthuvy 
from the old French romance of fir Tristram (P. 2, 
C. 59, &c.) ; and of fir Lancelot du lake (P. 3, C. 9, 
£?c.) : and to one or other of thefe ftorys was Ariosto 
indebted for the idea of Orlandos madnefs. 
V. IT S3' Morgan the wKe ga/tt to me."] 
By Morgan the wife fhe ptobablely means Pelagius, 
the heretick, abbot of Bangor, and a man of great 
learning for his age, whofe proper name was Morgan 
(Marigena),v/hichy indeed, is, merely, latinife'd in Pela- 
giuh implying, in the Britifti tongue, one born from. 



140 NOTES. 

or upon, the fea, or, perhap, by the fea-fide.* He is 
fay'd to have flourifh'd in 418, and, confequently, muft 
have been well ftricken in years when acquainted with 
this good lady. 

V, 2 181. For a knyght led oway the quene.] 
Queen Guinever, haveing riden a inaying, along 
with certain knights of the round-table, clothe'd all in 
green, was, after a fharp conflidl, takeen prifoner by 
fir Meliagrance, and led away to his castle. See Mart 
d' Arthur., Part 3, chap. 129, (3c. 

V. 2428. Praiedful hertly for the knyght. '\ 
Between this and the next line the MS. reads " Here 
cs the myddes of this boke." 

V. 2439. Thai helpid to lace him in his zoede.'j 
This is an ordinary incident in old romancees; in 
allufion to which don Quixote was disarm'd by the 
ladys of the castle. See B. i, C. 2. 
" Nuncajuera caballero 

De damns tan bienjervido, 
Comofuera don Quixote, 
Quando defu aldea vino 
Doncellas curaban dclf 

Princejas defu rocino." 
Never was there cavalero 

So wel ferved by a dame. 
As the famous knight, don Quixote, 

When he from his village came : 
Care of him took damfels dainty, 
Princcfses of Rozinante. 

* From moT, the fea, and gana, Armorican, to beget, pro- 
create or bring forth. Thus Glamoiga7i/kve (anciently Mor- 
gamvg) is fo call'd from its being upon the fea-coafl; and, inr 
Baffe-Bretagne, a mermaid is call'd Mnry-M'-rgan. SeeUfJiers 
^Titiquilates (folio), p. H-2. 



NOTES. 24r 

y. 3735. Two maydens mtA him thai Iq/i, 

That wele war lered of leche-craft.] 

A knowlege of medicine feems to have been part of 
the education of the fair fex in ancient times. See 
Memoires fur I'ancienne chevaUrie, I, 14, and note 17. 
In Mart d' Arthur, fir Tristram is put in the ward 
and keeping of La hale Ifoud, king Anguifhes daugh> 
ter, " beeaufe fhe was a noble furgion." Her name- 
fake, Ifeult aux blanches mains, was equally expert 
and fuccefsful. See, likcwife, the Histoire de Gerard 
comte de Nevers & de Euriant de Savo)'e fa myty T. i, 
C. 19, 20. 

V.%\\\. And thar thai herd a mes in hajle.'] 

This was ufual : — " he had with him right good 
chere, and fared of the beft, with pafsing good wine, 
and had merry reft that night ; and on the morrow he 
heard a ma^, and after dined, &c." (Mort d' Arthur, 
P. I, C. 56.) Again : ** On the morrow the damofell 
and fir Beaumains heard maffe, and brake their faft, 
and fo tooke their leave," (P. i, C. 132.) 

V. 347 1 , Hir fM.tx fister flode hyr hy.'\ 

So, doubtlefs, the MS. originally red; the word 
zonger being wrilcn by a different, and, apparently, 
lateer, hand, upon an erafure. 

Here is, likewife, another mistake, either of the au- 
thour or of the translatour. The younger fister, being 
in fearch of fir Ywain, falls fick, and comes to the fame 
castle where he and his lion had been cure'd of the 
wounds they got in their engagement with the fteward 
and his two brothers. Here (he ftays, to be heal'd of 
her malady; and, in the mean time, the lord of the cas- 
tle dispatches a damfel to proceed in the ftarch. Thi» 

VOL. III. R 



H» NOTES. 

damfel goes to the chapel, and meets with Lunet, who 
tels her of the combat, and fir Y wains wounds; and 
brings her to the place where flie had parted with him. 
The damfel rides foreward, and comes to the castle 
where he had been heaVd of his wounds ; whence, fhc is 
inform'd, he was jujl departed. This contradiction has, 
moft likely, arifeen from the inaccuracy of the trans- 
latour ; and, by the first castle, we fhould, no doubt, 
underftand that where Ywain fought and flew the 
giant, before he went to astifl; Lunet. 

At the end of the work, either the poet or the 
copyift ads this distich : 

" Ywain and Gawayn thus makes endyng: 
God grant us al hys der blyfsing. Amen." 

♦^* Mister Warton, from whatever motive, has been 
particularly liberal in his extracts from this poem ; 
which he allows to have ** fome great outlines of Go- 
thic painting." See his History of Engbjh Poetry, III, 
1.09, &c. 



LAUNFAL MILES. 

The onely ancient copy of this, excellent romance, 
known to be now extant, is contain'd in a manufcript 
of the Cotton-library, (Caligula A. II.) writen, it 
would feem, in or about the reign of Henry VI. in 
which the translatour is, by Tanner, who, moft ab- 
furdly, ftiles him •• unus regis Arthuri equitum rotundae 
tabulae," fuppofe'd to have live'd. Two co, ys arepre- 
fcrve'd, in our own liLrarys, of the French original. 



NOTES. a43 

by Marie de France, a Norman poetefs of the thirteenth 
century; one in the Harleian MS. Num. 978, and the 
Other in the Cotton, Vespafian B. XIV. The latter 
begins, 

*• Laventure de un lay\'* 
the former (being a collection of fuch piecees) 
•* Laventure dun autre lai.'* 
The Engleifli poem, which, by the way, is much 
enlarge'd, containing a furplus of near three hundred 
lines, appears to have been printed under the name of 
*' Sir Lambwel);" being licenfe'd, in the register of 
the ftationers-company, to John Kynge, in 1558, and 
exprefsly mention'd in Laneharas " Letter, whearin 
part of the entertainment unto the queenz majesty at 
' Killingworth castl, 1575, iz fignified." 

M. Le Grand has giveen the extradl of a Lai de 
Gruelan, of which, he obferves, the fubjeft is pre- 
•cifely the fame with that of Lanval; though the de- 
tails are alltogether different. See Fabliaux ou conies, 
A, 92. 

F. 1. Be douzty Artours dawes.l Doctor Percy, by 
mistake, gives it (from Ames?) 

*' Zf douzty Artours dawes;" 
and fays that it is in his folio MS. P. 60, begining 
thus, 

*♦ Doughty in king Arthures dayes." 
r. 4. Of a ley that was yfette.] A lay (fuppofe'd 
to come from the barbarous Latin kudus, which 
occurs in the epistle of Fortunatus to Gregory of 
Tours : 

*• Barbaros leudos harpd relidebat^") 
■was what is now call'd a fong or ballad, but generally 
of the elegiack kind, tender and pathetick, (in Frenclx 



244 NOTES. 

taiy in German lied, in Saxon leob), which was ufually 
fung to the harp ; and of which many inftancees may 
be found in the profe Roman de Tristan, 1488, and elfc- 
where : See more of thefe ancient Breton lays in a 
note to Emare. 

V. 5. That hyzt Launval, and katte yette."] 
Thus Mary: 

**' Laventure dun autre lai 
Cum etc avient vus cunterat, 
fait Jit dun mut gentil vasfal 
En Bretans lapelent Lanval." 
V. 8. Kardeuyle.] Thus in the MS. and mister Ellisea 
edition ; but read, as afterward, KardevyU. It is Car- 
lile, in Cumberland, where king Arthur is fable'd to 
have had a palace and occafional refidence. *' On this 
ryver," fays Froibfart, mistakeing the Tyne for the 
Elk, " Uandeth the towne and castell of CarlyeJ, the 
whiche fome tyme was kyng Arthurs, and helde his 
courte there often-tymes." (Engleilh translation, 
1535, fo. vii, b.) Thus, allfo, in an ancient Scotifh 
romance, furtively printed by Pinkerton : 

'* In the tyme of Arthur an aunter bytydde. 
By the Turne-Wathelan, as the boke telles, 
When he to Carlele was comen and conquerour 
kydde, &€." 
Two old ballads, upon the fubjedl of king Arthur, 
printed in the " Reliques of ancient Englifh poetry," 
fuppofe his refidence at CarUiU ; and one of them, in 
particular, fays, 

•* At Tearne-Wadling his castle (lands." 
" Tearne-Wadling," according to the ingenious edi- 
tour (and which, as he obferves, is evidently the 
Turne-Wathclan of the Scotifh poem), *• is the name 



NOTES. 145 

of a fmall lake near Hesketh in Cumberland, on tlic 
road from Penrith to Carlifle. There is a tradition," 
he ads, ** that an old castle once ftood near the lake, 
the remains of which were not long fince vifible :" 
Team, in the dialect of that country, fignifying a fmall 
lake, and being ftil in ufe. The tradition is that either 
the castle, or a great city, was fwallow'd up by the 
lake, and may be ftil feen, under favorable circum- 
(lancecs, at its bottom. 

It is Kardod in the original, and elfewhere Cardudt. 
The old romance of ^<rr/?« calls it ** la vilU deCavAntA 
en Galles." 

V. 13. Sire Perfevall.] Sir Perceval le Galois, or 
Percival de Gales, was one of the knights of the round 
table. His adventures form the fubjefl of a French 
metrical romance, compofe'd, in the twelfth century, 
by Chrestien de Troyes, or, according to others, by a 
certain Manecier, Mennefier, or Menesfier, an^ of an 
Engleifh ©ne, in the fifteenth, by Robert de Thornton. 
The former, extant in the national library of France, 
and in that of Berne, is fay'd to contain no lefs than 
60,000 verfes ; a number, however, which has been 
reduce'd by others to 20,000, and even to 8,700 and 
4,500. It appear'd in profeat Paris, 1530, 8vo. The 
latter is in the library of Lincoln-cathedral. 

V. 14. Syr Gy)\try&% and fyr hgrAitd.yn.'] 

Gaheris {GueherrieSj or Guerejches), and Agravaine, 
furname'd le orgueilUux, were brothers to fir Gawain, 
and both knights of the round table. 

F. IS' And Lancelot du Lake.] 

This hero was the fon of Ban, king of Benock, in 
the marches of Gaul and Little- Britain, and a knight* 



24.6 NOTES. 

companion of the round tabic He is equally remark- 
able for his gallantry and good fortune; being neyer 
overcome, in either juft or tournament, unlefs by en- 
chantment or treachery ; and being in high favour 
with the queen, whom he love'd with lingular fidelity 
to the laft ; doing for her many magnanimous dev42of 
arms, and actually faveing her from the fire through 
his noble chivalry. This connection involve'd him 
in a long and cruel war with king Arthur; after whofc 
death he became a hermit. His adventures, which 
take up a confiderable portion of Mort d' Arthur, are 
the fubjeft of a very old French romance, in three 
folio volumes, befide a number of MSS. 

y. 19. Kyng Ban-Bcoght, and Ajng Bos.] Ban was 
king of Bcnoic, and Boort (not Bcozt) king of Cannes, 
They were brothers, and both knights of the round 
table. Ban was the father of fir Lancelot. Boort in 
Mort d' Arthur, is called Bors. There is no king Bos : 
nor, in fa£l, does any of thefe names occur in the 
French original. There was, indeed, another Bvort, 
or Bors, afterward king of Benoic ; but the translatour 
has evidently misfuppofe'd Ban-Boozt to be the name 
of one king, and Bos, that of the other. A " roman dts 
rots Bans & Bears Jreres germains ," fo. is among the 
MSS. of the French national library (Bid. du rciy 
7184). 

V. 22. Syr Galafre.] Ho fuch name 6ccurs among 
the knights of the round table, or is to be met with 
in any old romance. It is, probablely, a corruption 
of GaUhautj Galahalt, or Galahad^ of whom in Mort 
i' Arthur. 

V. ^i. M&rlyn was Artours counfaUre.} 



NOTES. 247 

Merlin, a powerful magician, was begoten by a 
devil, or incubus, upon a young damfel of great 
beauty, and daughter, as Geoffrey of Monmouth 
asferts, to the king of Demetia. He remove'd, by a 
wonderful machine of his own invention, The giants- 
dance, now Stone-henge, from Ireland, to Salisbury- 
plain, where part of it is ftil ftanding ; and, in order 
to enable Uther Pendragon, king of Britain, to enjoy 
Igerna, the wife of Gorlois duke of Cornwall, trans- 
form'd him, by magical art, into the likenefs of her 
husband; which amorous connection, (Igerna being 
render'd an honefl: woman by the murder of her 
fpoufe, and timely intermarriage with king Uther,) 
cnlighten'd the world, like another Alcmena, with a 
a fecond Hercules, videlicety the illustrious Artluir. 
This famous prophet, being violently enamour'd of a 
fairy damfel, in the march of Little- Britain, name'd 
Aivienne, or Fwiane, alias T/ie ladyy or damjel, of the 
lake, taught her fo many of his magick fecrets, that, 
once upon a time, (lie left him alleep in a cave within 
the perilous forcrt of Darnantes, on the borders of the 
fea of Cornwall, and the fea of Soreloys, where, if the 
creditable inhabitants of thofe countrys may be be- 
lieve'd, he ftil remains in that condition : the place of 
his repofe being effectually feal'd by force of grand 
conjurations, and haveing himfelf been never feen by 
any man, who could give intelligence of it ; even that 
courteous knight fir Gawin, who, after his enchant- 
ment, had fonie converfation with him, not being 
permitted the gratification of a fingle look. (See 
Lancelot du lac, fo. 6,) Her enchantments, however, 
are relateed with fome difference, and more particu- 
3 



248 NOTKS. 

larity, in the romance of her venerable gallant, or, 
rather, unfortunate dupe, tome 2, fo, 127, whereby it 
appears that, after being enchanted by his mistrefsj 
as aforefay'd, he found himfelf, when he awoke, in 
the ftrongeft tower in the world, to wit, in the forelt 
of Brcceltande, whence he was never able to depart^ 
though (he continue'd to vifit him both by day and 
night at her pleafiire. The divine Ariosto, by poeti- 
cal licence, has place'd the tomb of this magician in 
fome part of France; and our admirable Spenfer, 
after an old tradition, in Wales, which, in fa6t, feems 
to have the beft title to him. His prophecys, whicii 
were firft publifh'd in T^e Britijh kiitory, have fincc 
experience'd repeated editions, in Latin, French, and 
Engleilh. 

V. 40. To kyng Ryon oflrlmd ryztj\ 

This king Ryon^ or Ryence, was allfo king of North- 
Wales, and of many iles. He fent to king ArtJmr, 
for his beard, to enable him, with thofe of eleven 
other kings, whom he had already discomfited, to 
purfle his mantle. See Moit d' Arlhur, B. i, C. *4. 
According, however, to Geoffrey of Monmouth, thi« 
infulting mesfage proceeded from the giant Ritho, 
twhom Arthur flew upon the mountain Aravius. Ryon 
was afterward brought prifoner to Arthur (C. 34)} 
and is name'd among the knights of the round-table. 
The authour is Angular in makeing Guencver his 
daughter. 

y, 56. But he tuer prtlat, other baror.ctte.] 

There was no iaronet, properly fo call'd, before the 



NOTES. 249 

reign of James the firft. The word, at the fame time, 
is by no means fingular in ancient historians ; but whe- 
ther a diminutive of iaron, or a corruption of banneretf 
is uncertain. 

r. 88. Karlyon.] Caerleon (the Urbs Legionum of 
Geoffrey), formerly in Glamorganlhire, but now in 
Monmouthfhire, upon the river Uflc, near the Severn- 
' fea. The district, in which this city ftood, was call'd 
Gwevt, of which Arthur is fay'd to have been king. 
See Carte. CaerUgion, or Cair Lheon {Civitas Legionum)^ 
is, hkewife, the ancient name of Chester upon Dee. 
There is nothing of this in the original. 
F. 114. That am o/"Lytyll-Bretaync.] 
Little-Britain, or Britany, call'd, by the French, 
Baje-Bretagnef and, by the ancients, Armorica, on the 
coaft of France, oppofite to Great- Britain, where cer- 
tain refugee Britons are fay'd to have fled, and elta- 
blifh'd a fettlement, on the fnccefs of the Saxons, in 
or about the year 513. See Vertots Critical history y 8cc. 
I, 103. Bede, however, by fome ftrange mistake, fup- 
pofees the Southern Britons to have proceeded from 
Armorica. There was a fuccesfion of British kings in 
this little territory, who are famous in the old French 
annals. Thefe Britifh emigrants feem to have been 
chiefly Cornifli, not onely from their haveing giveen 
the name of Cornwall to a part of their new acquifition, 
where they, likewife, had, as in their old posfesfions, a 
Mofuiit St. Michael, but from the affinity of the two 
diale(fts, one of which is extant in its literary remains, 
and the other is ftii fpokeen. 

F. 278. The kynges daughter of OXyrown,"] 

Oleron is an ile of France, on the coaft of Aunis> 



iSO NOTES. 

and of Saintonge. It was known to the ancients under 
the name of Ul^arus, as appears from Pliny. Sidonius 
ApoUinaris calls it Olario, The maritime laws of 
France and Engleland hence receive'd the appellation 
they ftill retain of Xa ley Olyron\ and here it was that 
king Richard the firft ftop'd, in his return from the 
holy land, to correal them. In 1047 it belong'd to 
Geoffrey de Martel, earl of Anjou, and Agnes his 
wife. See Martiniere, and Cokes t^h inftitute^ 144. 

F. 279. i)a»n« Tryamour.] This lady s name is not 
mention 'd in the original. Tryammry at the fame time, 
is, elfewhere, that of a knight, and the fubjctSl of a 
metrical romance, certainly from the French. 

V.i%o. Her fadyr was kyng of iayTyt."] The fol- 
lowing defcription of a female fay, or fairy, is giveen 
in the romance of Lancelot du lac, Paris, 1533, fo. C, 8, 

*' La damoifelU qui Lancelot porta au lac ejloit une fee, et 
en celluy temps ejloient appellees faces toutes celles quifentre- 
mettoient denckantcmens et de charmes. . . et fcavoient la 
force et la vertu des parollesy des pierres, et des herbeSy 
parquoy elles ejloient tenue en jeune^e et en ieaulte, et en 
grandes richejfes comment elles devifoient." Thefe fairy s, 
not unfrequent in the old romancees, uniteed the ideas 
of power and beauty ; and it is to fuch a character that 
Shakfpeare alludes, where he makes Antony to fay of 
Cleopatra, 

" To this GREAT FAIRY i'l commend thy acts." 
Milton, too, appears to have had an accurate notion 
(jpon this fubjeft : 

•' Nymphs of Diana's train, and Naiades, 
And ladies of th' Hefperides, that feem'd 
Fairer then feign'd of old, or fabl'd fince 



NOTES. 251 

Of fairy damfels met in foreft wide 
By knights of Logres, or of Lyones, 
Lancelot, or Pelleas, or Pellenore." 
It is perfeft ignorance to confound the fairys of ro- 
mance cither with the pigmy race of that denomina- 
tion, of whom the fame great poet has giveen a heau» 
tyful and correfl defcription, or with the fancyful 
creation of Spenfer. 

F. 326. I yeve the Blaunchard myficde Itl^ 
And Gyfre my owen knave^^ 

No fuch names occur in the original. Giflet (or 
Girflet) lejilz Mu i^aliai Do) is a character in the old 
French romance of Lancelot du lac. 

F. 393, Thanfeyde the boy, Nys he but a wrecche ? 
What thar any man of hym recche ?] 

Mister Ellis, who publifh'd this romance, for 
the firfl time, at the end of the fecond volume of 
" the fabliaux or tales," of his deceafe'd friend, 
G. L. Way, efquire, hath ftrangely misconceive'd this 
fimple pasfage; fuppofeing atvreche, as it is there 
printed, to be one word, and the meaning, " He is 
not without his revenge, (i. e. compenjation) whatever 
any man may think of him." The boy, however, ma- 
nifeftly intends our feedy knight no compliment in the 
question he afks : " Is he aught," fays he, " but a 
wretch (or begerly rascal >) What does any one care 
for him?" 

F, 505. A knyght ther was yn Lumbardye.'\ 

This epifode, the introduction of the mayor of 
Carleon, and his daughter, even the name of that 
place, and feveral other incidents, are entirely oweing 
to the Engleifli poet, there being nothing of this fort 
in the original, 



tsi NOTES. 

y. 750. ^nd the, that me is worfi/ore. 
Thou blysful berdeyn tour.'] 

" Thefc two lines," at leaft in mister El lises edition, 
he fays, ** are rather obfcure;" but that obfcurity 
was merely occafion'd by hisprintingTHAN for Thou. 
TIjc perfpicacious editour, neverthelefs, faw how the 
original muft have been. Another typographical er- 
rour, in that edition, has been the caufe of his cx- 
plainingy^/A (misprintedyc>r) hy/urt. 



NOTES. 9SS 

VOLUME II. 

LYBEAUS DISCONUS.* 

1 HIS ancient romance is preferve'd in the Cotton MS. 
already mention'd, mark'd Caligula A. II. from 
which it is here giveen. About the latter half of ano- 
ther copy is in one of fir Matthew Hales MSS. in the 
library of Lincolns-inn, apparently a different transla- 
tion, but onely containing, as ufual, numberlefs va- 
rious readings, of little confequence ; a third is fay'd 
by doctor Percy to be in his folio MS. It was cer- 
tainly printed before the year 1600, being mention'd, 
by the name of *' Libbius" in *' Vertues common 
wealth: or The highway to honour," by Henry 
Crofle, publifh'd in that year j and is even alludeed to 
by Skelton, who dye'd in 1519 : 

" And of fir Libius named Disconitis.'* 
The French original is unknown. 

A ftory fimilar to that which forms the principal 
fubje^l of the prefent poem may be found in the 
** Voiage and travaile of fir John Maundeville" (Lon« 
don, 1725, 8vo. P. 28). It, likcwife, by fome means, 
has made its way into a pretendedly ancient Northhum- 

♦ i. e. Le beau desconnu, or the fair unknown. The ran- 
ing-title is ever after uniformly Desconus ; but the editour 
thought hithfelf at liberty to follow the head, which bears Djs« 
conus ; and had proceeded too far before he began to doubt the 
propriety of his conduft. It is ncfer Diiconus in the text, 
Misttr Tyrwhilt, however, fo print? it- 



254 NOtES. 

berland ballad, intitle'd " The laidly worm of Splndlc- 
fton-heugh," writer), in reality, by Robert Lambe, 
vicar of Norham, authour of The history of chefsy &c. 
who had, however, hear'd fome old ftanzas, of which, 
he avail'd himfelf, fung by a maid-fervant. The re- 
mote original of all thefe ftorys was, probablely, much 
older than the time of Herodotus, by whom it is re- 
lateed (Urania). 

Chaucer, in his Rime of fire Tkopas^ among thtf 
*' romances of pris" there enumerateed, mentions thofe 

" Oifre Libeaux and Pkindamour" 
(asTyrwliitt reads after all the MSS. truely, and the old 
printed copys haveing Blandamourey or Blaindamoure) ; 
upon which the learned and ingenious editour of the 
<* Reliques of ancient Englifh poetry," in the firft 
diree editions of that work, remarks that *' As (If 
[PUindamoure or] Biandamoure, no romance with this 
title has been discovered ; but as the word occurs in 
that of Libeaux, 'tis posfible Chaucer's memory de- 
ceived him :" a remark, in which he is implicitly fol- 
low'd by his friend Warton, who fays, " 0{ Jir Bian- 
damoure, i find nothing more than the name occurring 
in Sir Lebeaux" (History of Englifti Poetry, I, 208); 
which he, moft certainly, did not there find. " Even 
the titles of our old romances," he fays, " fuch as 
Sir Blandamoure, betray their French extraction." 
{Ibi. 139.) From the fourth and laft edition, however, 
oiihciay'di Reliques, we now learn that the word in 
question is neither Pleindamoure nor Blandamoure, but 
Blaundemere, which is foreign to the purpOfe ; neither 
docs any fuch name occur in the prefent copy ; nor, as 
the pasfage is carefully fupprefs'd by the right re- 
verend posfesfour, can one venture to imagine whc- 



NOTES. ±55 

ther it be that of a man, a woman, or a horfe.* This 
fort of tergiverfation has, to ufe the worthy prelates 
own words, " deftroyed all confidence." 

Generally fpeaking, the Cotton MS. has z for^ or 
gh, and p for th. The rimes, allfo, of the third and 
fixth lines of every two ftanzas are the fame, except in 
a few inftancees, which have render'd it necesfary to" 
disregard that circnmftance. 

^.11. With Ariourofthe rounde table.] 
This famous table, to which were attach'd one hun- 
dred knights, was the property of Leodegrance, king 
of Camelard, who appears to have had it from Uther 
Pendragon, for whom it had been made by the for- 
cerer Merlin, in token, as the book fays, of the round- 
nefs of the world, (or, according to his own romance, 
in imitation of one eftablifh'dby Jofephof Arimathea, 
in the name of that which Jefus had made at the flip- 
per of the twelve apostles), fee vo. I, fo. 40, &c. and 
came to king Arthur, as the portion of his wife ' 
Guenever, daughter of that monarch. Every knight 
had his feat, in which was his name, writen in letters 
of gold. One of thefe was " the fiege perillous," 

* This veneralilisfimus episcopus had the addrefs to per- 
fuade a gentleman to whom he ftiew'd his folio MS. and 
whofe testimony was to convince the Ikepticifm of the prefent 
editour, that he actually faw the word Blanddmoure, which, 
it now turns out, does not exift ; though he would not fuffer 
him to tranfcribe the line in which it occur'd : he wil eafeyly 
recoUeft his name : upon a different occafion he gave mister 
Steevens a tranfcript from the above MS. of the vulgar ballad 
of Old Simon the king, with a ftrift injunction not to fhew it to 
this editour (who fufpefted, as the fa6l turn'd out, that he had 
fophisticateed it, in a note to the laft edition of Shakfpeare),. 
which, however, he immediately brought to him. 



iS6 NOTES. 

where no man was to fit but one : an honour referve'd 
for fir Galaad, the fon of Lancelot dii lake. " King 
Arthur," according to the history, " ftablifh'd all his 
knights, and gave them lands that were. not rich of 
land, and charge'd them never to do outrage nor mur- 
der, and alway to fle treafon. Alfo, by no means, to 
be cruel, but to give mercy unto him that afked 
mercy, upon paine of forfeiture of their worfhip, and 
lordfliip of king Arthur, for evermore, and alway to 
do ladies, damofels, and gentlewomen, fuccour upon 
paine of death. Alfo that no man take no battailes in 
a wrong quarell for no law, nor for worldly goods. 
Unto this were all the knights fworne of the round 
table, both old and young." Mart d' Arthur ^ Part i, 
C. 59. It is not once mention'd by Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth, though master Wace, not twenty years after 
the time of that unworthy prelate, thus fpeaks of it: 
•* Fiji Artur la ronde table, 
Dunt Breton diant meinte fable.'' 
^.19. And for lave of hysfayr vyysy 
Hys modyr cUpede hym Bewfys, 
And no nothyr name."] 
V. 69. Giglan, the natural fon of Gawain and the 
fairy BlanchevalUty appears at the court of king Ar- 
thur ; and, being afk'd his name, fays that his mother 
(who had carefully conceal 'd it) had never call'd him 
any thing but Beaufils', in confequence of which the 
queen gives him that of Le hcl inconnu. (Histoire de 
Ciglan., n.d. 4to. g. 1.) In this romance the lady is 
call'd Helen ; but the main incidents bear little or no 
refemblance to thofe of Lybeatis. See allfo the epifode 
or adventure of Beaumains, in fir Thomas Malorys 
Mort d' Arthur. 



NOTES. 357 

In the Promptorium parvulorum (Har. MS. 221) 
Btjycct is explain'd_/f/2&j. 

F. 99. Whefch and yede to mete.] 
It was a conftaiit custom, in former times, to wafh 
the hands before filing down to, and after rifeing up 
from, table. Thus, in Emare, T. 217 : 

*' Then the lordes that wer grete. 
They welh and feten down to mete, 
And folk hem ferved fwyde." 
Again, F. 8S9 : 

" Then the lordes, that wer grete, 
Whefchen ayeyn aftyr mete. 
And then com fpycerye." 
Again, in Sir Orpheo, ^. 473 : 

** The fteward wafched and wente to mete." 
Again, in Lt bone Florence of Rome, F. 1009 : 

** Then they wyfche, and to mete be gone." 
Thus, allfo, in Robyn Hode and the pottery tlie fherif fays, 
** Let OS was, and go to mete." 
F, 259. Beaumains, in his expedition to relieve the 
lady Liones, is treated in a fimilar manner by her fis- 
ter Linet : it is a very entertaining adventure. See 
Mort d' Arthur, P. i, C. 122, &c. See, allfo, that of the 
damfel Maledifaunty and the young knight nickname'd 
La cote mate taile, P. 2, C. 44. 

F. 1240. Yle dore.] L'ijle d'or. The ile of gold, or 
golden iland; but whether defign'd for French or 
Engleilh feems rather doubtful. 

F. 1301. That levede in Termagaunt,] So, after- 
ward, in the King of Tan : 

** OiTirmagaunt and oi Mahoun." 
"Termagaunt," fays doctor Percy, "is the name 
given in the old romances to the god of the Saracens: 
S 



258 NOTES. 

in which he is conftantly linked with Mahound or 
Mahomet." (i, 76.) " This word," he ads, " is de- 
rived by the very learned editor of Junius from the 
Anglo-Saxon Tyji very, and CDagan mighty. As this 
word had fo fublime a derivation, and was fo applica- 
ble to the true god, how fhall we account for its being 
fo degraded? Perhaps Tyji-majan or Termagant had 
been a name originally given to fome Saxon idol, be- 
fore our ancestors were converted to Christianity ; or 
had been the peculiar attribute of one of their falfe 
deities ; and therefore the fii ft christian misfionaries 
rejected it as profane and improper to be "implied 
[?•. applied] to the true god. Afterwards, when the 
irruptions of the Saracens into Europe, and the cru- 
fades into the eaft, had brought them acquainted with 
a new fpecies of unbelievers, our ignorant ancestors, 
who thought all that did not receive the christian 
law were necesfarily pagans and idolaters, fuppofed 
the Mahometan creed was in all refpeftsthe fame with 
that of tlieir pagan forefathers, and therefore made no 
fcruple to give the ancient name of Termagant to the 
god of the Saracens: juft in the fame manner as they 
afterwards ufed the name of Sarazen to exprefs any 
kind of pagan idolater." (77.) " I cannot," fays he, 
afterward, " conclude this (hort memoir, without ob-i 
ferving that the French romancers, who had borrowed 
the word Termagant from us, and applied it as we in 
their old romances, corrupted it into Tervagaunte.* 
Tl)is may be added to the other proofs adduced in 
thefe volumes of the great intercourfe tliat formerly 
fubfifted between the old minftrels and legendary 
writers of both nations, and that they mutually bor- 
rowed each others romances" (78). In a note, at 
* See, below, L. 7; and, afterward, P. 209, L. 7. 



NOTES. 159 

P. 379, he, likewife, obferves that '< The old French 
romancers, who had corrupted termagant into 
TERVAGANT, coiiple it witli the name of Mahomet as 
conftantly as ours. As Termagant," he fays, •* is 
evidently of Anglo-Saxon derivation, and can only be 
explained from the elements of that language, its being 
corrupted by the old French romancers proves that 
they borrowed fome things from ours." In another 
note (III, xxii), in order to Aipporthishypothefis, that 
** The ftories of king Arthur and his round table, 
of Guy and Bevis, with fome others, were probably 
the invention of Enghfh minli:rels,"hehas the follow- 
ing words : ** That the French romancers borrowed 
fome things from the Englifli, appears from the woi:id 
Termagant, which they took up from our min- 
ftrels, and corrupted into TERVAGAUNTE...What is 
fingular, Chaucer, who was moft converfant with the 
French poets, adopts tlieir corruption of this word. 
SeeTyrwhitt's edit." 

In this purfuit the venerable prelate (though he 
might not be one at that time) has fuffer'd liinifelf to 
be misled by an ignis-fatuus. All that he has fay'd, 
about Tyji-majan or Termagant being the name of a 
Saxon deity, remains to be prove'd. The learned edi- 
tour of Junius impofe'd upon him : the combination 
Tyji magan, is not to be found even in his own Saxon 
dictionary, neither, according to that authority, is 
Tyja very ; and ma^a, not majan, is mighty : and, 
after all, this is onely in efFe6l the ter-magnusQiiovmtv 
etymologifts. As little foundation is the:re for fup- 
pofeing that the French romanceers not onely bor- 
row'd the word Termagant from the Engleifh, but, 
likewife, corrupted it into Tervagaunte : which is 
contrary to every authenticateed fa^l. The Engleift. 



26o NOTES. 

romaficeers not onely fervilely follow'd the French, bitt 
even themfelves corrupted the word Tervagante, 
after they had got it. This corruption, however, muft 
have takeen place before the time of Cliaucer, who, 
notwithftanding what doctor P. has asferted, even in 
mister Tyrwhitts edition, gives the Engleifh corrup- 
tion, and not the French ORIGINAL: 

<* He fayde, Child, by Termagaunt." 
(II. 235; and fee IV, 318.) 

A much greater mistake than the prefent editour made, 
by inadvertently quoteing his own book, by which the 
worthy doctor (forgetful of his own hallucinations) 
was pleafe'd to fay " all confidence [had} been de- 
ftroyed.*^ 

Bufj in the King of Tars, a romance, in all proba- 
bility, anteriour to Chancers time, as preferve'din the 
Edinburgh MS. we find 

•* Be Mahoun and Tervagant :'' 
and had we more copys of that age, we ftiould, doubt- 
lefs, recover many other inftancees of the word j as, 
in faft, there may be in that identical MS. 

With refpeft to the etymology of the original name 
Tervagante (for it is perfectly ridiculous to feek for 
that of the corruption Termagant), it may, posfiblely, 
be refer'd to the two Latin words ?«rand vagans, i. e. 
the action of going or turning thrice round, a very an- 
cient ceremony in magical incantation. Thus Medea, 
inOvids Mel amor phojis (L. 7, V. 189): 

** Terfe convert it ; ter fumtis Jlumine crinem 

Irroravit aquis ; tcrnis ululatibus ora 

Solvit.*'—- 

** She turn'd her thrice about, as oft (he threw 
On her pale trefses the nocturnal dew, 
Then yelling thnce, &c." 



NOTES. 261 

Vag&t indeed, in pure Latin, means to wander, but, in 
barbarous times, the clasfical fenfe of a word was not 
much regarded : of this, however, one cannot be con- 
fident. Tip, or Tyji, in Saxon, and the ancient Cim- 
brick, was the name of Odin, or fome other northern 
deity, and, metonymically, any great leader, prince, 
lord, or emperour ; and is occafionally apply'd, in 
compofition, to god the creatour. See Lyes dictionary, 
and Hickeses Thefaurus. But, admiting Tervagante or 
Termagant to have fome connection with tlie Saxon or 
Cimbrick term, it wil, by no means, prove that we did 
not obtain the word from the French, whofe language, 
every one knows, was as much a diale6l of the ancient 
Cimbrick as that of the Anglo-Saxon. The word 
three had fome mystick fignification with the ancients : 

" Tergeminamque Hecaten^ tria virginU Qra Dianae." 

Fir. j£. ly. 

Termagant^ therefor, has been corrupted, by the 
Engleifh, from Tcrwaganty precifely in the fame man- 
ner as we have corrupted corimrant from corvorant, 
and malmfey from malvefe. The Italian poets have it 
Trivigante. Thus Ariosto : 

'* Bejlemmiando Macone, e Trivigante." 
It, likewife, occurs in the Gieriijalemme liberata of Tasfo, 
They, too, doubtlefs, were indebted far it to the 
French. 

*#* King Herod, in the Coventry Corpus- Chr'nti 
play, conftantly fwears by Mahomet, but never by 
Termagant. So in fo. 173. 

" Now be Mahound, my god of grace." 
One of tlie foldiers, who are fet to watch the fcpulfchre, 
calls him " Seynt Mahownde." 

** Tervagant, I'un des dieux pretendus des Maiomt' 



a«» NOTES. 

tans" is a character in " Lt ]m de S. Nicolas," a very 
ancient French mystery (fee Fabliaux ou contes, II, 131); 
but no fuch perfonage, or even name, occurs in any 
Engleilh mystery or morality now extant, or of which 
we have any account ; tliough, from the following pas- 
fage, in Bales A&s of LngliJIi votaries, it would feem 
that fome fuch character had, in his time, been known 
to the ftage : 
*' Grennyng upon her, lyke 7ermfl^aa«to in a play." 
l^. 1333. Fram the our ofpryme 

Tyll hyt was eve-fong-tyme 
To fyghte they were well thro.] 
It was customary with the christian kings, knights, 
and foldiers, to ceafe fighting at even-fong, or vespers, 
obferve'd at fix o'clock. Thus, in the ancient Catalan 
Y0Xn2iV\ct oi Tirant lo blanch, Barcelona, 1497, folio, it 
is fay'd, " E continuant tostemps la batailla era ja quqfi 
hora de vespres, &c. So, likewife, in the Hiitoire de 
Guerin de Montglave, Lyons, 1585, 8vo. *' & maintint la 
^afrre jufques a i'heure de vespres." In the old bal- 
lad of The hunts ofCheviat : 

** When even-fong-bell was rang the battell was nat 

half done j" 
and it became finful, of courfe, to fight any longer. 
The fame circumftance is thus notice'd in the more 
modern ballad of Chevy-chace : 

*• The fight did laft, from break of day, 
Till fetting of the fun; 
Tor, when they, rung the evening-bell. 
The battle fcarce was done." 
Doctor Percy has confounded the vcsper-bel with the 
curfew. The reafon of this temporary ce>fation of 
bloodflied, proceeded from refpecl to the virgin Mary; 



NOTES. 263 

for, at this hour, the angehcal falutation was fungj 
whence it was fometimes call'd The Ave-Maria bd. It 
is ftil customary, upon the Spanifli ftage, for the ac- 
tours, in the midlt of the grofseft and moft indecent 
buffoonry, to fall down on their knees, and pul out 
their beads, at the found of this be). 
V, 1337. Lybeaus thurjledefure, 

Andfeyde Maugys, thyn ore.] 
Thus, in Cfiaucers MilUres tale, F. 37^4: 
** Lemman, thy grace, and, fwete bird, thyn ore." 
In the learned editours note on this pasfage he ex- 
plains ore to fignify " grace, favour, protection:" and 
cites, as an additional inftance, in fupport of that ex- 
planation, the prefent text, " where," he fays, " thyne 
ore mufl; be underftood to mean xultk thy favour, as in 
this pasfage of Chaucer." 

The fame phrafe occurs frequently in Syr Bcvys, 
though not precifely, at lead, in every inftance, with 
mister Tyrwhitts fignification ; 

" She faide, Bevys, lemman thyn ore. 
Thou art wounded wonder fore." 
*' Mercy, faide Bradmodde, thyn ore." 
** There is no man, by goddys "or^. " 
" Then fayd Bevys, for Cryftes ore." 
Thus, likewife, Robert of Gloucester, P. 39 ? 

" The raaister fel adoun on kne, and criede i^urcy 

and ore." 
Again : 

** Therfore the erl of Kent he byfought miic and ore." 
Again, in The erlofTolous, ^. 583 : 

** y aflce mercy for goddys ore." 
f^. 1423. for thys fayr lady, &c.] 
This lady bears a ftrong refemblance to the nolefs 



j«4 NOTES. 

jnagical than beauteous fairys, the Calypfo of Homer, 
and the Alcina of Ariosto ; both of whom deludeed 
and detain 'd Ulysfes and Rogero in the manner la dame 
d' amour here treats Lybeaus. 

F. 1998. This is the onely flanza in which the poet 
has neglected the recurrent rimes ; in other refpe6ts it 
appears to be perfect. 



THE GESTE OF KYNG HORN. 

This romance, the moft ancient, it is believe'd, that 
exifts in the Engleifh language, (unlefs we except the 
Tristrem of Thomas Rjonour), and of which no more 
than one fingle copy is extant, is preferve'd in a MS. 
of the Harleian library, in the Britifh mufeum, num- 
ber 2253, and writen, apparently, in the time of king 
Edward the fecond, by fome French or Norman 
fcribe, by whom, likewife, the poem itsfelf may have 
been compofe'd in the precedeing reign. Doctor 
Percy, indeed, brings it down as low as king Rich- 
ard II. which is utterly improbable; and Warton 
placees it in the reign of Edward I. which is abfo- 
lutely imposfible ; fince, as he wel knew, it contains an 
elegy upon the death of that monarch. The prefent 
poem, for the falvation of parchment, is writen with 
two lines in one. The letters t and y (vowel) are in 
the Saxon form (t, y) ',\ is everywhere ufe'd for tk 
and z for^ (confonant), or, occafionally, gh. The ufe 
of the z might have been retain'd, after the example 
of refpectable editours; but, with the Saxon charap.! 
ters, is facrifice'd to publick tafte or prejudice. 



NOTES. »Cs 

This romance is mention'd, among many others, in 
Chancers Rime of fir Thopasy 

** Men fpeken of romaunces of pris, 
Of Horn-child and Ypotis, 
Of Bevis and Sir Gy ;" 
as wel as in an old metrical translation, in the Bodleian 
library, of Guido de Colonna, on the Trojan war, 
quoteed by Warton,' but not writen, as he fuppofees, 
by Lydgatc : 

*• Many fpeken of men that romaunces rede, (3c* 
OfKeveloke, Horne, andof Wade,f 
In romances that of them be made, 

• History of Engleifii poetry, II, n. g. Keveloke, in the 
CXtraft, {hould be Haveloke, the hero of a famous ftory, not 
entirely perifli'd. 

•f- We, unfortunately, have loft the writeings, and even the 
history of this celebrateSd perfonage ; except as to a very few 
anecdotes or allufions, v^'hich onely ferve to whet our anxiety 
for the reft : Chaucer, in his Merchannts tale, has this couplet t 
" And eke thil- olde widewes (god it wote) 
They connen fo moch craft in JVndes bote." V. 9297, 
" Upon this," quoth the worthy Tyrwhitt, very hapyly, 
" Speght remarks as follows : " Concerning Wade, and his 
bote called Guingelot, as alfo his ftraunge exploits in the fame, 
becaufe the matter is long and fabulous, i paffe it over."— 
•' Tantamne rem tarn regligenterf Mr. Speght probably did 
not forefee, that posterity would be as much obliged to him 
for a little of this fnbulcus matter concerning IFade and his 
iote, as for the graveft of his annotations" (IV, 284). *' The 
ftory of Hade," he ads, " is mentioned again by our author 
in his Troilus, iii, 615: 

" He fonge, ftie playde, he tolde a tale of f Fade." 
Sir Francis Kinaston, in his Commentary on " The loves of 
Troilus and Crefeid," fay* that *' Chaucer means a ridiculous 
romance.. .for, in his time, there was a fooUfti fabulous legend 



3M NOTES. 

That gestours dos of him geftes. 

At mangeres and at great feftcs, 

Here dedis ben in remembraunce 

In many fair romaunce." 
The ftory itsfelf, if not actually printed, is fuf}ie£led 
to have been wel known in Scotland above two hun- 
dred years ago : as^ in Wedderburns Complainte, which 
appear'd at St. Andrews, in 1549, we find " the tayl 
quhou the kyng of Eftmureland mareit the kyngis 
dochtir of Veftnuireland." Thcffe feem the EJlneJ'e 
and Wejlnejfe of the prefent poem, and apparently fig- 
nify Engleland and Ireland. No country, at the fame 
time, in Britain, was ever call'd Eajlmoreland ', and, 
from an old rime, cileed by Ufher (P. 303), lVfJl~ 
moreland receive'd that appellation from a fabulous 
king : 

" Here the king IVeJliner 
Slow the king Rothynger." 
A " king Eftmere," likewife, is the fubject of one of 
Percys ballads (1,62), whofe native country appears 
to be Spain. 

In a large and valuable manufcript, of the four- 
teenth century, in the library of the faculty of advo- 
cates, Edinburgh, number'd W. 4. i. and being a 
prefent from the late lord Auchinleck, is an excellent, 
but, like allmoft every other in the volume, imperfect, 

cf one Wade and his boate Guingelot, wherein he did many 
ftrange things and had many wonderfull adventures." He is 
fufpefted to have been either a Scot or a Pift (or Pik, as mister 
Pinkerron wil have it), and to have been the chief or leader in 
an irruption through the Roman wall ; in which was a chafm 
known, in old time, by the name of " ffades-gapp," Sec 
Wallises Hislonj of Norlhuwd'erland, II, 3, n (<>;. 



NOTES. 267 

rcatiancc, very different from the prefent, of " Horn- 
childe & maiden Rimnild [not Riniveiy\ in ftanzas, be- 
gining, 

" My leve frende dere." 
This curious fragment wil be found at the end of the 
prefent notes. 

An imperfect copy of the original French romance, 
a performance of great merit, is preferve'd in the 
Harleian MS. Num. 527. It is, to all appearance, as 
old as the twelfth century, but, unfortunately, defec- 
tive both at the begining and at the end. The poem 
is in couplets, of which every ten, twelve, or fifteen, 
terminate in the fame rime. 

The Engleifli romance, here givecn, which contains 
no more than 1546 lines, is rather an abridgement than 
a translation of the French copy, the fragment of 
which confifts of no lefs than 3760. Mofl of the 
names, allfo, are entirely different ; nor can the iden- 
tity of the two poems be eafeyly ascertain'd, fo that, it 
is posfible, there may have been another French ro- 
mance on this fubjetSt; fince it would be very finguiar 
to find a translatour indulgeing himfdf in fuch exces- 
fivelibertys. Doctor Percy, therefor, had very little 
reafon to asfert that " the old metrical romance of 
Horn-child appears of genuine Englifh growth;" and 
this after the judicious Tyrwhitt had giveen his decifive 
opinion, " that we have no EngliHi romance, prior 
to the age ot Chaucer, which is not a translation or 
imitation of fome earlier French romance" (IV, 68). 
Any peculiar inftancees of " Anglo-Saxon language 
or idiom,'' w liich fliould induce him to imagine that it 
*' can fcarce be dated later than within a century after 
the conquell" (I, Ixxviii), wil be rather difficult to 



268 NOTES. 

discover; fince, in fa£l, it favours much more of the- 
Norman idiom than the Saxon. 

•»• The title prefix'd in the original manufcript, 
«' Her bygynnejj Jje gefte of kyng Horn," though 
writen in a different ink from the poem itsfelf, is of 
the fame age and character, and, apparently, by the 
fame hand. It was, therefor, thought right to prefer 
it to " Horn child," which, however, appears to have 
been its popular name, unlefs Chaucer actually meant 
another romance on the fame fubjecl, which wil be 
mention'd elfewhere. 

F. 5. Kynge he zues by wefte.] 

This country, in other placees call'd Sudene or Sud- 
dency appears, from the French MS.'^ (in which the 
latter name occurs) to be Bretaine. 
F,ii. For reyn ne myhte by ryne 

Nefonne myhte Jhyne."^ 
Mister Ellis ingeniously conjectures the meaning to 
be, " For rain might not rain upon, nor fun (hinc 
upon, fairer child than he was :" he conceives that 
by'tyne is be-rain, a prefix to verbs, which Hands in 
lieu of many prepofitions, as in be-dawb, to dawb all 
over, (Sc. It might be difficult, at the fame time, to 
find an inftance of by ryne for berain ; fo that we may 
conjecture the fignification was intended to be of Horn, 
that, neither could rain or froft fall (fee Ryne in the 
glosfary), or fun Hiine, upon a " Feyror^ child the« 
he was." 

F. 61. So/eU myhten cthe 

Bring thre to dcthe.'] 
In the old French fragment, all ready defcribe'd, 
Aaluf is fay'd to have been flain, in one place, by 
Romuld U maffe'f in another, b^ Rollac, the fon of 



NOTES. i6f 

Godebrand, and nephew bf Hildebrant and Herebrant, 
two African Saracen* kings, wlio, afterward, invade 
Weftnefs or Ireland. 

y. 85. Horn child.] Doctor Percy, in a note upon 
Shakfpeares tragedy of King Lear (Steevenses edition, 
P. 172), asferts " The word child (however it came to 
have this fenfe) is often applied to knights^ &c," and 
that " The fame idiom occurs in Spenfers Faery queens 
where the famoivs knight fir Tristram is frequently 
called Child Tristram." In this asfertion, however, he 
has been fomewhat too haftey ; Child Tristram, in Spen- 
fer, being no knight at the time, but onely juft dub'd 
/quire by fir Calidore. His reference, allfo, to " B. V. 
C. ii. It. 8. 13." is inaccurate; neither does B. VI. 
C. 8. ft. 15. relate to Tristram but to prince Arthur. 
Its proper fignification feems to be a youth or young 
man, or, perhap, man in geneial. Sir Tryamoure, in 
the romance under that title, is repeatedly call'd 
** the chyldcy" before he was made a knight. See 
fig. D. 4, 6. 

F. 150. And feythene hethene kyng.] 

This king is fuppofe'd to be Mody, the Saracen, 
vvhofe death he here threatens, and whom he after- 
ward flew. In the original his name is Romund: 

*' Kuant ilfu od Romund en Suddene la lee." F. 59. 

* By thefe odious appellations the old Engleifti writeers un- 
derftood the Pagan Danes or Nortuegians, who, in the nineth 
century, ravage'd Great-Britain and Ireland in every part. 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, it is remarkable, calls Gormund (a wel- 
known king of the Danes, defeated, and baptife'd by king Al- 
fred) king of the Africans (B. 11, C.8): and, in the fpurious 
laws of Edward the confesfour, it is asferted that king Arthur 
defeated the Saracens (meaning, peradventure, the pagan 
Saxons). 



370 NOTES. 

^. 1 6 1 . By dales and by dounesy 

The children ecden to touneSf 

Metten hue Eylraer the kyng, 

Chrijl him yeve ged tymyng^ 

Xyw^^VVeftnefle.] 
Horn and his play- fellows have arrive'd in this 
country, from Sudene, by fea. Wejlnejfe and Sudenne 
owe, therefor, to be different countrys, more efpecially 
as Horn fends a mesfage back from the former to the 
latter. (T. 149.) That Aylmer, however, the father 
oi RyTnenildf who is liere king of Wejlnejfe, is, in the 
French MS. Hunlafy the father of Rimel, (k'jng of Sud- 
dene,) who is elfewhere fay'd to have reign 'd in Bre- 
taigne, wliere lie had refideed at Lims (Caer Leon?) a 
brave city. " Li rots a Lions kejl cite vaillant ." At. 
y. 954. Horn fays of himfelf 

•* Ich feche from WeJlneJfc 
Horn knight of £/?»^." 
He is now in Ireland, whence he returns to WeJlneJfe 
{V. loji) ; where Rymenild was (F. 960).* He calls 
himfelf, in another place, '* Horn of WeJlneJfe" 
[V. 1 215). There are two placees, in Holdernefs, 
Yorkfhire, call'd Eajl-nefs AnA Wejl-nefs, at this day; 
but nejs, in that county, fignifys, merely, an inlet of 
water ; in Scotland it means a nofc, promontory, or 
head-land, juting out into the fea; as Buchan-nefs, 
fije-ne/sj &c. 

y.i-]o. Wlienne be ye, gomen.} A mistake, it is 
posfible, for whence, unlefs luhenne can be found elfe- 
where with the fame fignification. 

* The French MS. makes Horn fay he wil go to fee her in 
Brelaine, (where, it elfewhere appears, Hunlaf, her father, 
reign'dj : fo that Britain fccms to be the fame with IVe/inefs or 
Suddcne. 



NOTES. 371 

y. 174. Felanrade] r'l^wXy felaurade. 
y, 184. Tker hue fervede Crijlf 

That the payenes kit nufl ;] 
Mijl would better fiiit the rime, but not the fenfe; 
tlie characters being legible either way. 
V. 233. Stiwardtac thov here 
Myfundlin/r for to lere 
Of feme mestere 
Of wode and of ryvere.] 
Thus, Robert of Brunne, in his verfion of Le Brut 
he maistre Wace (fee Hearnes edition of /?o<Je7-f o/^G/o«- 
cestcr, P. 622) : 

•' Marian faire in chere 
He couthe of wode andryvertt 
In alle manor of venerie, &c." 
It is explain'd, in The rime of fire Tkopas: 
** He coude hunte at the wilde dere^ 
And ride on hauking for the rivcre." 
See, likewife, The fquyr of low degree, V. 774J and Ti'ie 
franklcins tale, V. 1753. 

y. 236. And toggen othe harpe 
With his nalisfharpe,'] 
This is an ordinary accomplifliment of the heros of 
romance. In the original fragment, at the table of 
king Gudred, his daughter Lenburc, her two brothers, 
and Horn, pafsthe harp to each other: the latter par- 
ticularly distinguishes himfelf : 

** Lors print la harpe afeifi commence a temprer 
Deu ki dune lesgardajl, cum il lafot manier! 
Cumfes cordes tuchot, cum lesfcfeit trembler^ 
A quantes faire les chanz a kuantes organer^ 
Del armonie del del lie pureii rememdrer 



a7» NOTES. 

Sur tuz ceus ke ifuntfait cijl a mervtilUf* 
Kuant celes notes otf&it prentfcn amunterf 
£ par tut autre tuns fait la cordesfoner : 
Mutfefmerveillent tuit quil la Jot ci manieTy 
E quant il ot cifait comenca a noter 
Le lay dunt orains dis * de Batolf haut e cler 
Si cumfunt cit Bretun de telfait custumer." 
Sir Tristram, in his youth, was fent into France for 
his education, and there " learned to be an harper, 
pafsing all other, that there was none fuch called in no 
countrey." Mort d* Arthur , P. i, C. 3. See allfo C. 59, 
and more inftancees in the Roman dc Tristan, Rouen, 
X48<^. In mister Doucees MS. he fays to Yfolt : 
•' Odma harpe me delitoief 
Je not confort ki tant amoie^ 
Ben tojl en oiji parler^ 
Ke multfavoie ben harper. 

• * * * 
Bons lais de harpe vus apris, 
Lais Bretuns de nostre pais." 
f. 531. Rymenild welcomethfire Horn."] 
The parallel pasfage of the original is at fo. 60, b. 

** Rimel lajille le rei lien en oi parler. Sec.'* 
V. 580. The hnyght hire gan to' cufle.] 
In the original, Rimel gives him a kifs along with 
the ring, faying, 

*♦ Cejl anel prendrezy od trestut c^ baifer." 
V. 644. And Fykenyld bi is fyde.] 
This Fykenild, in the original poem, is name'd 

• " Batolf lefiz Hunlqfrei de noUete, 
Ki en Bretagne maint, ke cejijun heritef 
Lejiji de/a/orur Rimel oi la grant leule," &c. 



NOTES. i73 

Wikele. Being refufe'd a horfe by Horn, he betrays 
his love to tlie king, as in V. 690, (§c. 
V. 704. Aylmer^a« horn turner &c. 
King Hunlaf (the Ayhner of the prefent poem) 
and Horn have a much larger dialogue in the French 
original. 

r. 747. He toe A\\m\iis/ere 

Aboute the f were. '\ 
Athulf is never once mention'd in the French. 
V.']6i, The wynd bigon tojlonde 

And drof hem up-o-londe.'] 
The country, in which he now lands, is, in the ori- 
ginal fragment, call'd Westir, which is there explain'd 
to mean Ireland. 

« Ki ore Hirland lars Weftir/a apelee." 
V. i(>i. That one wes hoten Athyld, 

And that other Beryld.] 
In the French fragment the names of the two fons 
of king Guddred of Westir, who meet Horn, on his ar- 
rival in that kingdom, are Gofer and Egfer. The lat- 
ters question is nearly the fame with that in the prefent 
poem. Part of his reply is as follows : 

" De Sutdene^i nez^ fi ma gefte ne ment 
Fizfui dun vavafur dun povere tenement. 

• ♦ * » * 
" Ne me deura nul bla^mer per le mien efdcnty 
Gudmod^z apele en mun baptij'ement : 
Or vus ai tut rendu vostre demandement." 
It would feem, from the firft of thefe lines, that there 
had been a ftil more ancient romance on this fubjefl, 
to which Horn is thus aukwardly made to refer. It 
feems alludeed to in two other pasfagees : 
VOL.111. T 



474 NOTES. 

" Jot Jul veraiemcnt Horn, dunt parolent la gent.'* 
" E Hornfi a torne cum dit le parchemin." 
F. 785. Godmod he lad to halle.'\ 
The parallel pasfage of the old fragment is in 
fo. 6^, b. and begins 

" Kuant lireis Guddred vitfesjiz kefunt cntrez." 
V. 800, Ther thou hajl munt to wyje, 
Awey hejkal the dryve ; 
For GoAxiicAt% fey rhede 
Shalt thou never Jpede.'\ 
Thefe lines anfwer to the following of the original : 
*' Je vus alez donneer hot vus nel amenez, 
Kas il ejl de beute isfi elluminez^ 
Ke vus la ou il ejl petit ferre preifez, 
Ki tuz homes einz oes de beute pusjiez." Fo. 6^^ b. 
F. 809. Ther com in, at none, 

A gt2L\intfuythefone.'\ 
This giant is not fo call'd in the French ; where he 
is name'd Rollac. He was the fon of Godebrand, and 
the nephew of Hildebrant and Herebrant, two African, 
or Saracen, tyrants, who now arrive in Weftir, and 
had flain Aaluf the father of Horn.* They fend hira 
to the court to demand tribute, but Horn fights with, 
and kils him, and cuts off his head. The battle is de- 
fcribe'd at fome length. The two princees are flain 
by Hydebrant ; but their death is revenge 'd by 
Horn. In a former part, mention is made of a fimilar 
vifit to king Hunlaf by a giant name'd Marmorin, 
Fo. 59. 

F. 906. Me buriede hem with ryche won.] 

• It is, however, fay'd, afterward, to Horn, by Gudred: 
** Si vus vengez Men de Romuld le malfi, 
Ki vostre pere Aaluf ocifl par grant pecchi," 



NOTES. 275 

. Mister Ellis, in his criticifm on Robert of Glouces- 
ter, fays " The oddeft peculiarity in his ftyle is the 
ftrange ufe of the word me^ which," heads, " we have 
feen once by Layamon, but which here occurs as a 
mere expletive in every page."* In fadl, however, 
the ufe of this word is, by no means, a peculiarity in 
the honeft monk, fince it occurs in Layamon, in the 
prefent poem, and would be found, no doubt, in other 
productions of that age if we had them to confult : 
neither is it ever once an expletive ; and that this inge- 
nious, but rapid, writeer, did not perfectly underftand 
his own objection is evident from his haveing quoteed 
a fingle pasfage in which it is neither od, nor peculiar^ 
nor Jlrange, nor expletive, but is merely a vulgar fubfti- 
tution of the accufative me, inftead of the nominative z ; 
a vulgar corruption common enough at this day* 
Me, in fadt, as moft frequently and certainly ufe'd by 
Robert of Gloucester, as wel as by Layamon, and in 
the above text, means nothing more or lefs than men, 
as could be prove'd from a hundred citations ; but wil 
be fufficiently fo from Hearnes glosfary: " me, metif 
me,iy tome, my. me CLUPETH, men call; ME bere, 
men carried', ME nom, men took', ME NOT, men know 
not', ME SEITH, men fay." 

^.915. Dohter ich habbe one, 

* * * * 

Ermenild that/eyre may.'\ 

Gudreds daughter, in the original, is named Lenburc, 
whom he there offers as wife to Horn, who politely 
declines the gift, as being engage'd to one of his own 
condition, the daughter of a vavafour in Britain ; a 
refufal which the king deems proper to a madman. 

* Specimens, I, 104. 



il6 NOTES. 

f. 947. A page kecan mete.'] 

Inftead of a page, we have, in the French fragment, 
a palmer or pilgrim (un palmer pelerin), in fa6l, the fon 
ofHerlant, his foster-father, and his name turns out 
to be Jocerant. He gives him an account of the trea- 
chery of fVikele, and the intended marriage of Rimelf 
the daughter of Hunlaf, to the king of Fenoie or Fenicef 
afterward name'd Modun, 

V. 991. Horn com to Thurston the ft-ynge."] 
This interview takes place in the French fragment} 
which gives the kings fpeech, and the fuppliants ha- 
rangue, at great length. His name is, there, not 
Thurston, but Gudred or Guddrec. 

V. 1030. Nemihte he come no latere.] Becaufe, had he 
come lateer, he would have come too foon. This 
feems to be the meaning. 

F. 1033. His/olk he made abyde 

Under a wode^fyde. ] 
So, in the French fragment : 

** Rois avoit environ ou einzfunt enbufchez 
Ki trestuz les covert quilnejurent avifee." Fo. 7a. 
F. 1037. On palmere hey-mette.] 
This adventure is ailfo in the original, fo. 72. 
" En fa voie encontra un paumer penant." 
V. 1059. Quoth Horn, So Crijl me redey 
JVe wolleth change wede ; 
Tac thou robe myne. 
Ant ye fclaveyn thyne.] 
A fimilar exchange occurs in the copy of Sir Or- 
pheoy in the Auchinleck-manufcript (Num. lii), which 
wil be found in a note on the poem of the fame title 
hereafter printed. 

In " The noble hystory of the mooft excellent and 



NOTES. »77 

myghty prynce, and hygh renowmed knyght, kynge 
Pontlnis of* Galyce, [and the fayrc Sydoyne, daughter 
of the kynge] of lytell Brytayne, Enprynted at London 
in Flete ftrete at the fygne of the fonne by Wynkyn de 
Worde, In the yere of our lorde god, m.ccccc.xi," 
4to, b, 1. fig. L 6 : is this pasfage : " And as he [Pon» 
thus] rode he met with a poore palmer, beggynge his 
brede, the whiche had his gowne all to-clouted, and an 
olde pylled hatte ; fo, he alyght, and fayd to the pal- 
mer, Frende, we fhall make a chaunge of all our gar- 
mentes, for ye fhall have my gowne, and i fhall have 
yours and your hatte. A, fyr, fayd the palmer, ye 
bourde you with me. In good fayth, fayd Pontlius, i 
do not. So he dyfpoyled hym and cladde hym with 
all his rayment, and he put upon hym the poore 
mannes gowne, his gyrdell, his hofyn, his fhone, his 
hatte, and his bourdon." 

In the ancient poem of " Robyn Hode and the pot- 
ter" they change clothes in the fame manner (fee Robin 
Hood, London, T. Egerton, 1795, I> 86)> ^s the former 
does again, in the ballad of his " rescuing the widows 
three fons from the fherifT when going to be executed" 

(II, 153). 

" Now Robin Hood is to Nottingham gone, 
With a link, a down, and a day, 
And there he met with a filly old painter. 
Was walking along the highway. 
# » • * ♦ 
" Come change thy apparel with me, old man, 
Come change thy apparel for mine ; 
Here is forty fhillings in good filver, 
Go drink it in beer or wine." 



ayt NOTES. 

, *' Oh thine apparel is good, he faid. 
And mine is ragged ; 
Wherever you go, wherever you ride. 
Laugh ne'er an old man to fcorn. 

** Come change thy apparel with me, old churl. 
Come change thy apparel with nnine; 
Here are twenty pieces of good broad gold. 
Go feaft thy brethren with wine." 
He, clfewhere, changees clothes with dn old woman. 
(See Robin Hood and the bijhopy II, 19.) 
V. 1060. We xvolleth chaunge wede; 
Tac thou robe myne 
Ant ye \i\ fclaveyn thyne... 
Sclaveyn he gon doun legge 
And Horn hit dude on rugge."] 
A fclaveyn feems to have been the coarfe frock of a 
palmer or pilgrim. It is fay'd in SyrOrpheo, F. aai ; 
*< AUe his kyndam he forfoke, 
And to him di fclaveyn anon he toke." 
Again, F. 328: 

*' His fclaveyn dede he on his bak." 
Thus, too, in The chronicle 0/ Engleland, ^.33 
" Scheth he heden as hors gret. 
That beren wolle afe her of get. 
Thereof hy maden htm fclaveynsy 
Kie palmefsthaXhtihpaynyms.'' 
Cotgfave, refering from Sclavine to Efclavine, or 
Efclamme, defcribes it as " a long and thicke ridmg 
cloake to bear off the raine j apilgrims cloahe, or mantle; 
a cloake for a traveller ; a fea-gowne ; a coarfe, high- 
collered, and fhort-fleeved gowne, reaching downe 
to the raidleg, and ufed mojft by fea-men, and faylcrs.'* 



NOTES. 179 

r. 1082. He threw him adoun the i'rugge.'] 
His treatment of the porter is much the fame in the 
original : 

" Sur le pont lejeta et par/und des paluz." 
V. 1 106. Rymenild roje ofbenche,'] 
Much circumftantial narrative, in the original, is 
here omited : but the following pasfage feems to be 
the one alludeed to ; though too long to cite entire j 
*' En la butelrie Rimel apres coe entree 
Un corn priji grant dunt la lijle ejl gemmee^ 
Kentur la bouche ejl bien demi pie /<•'<?, 
Si ejl dor Affricain, a merveilU bien overee. 
De piment lad empli beivre k bien agree, 
A fun dru le porta cum ejl la custumee, 
E les autres enfement od vesfele dorree, 
Servent al manger en la fale curtinee 
Katre turs unt jafait ke nefunt arejlee, 
De ci ke vint al quint ke Horn la alijachee, 
Al trespas kelejijl par la mance orfreijee 
Puis li a en riant tele parole mustree." 
Then he recommends it to her, for the love of god, to 
be good to the poor, and give fomewhat to himfelf and 
his companions : upon which, after returning a pretty 
anfwer, (he fetches a family cup of great value, reple- 
nifli'd with wine, and fets it before Horn j who, to her 
aftoniftiment, refufees either to drink, or to reflore the 
cup. He then discovers himfelf, in an obfcure and 
equivocal manner, and propofees that each fhould 
drink half the wine. Once more (he delivers to him 
the cup, into which he drops a ring, which, on drink- 
ing her part, (he receives in her mouth, and knows to 
be that which (he had formerly giveen to Dan Horn ; 
and here ends this curious fragment. 



a8o NOTES. 

F. 1134. Yruisickamafyjykere.'] 
Nothing of this is in the original, at leaft in Horns 
converfation with Rimel. He only fays to her, 
" BeU,fachez de Ji joe fu jadis custumer" 
Ke plus riches vesfens me foleit Rom aporter." 
Modun takes him for a minftrel, who had comc to 
perform on his tabour at the marriage : 
" Ali piert quil ejl las un lecheur, 
Ki a ces notes vient pur juer od tabur." 
He, however, after\vard telsthat monarch, 
" Jadis fervi ci un home de grant valuVy 
Dirai vus mun mester, joe fus un pescur. 
Une rey kejoi bone ejl a tel labuty 
En une ewe la mis peiscuns prendre a unjur. 
Presjuntjetk anz alez ke nejis ca retur, 
Orefui ca venuzjin ere regardeur. 
Siele pescuns ad pris james navera mamur, 
EJi uncorefanz ec dune en ere porteur." 
V. i 203. Tojlaine mide hire kyng Lothe.] 
The final word appears in the manufcript with a 
fmall 1 ; but what its precife meaning is has not been 
discover'd: the context is, that Rimenild fought 
after knives to flay with her [therwith] the king, 
and herfelf both : but the kings name was not Lothe 
but Mody. The conftruction would be fcarcely lefs 
violent, that though (he were determine'd to kil the 
king, at the fame time with herfelf, ftie was loth to 
do it. 

F. 1305. Thejhip bigan aryve 

Under Sudennes^</f.] 
Horn, who has jufl arrive'd in this fhip, from 
Wejinejfet it would feem, where he has been mar- 
ry 'd to Rymenild\ and, in an addrefs to king Aylmer^ 



NOTES. aSi 

her father, fays, in anfwer to an old calumny, that 
he had attempted to lye with his daughter, 

<* Y wys ich hit with fugge, 

Ne flial ich hit ner agynne 

Er ich Sudenne wynne ; 

Thou kep hyre mi aftounde. 

The while that ich founde. 

Into my heritage.'* 
He is now arrive'd, in a fhip, '* under Sudennes fide." 
He, afterward, tels the knight, Athulfs father, 

** Icham icome into Sudenne^ 

With fele Yriffhemenne." 
So that, it is evident, that the poet has either, in fome 
placees, confounded the two kingdoms of Wejlnejfe and 
Sudenne (or Britain) with each other ; or, in others, has 
fplit that of Suddene otherwife Wejlnejfe into two. 
V. 1499. He made Rymenilt als-Yy 

And huejeyd well away. ] ■ 

A lay, as before obferve'd, is generally an amorous, 
tender, and elegiack fong. He feems, on this occafion, 
to be aiSling the part of a minftrel. 

The interjection of forrow, weil-a-zoay, which, mister 
Tyrwhitt found variously orthographife'd in the MSS. 
of Chaucer, he, uniformly, fpels walawoy conforma- 
blely to its Saxon etymology pa la pa, which was not 
only inexcufable, but inconfistent with his own prac- 
tice, as a MS. is very rarely uniform in its orthography. 
It feems to have been the burthen of fome ancient po- 
pular fong. Thus, in the Coventry -play , Abraham fays 
to Ifaac, 

" Thy meekenes, childe, makes me afreay. 
My fonge maye be waile-a-waye." 



C i8* j 



HORN CHILDE AND MAIDEN RIMNILD. 

Mi leve frende dere, 
Herken, and ye may here, 

And ye wil under-ftonde. 
Stories ye may lere 
Of our elders that were 

Whilom in this lond. 
Y wil you telle of kinges tuo, 
Hende Hatheolf was on of tho, 

That weld al Ingelond ; 
Fram Humber north than wait he, 
That was into the wan fee. 

Into his owen hond. 

He no hadde no child, as ye may here, 
Bot a fone that was him dere. 

When that he was born. 
The king was glad, and of gode chere, 
He fent after frendes fer and nere. 

And bad men calle him Horn. 
Eight knave childer he fought 
To Horn his fone bitaught, 

Alle were they frely born. 
With him to play and lere to ride, 
Five yer in that ich tide. 

With baner him biforn. 

Hende, and ye me herken wold, 
The childer name as it is told. 
Y wil you reken aright : 



HORN CHILDE, &c. ASj 

Hathrof • and Tebau[l]de, 
^ Athelfton and Whiwold, 

Gariis, wife and wight, 
Wihard that was ever trewe, 
Seththen firfl: him Horn knewe, 

To ferve with al his might, 
Witard, and his brother Wikel, 
Sethen Horn fond hem ful fikel, 

Lefinges on him thai light. 

Arlaund, that al thewes couthe, 
Bothe bi north and bi fouthe, 

In herd is nought to hide, 
On hunting was him moft couthe 
For to blowe an horn with raouthe 

And lioundes lede bifide ; 
To harpe wele, and play at ches. 
And al ganien that ufed is. 

And mo was in that tide ; 
Hathrolf Arlaund bitaught, 
Horn and his children aught. 

To lern hem to ride. 

Out of Danmark coman here 
Opon Inglond for to were, 

With ftout oft and unride. 
With yren hattes, fcheld, and fpere, 
Alle her pray to fchip thai here, 

In Clif land biTefe -fide, t 

• Hayidf, MS. hut in p. 13, &c. Hatherof. 

f I^ow Cleveland, in the noith-weft corner of Yorkfliire. 



»»4 HORN CHILDE AND 

Schepe and nete to fchip thai brought, 
Andal that thai have mought, 

In herd is nought to hide; 
When Hatheolf it herd fay, 
He buflced bothe night and day, 

Oyain hem for to ride. 

Within that ich fourtennight, 
Barouns fele, and mani a knight, 

Al were thai redi boun, 
With helme on heved, and brini bright, 
Alle were thai redi to fight, 

And rered gonfeyrioun, 
On Alerton-more al they mett, 
Ther were her dayes fett. 

Failed hem no roum ; 
Seth then to Clif land thai rade, 
Ther the Danis men abade, 

To fel the feye adoun. 

In a morning thai bigan, 
Of al that day thai no blan, 

That baleful werk to wirke, 
Sides thai made bio and wan, 
That er were white fo fether on fwan, 

Whiche gamen man aught irke. 
When that even bicam, 
The Danis men were al flan, 

It bigan to mirke. 
Whofo goth or rideth therbi, 
Yete may men fee ther bones ly, 

Bi feynt Sibiles kirke. 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. aZs 

Hende Hatheolf, as y you fay. 
Duelled ther the nighen day. 

The folk of him was fain ; 
Xhai toke anon that ich pray, 
Schepe and nete that ther flain lay, 

And yaf it the folk oyain ; 
Armour and brini bright. 
He yaf to fquier and to knight, 

To fervaunt and to fwayn ; 
Schipes he dede to lond drawe, 
And yaf to bond men on rawe, 

For her catel was flayn. 

Tho he feye that were wight, 

With helme on heved, and brini bright, 

And wele couthe^rike a ftede, 
And tho that were doughti in fight, 
Sexti dubbed he ther to knight, 

And yaf hem riche mede. 
Sum baylis he made, 
And fum he yaf londes brade, 

His yiftes were nought guede ; 
And feth then he dede chirches make. 
To fing for the dedes fake s 

God quite him his mede ! 

Setthen king Hatholf fore, 
For to hunten on Blakeowe-more,* 
With a rout unride, 

* Blackmore, in the wapentake of Rydale, in the north- 
riding of Yorkftiire, whence Hclmsley obtains the addition of 
Blakamore. 



ak6 HORN CHILDE AND 

In frethe and in foreft thore, 
To telle the dere ftrong it wore, 

That he felled that tide, 
Anon after, withouten lefing, 
He held a feft at Pikering, 

Ther his knightes fchuld ride. 
And feththen to York, was nought to layn, 
Arlaunde com him o^'ain. 

And Horn his fone with pride. 

King Hatheolf tok the children aught, 
That he had his fone bitaught. 

And gan to wepe anon ; 
Ich ave won mi fon with maught. 
That we oyein in batayl faught, 

And now thai ben al flon ; 
And your faders ben flawe thare. 
That of-thinketh nie ful fare, ^ 

And other mani on. 
The lond that thai held of me 
Alle i give you here fre. 

Ward no kepe y non. 

With Horn mi fon y wil ye be 
As your faders han ben with me. 

And othes ye fchul him fwere, 
That ye fchal never fram him fle. 
For gold no filver, lond no fe, 

Oyein outlondis here ; 
To Horn his fone he hem bitoke. 
And dede hem fwere opon the boke. 

Feut^ thai fchuld him here ; 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. 287 

While that thai live might, 
With helme on heved, and brini bright, 
His londes for to were. 

Heude Hatheolf, that was fo fre, 
Bot nighen moneth fojourned he, 

No lenge no hadde he pes j 
Out of Yrlond com kinges thre. 
Her names can y telle the 

Wele, withouten les. 
Fer wele and Winwald wern tlierto, 
Malk an king was on of tho, 

Proude in ich a pres, 
At Weftmer land ftroyed thay. 
The word com on a Whisfon day 

To king Hatheolf at his des. 

He bad the harpour leven his lay, 
For ons bihoveth another play, 

Bufke armour and ftede. 
He fent his fond night and day 
Al fo faft as he may 

His folk to batayl bede. 
" Bid hem that thai com to mc 
Al that hold her lond fre, 

Help now at this nede. 
Better manly to be flayn 
Than long to live in forwe and pain 

Oyain our londis thede." 

Thai bufked hem wel haftily 
To com to the kinges cri 
With elleven night, 



^n HORN CHILDE AND 

That everiche ftrete and even fly 
Glifed ther thai riden by 

Of her brim's bright ; 
And feththen to Staynes-more thai rode,* 
The rout was bothe long and brod, 

To fel tho fay in figlit ; 
AUe that night duelled thay 
Til a niorwe that it was day, 

The barouns of gret might. 

The I rife oft was long and brade, 
On Staines-more ther thai rade, 

Thai yaf a crie for pride. 
Hende Hatheolf liem abade, 
Swiche meting was never made. 

With forwe on ich afide. 
Right in a litel ftounde 
Sexti thoufand wer layd to grounde, 

In herd is nought to hide, 
King Hatheolf flough with his bond. 
That was comen out of Yrlond, 

Tuo kinges that tide. 

King Hatheolf was wel wo, 

For the I rife oft was mani and mo. 

With fcheld and with fpere. 
Ful long feththen man feyd fo. 
When men fchuld to batayl go. 

To men might on dere, 
Thei king Hatheolf faught feft 
King Malkan ftiked attelaft 

His ftede that fchuld hirn here. 

* Between Brough and Bowetk 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. , aS9 

Now fchal men finde kinges fewe 
That in batail be fo trewe 
His lond for to were. 

When king Hatheolf on fot ftode 
The Yrife folk about him yode, 

As hondes do to bare, 
Whom he hit opon the hode. 
Were he never knight fo gode 

He yave a dint wel fare. 
He brought, in a litel ftounde, 
Wele fif thoufende to grounde, 

With his grimly gare ; 
The Yrife oft tok hem to red 
To fton that douhti knight to ded. 

Thai durft neighe him na mare. 

Gret diol it was to fe 

Of hende Hatheolf that was fo fre, 

Stones to him thai caft ; 
Thai brak him bothe legge and kne, 
Gret diol it was to fe, 

He kneled attelaft. 
King Malcan with wretthe out ftert. 
And fmote king Hatheolf to the hert. 

He held his wepen fo faft, 
That king Malkan fmot his arm atuo, 
Er he might gete his fwerd him fro. 

For nede his hert to-braft. 

Tho king Malkan wan the priis, 
Oway brought he no mo y wis 
Of his men bot thritten, 

VOL. III. U 



290 HORN CHILDE AND 

That wounded were in bak and fide, 
Thai fleghie, and diirft nought abide, 

Dathet who hem bimene. 
To Yrlond he com oyain, 
And left her fair folk al (lain, 

Lieand on the grene. 
Tliarf hem neither night no day, 
Make her ros thai wan the pray, 

Bot flowe the king y wene. 

An erl of Northhumberland, 
He herd telle this titheand. 

He buflced him to ride ; 
Alle he fefed in his hand 
Al that he to-forn him fand. 

Right to Humber-fide. 
When that Arlaund herd fain 
That hende Hatheolf was flain 

He durfl no lenge abide, 
Thai bufked bothe night and day. 
As falft as thai may, 

Her hevedes for to hide. 

Fer fouthe in Inglond, 
Houlac king ther thai fond. 

With knightes ftithe on ftede. 
He toke him Horn bi the hand. 
When he hadde teld his titheand 

Mennes hertes might blede : 
<* When hende Hatheolf was flan 
And his londes fram him tan, 

And we ben flowe for drede, 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. 291 

Of niifelf is me nought, 
Dot Horn his fone ichave the brought, 
Help now in this nede." 

Hoiilac king was vvel hende, 

Resfaived liem nighen Herlaund the tende, 

Her maister for to be : 
" Mete and drink y fchal hem fende, 
And ever when ich out wende 

Thai fchal wende with me. 
Horn fchal be me leve and dere." 
He bad Harlaund fchuld him lere, 

The right for to fe, 
The lawes bothe eld and newe, 
All maner gamen and glewe, 

In bok thus rede we. 

Thus in boke as we rede 
Alle thai were in court to fede 

Swetelichc at lare, 
Alle were thai clothed in o wede, 
To ride on palfray, other on flede, 

"Whether hem lever ware. 
Horn was bothe war and wife, 
At hunting oft he wan the priis, 

Loved he nothing mare ; 
Harpe and romaunce he radde aright, 
Of al gle he hadde in fight 

That in lond ware. 

The word of Horn wide fprong 
Hold he was bothe michel and long. 
Within fiftene yere ; 



29* HORN CHILDE AND 

Ther was no knight in Inglond 
That might a dint ftond of his hond, 

Noither fer no nere. 
Michel he was, and wele ymaked ; 
As white as milke he was naked, 

And ever o blithe chere ; 
Meke he was, and trewe fo ftiel, 
Alle games he couthe wel, 

As ye may forward here. 

Houlac king, y wene, 
Hadde no child bi the quene, 

Bot a maid bright, 
Al thai feyd that hir fene 
Sche was a feir may, and a fchene, 

And maiden Rimneld flie hight. 
When fche herd Horn fpeke 
Might fche him nought foryete, 

Bi day no bi night, 
Loved never childer mare 
Bot Tristrem or Yfoud it ware, 

Who fo rede aright. 

That miri maiden wald nought wond 
Dern love for to fond, 

Yif fche it might winne ; 
Forthi fche fent with hir fond 
For to fpeke witli Arlond, 

For Horn fchuld cum with him. 
And Arlaund him bithought, 
Yif he Horn with him brought, 

Lefinges fchuld biginne; 



MAIDEN RIMNILD 193 

Forthi he lete Horn at hame, 
And toke Hatherof in his name, 
To maiden Rimneld [in]. 

The miri maiden, al fo fone 
As Hatherof into chamber come, 

Sche wend that it wer Horn, 
A riclie cheier was undon 
That feiven might fit theron, 

In fwiche craft ycorn ; 
A baudekin theron was fpred, 
Thider the maiden hadde hem led, 

To fiten hir biforn, 
Frout and fpices fche hem bede. 
Wine to drink, wite'and rede, 

Bothe of coppe and horn. 

Than a ferjaunt fche bad ga, 
A gentil goshauk for to ta. 

Fair he was to flight, 
Therwith herten* gloves to, 
Swiche was the maner tho, 

Anft yaf Hatherof of his yift. 
Sche wende bi Hatherof Horn it wore 
That loved hunting nothing more, 

On him hir love was light, 
A les of grehoundes forth thai brought 
And he forfoke, and wald it nought, 

And feyd Hatherof he hight. 

** What ever thi name it be. 
Thou fchalt have this houndes thre. 
That wele can take a dere ; 

* Buckfkin. 



294 HORN CHILDE AND 

And, Hatherof, for the love of me, 
Com to-morn, and Horn with the :" 

He lay her hert fill nere : 
And Harlaiind, that was hende, 
Toke his leve for to wende. 

With a blithe chere. 
And com anon on the morn, 
And brought with him hende Horn, 

As ye may forward liere. 

The maiden hour was fair fpred, 
Atired al with riche wedde, 

Sche haylett them with winne ; 
The mirie maiden hir bithought 
In what maner that fche mought 

Trewe love for to ginne. 
Sche fett hir hem bitiiene, 
The maiden was bright and fchene, 

And comen of kinges kinne ; 
Anon hir felve hadde hem lede 
To fitten opon her owhen bedde, 

Arlaund, and Horn with him. 

Hendeliche fche to him fpac, 
A poumgarnet ther fche brak, 

And fpices dede fche calic ; 
Wine to drink, after that 
Sche lete fet forth a ftede blac, 

Was covered al with palle. 
The ftiropes were of filke wite, 
Bridel and fadel al was (like, 

And feyd, Horn, hende in halle, 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. 39S 

It was me told thou fchult be knight, 
Y the yif here a ftede light, 
And a queyntife of palle. 

Horn, fche fcyd, is thi name. 
An horn i fchal yive the ane, 

A mlchel and unride, 
Al yvore is the bon, 
Sett with mani a riche fton. 

To bcre bi thi fide. 
The baudrike was of filk right, 
The maiden felf it hadde ydight, 

Layd with gold for pride : 
** What that ever be with me, 
Horn, at thi wille fchal it be, 

In herd is nought te hide." 

Than fche lete forth bring 
A fwerd hongand bi a ring, 

To Horn fche it bitaught: 
** It is the make of Miming,* 
Of all fwerdes it is king, 

And Weland it wrought. 
Bitterfer the fwerd highr, 
Better fwerd bar never knight, 

Horn, to the ich it thought; 
Is nought a knight in Inglond 
Schal fitten a dint of thine bond, 

Forfake thou it nought. 

* Meming was a fatyr, or filvan deity, in the forefts of Lap- 
land, who posfefs'd a fword and bracelet of inestimable value, 
which Hoder, brother of Adils king of Sweden, in vain endea- 
vour'd to wreft from him. See Saxo, V. 3, P. 40, where he is 
call'd Mimrijig. It is, at the fame time, Mimmins in Olaiis 
Magnus, L. 3, C, 12. 



296 HORN CHILDE AND 

Hendelich than thanked he 
The maiden of hir yift fre, 

And feyd, So god me fpede, 
Rimnild, for the love of the, 
Y fchal jufte that thou fchalt fe 

Opon this ich ftede. 
Horn, in that ich ftounde, 
Yaf the maiden love wounde. 

So neighe hir hert it yede. 
And fche wel trewely hath him hight, 
Yif that he be dubbed knight, 

Hir maidenhod to mede. 

Within that ich fourtenight, 
Horn was dubbed to knight, 

And Hatherof, as i wene, 
And otlier mani that were light, 
Has Houlak king hadde hem hight, 

So were thai ful fiftene. 
A turnament the king lete trie, 
Thider com wel on heye 

Knightes that wer kene. 
Maiden Rimneld biheld the play, 
Hou Horn wan the priis that day. 

To wite and nought to wene. 

Houlac king yaf Horn leve 
In his hour for to acheve 

The maidens that were fre, 
Riche of kin and hondes fleye, 
Thai hadde frendes fer and neighe. 

He might avaunced be, 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. 197 

And maiden Rimnild him bede 
That he fchuld take non other rede 

No pother than chofe he. 
For fche wel trewely hath him hight, 
Yif that fche live might, 

His leman wald fche be. 

Tebaud went biyond fe. 

And Winwald, that was fo fre, 

To leren hem to ride; 
With the king of Fraunce duelled he, 
Mani time thai gat the gre* 

In turnament that tide. 
The king feighe that thai wer wight, 
Bothe he dubbed hem to knight. 

With wel riche pride ; 
Wiif thai toke, and duelled thare, 
In Inglond com thai no mare. 

Her werdes for to bide. 

Gariis into Bretein went, 

And Athelfton with him was lent, 

To an erl fo fre ; 
At juftes, and at turnament, 
Whiderward fo thai went. 

Ever thai gat the gre ; 
And th'erl hem bothe knightes made, 
And yaf hem londes wide and brade 

With him for to be : 
Thus thai duelled ther in pes. 
While that ^rifles wil wes : 

In boke fo rede we. 

• The degree, or prize. 



^98 HORN CHILDE AND 

Houlac king yaf gold and fe 

To hem, that thai might the better be, 

And bad thai fchuld wive ; 
Hatherof, a knight fre, 
And, Horn, he feyd, i love the, 

Man mod olive: 
And Wiard, treiily, he hath hight, 
That he fchal dubbed be to knight, 

At another fithe ; 
Wigard and Wikel hem bithought 
How thai Horn bitray mought, 

God lete hem never thrive! 

On a day, as Houlak king 
Schuld wende on h's playing, 

To late his haukes fleye, 
Horn than, withouten lefing, 
Bilaft at hom for blode-leteing, 

Al for a maladye. 
Wikard bi the king rade, 
Wikel that lefing made, 

Horn gan thai wray. 
And feyd. Sir, y feighe yisterday 
Hou Horn by thi doubter lay, 

Traitours bothe be thai. 

The king leved that thai fede, 
Forthi yaf fche him tlie ftede, 

Lefing it is nought; 
He went hom as he wern wode 
Into boure anon he yode, 

And maiden Rimnild he fought. 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. 399 

He bete hir fo that fche gan blede, 
Tlie maidens fleighe oway for drede, 

Thai durft help hir nought ; 
Giltles fche was of that dede, 
Horn hadde nought hir niaidenhede, 

Bot in word and thought. 

Houlac his awerd hath tan, 
And feyd Horn fchuld be (Ian, 

For wretthe he wald wede; 
" He hath me don michel fchame, 
Y wende wele have fuffred nane 

For mi gode dede." 
Knightes com the king biforn, 
AUe prayd thai for Horn, 

No might ther non fpede ; 
The king into his chaunber is gon. 
And fchet himfelf therin alon, 

Til liis wretthe overyede. 

Thei that Horn was fore adrad, 
Into boure he was ladde. 

The maiden for to fe. 
He fond hir liggeand on hir bedde, 
Mouthe and nofe al for-bled : 

*' This haftow for me." 
" Bi god of heven that me bought, 
Of mi felve is me nought, 

Way is me for the. 
pais men hath on ous leyd, 
And to mi fader ous biwraid, 

Y drede he flemes te, 



300 HORN CHILDE AND 

Bot, Horn, yif it fo fchal bitide 
That thou fchalt out of lond ride, 

And flemed fchaltow be. 
This feven winter y fchal abide, 
Mi maidenhed to hele and hide, 

For the love of the ; 
Thei an emperour come 
King, other kinges fone, 

For to wedde me, 
Of no love ne fchal he fpede. 
That y ne fchal kepe mi maidenhede. 

So help me god to the. 

Horn, to morwe in the morning 
Thou fchalt fare on hunting. 

To take the wild ro, 
Yif god the fpede an hunting, 
Loke thou bring it bifor the king. 

What fo thou may do, 
As he fittes at his des, 
Yferved of the firll mes, 

Haughtel the now fo. 
Fare as thou wift nought. 
And he fchal telle the al his thought, 

Er thou fram that bord go." 

A morwen Horn to hunting is gan, 
To take the wilde with the tarn, 

In the morwening ; 
Fine hertcs hath he tan, 
Bi midday brought hem ham, 

Bifor Uoulak king. 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. joi 

The king feyd, It is for nought, 
Traitour, thou haft trefoun wrought, 

To-morvve yf y the finde, 
Bi mi croun thou fchalt be flawe. 
With wilde hors al to-drawe, 

And feththen on galwes hing. 

To Rimneld he com withouten lefing, 
And fche bitaught him a ring 
' The vertu- wele fche knewe : 
** Loke thou forfake it for no thing, 
It fchal ben our tokening, 

The fton it is wel trewe. 
When the fton wexeth wan. 
Than cliaungeth the thought of thi leman. 

Take than a newe ; 
When the fton wexeth rede 
Than have y lorn mi maidenhed, 

Oyaines the untrevve. 

Horn feyd, In thine erber is a tre, 
Ther under is a wel fre, 

Ygrowen al with yve, 
Rimnild, for the love of me, 
Everi day that thou ther be. 

To fe the water lithe. 
And, when thou feft mi fchadu thare, 
Than trowe thou me na mare. 

Than am y bon to wive. 
And, while thou feft mi fchadu nought, 
Than chaungeth never mi thought. 

For no woman olive. 



302 HORN CHILDE AND 

Houlac king wald nere wede, 
There he fat opon his fede. 

And feyd, Traitour, flel 
Horn tok his leve, and yede, 
With liim he toke his gode ftede. 

And grehoundes hot three; 
And alle his harneys, lafTe and mare, 
Hatherof durft nought with him fare, 

So wroth the king was he. 
Maidens in the boure gan crie, 
And feyd Rimnild wald dye, 

*< Now fwoneth that fre." 

When Horn com fer out of that fight, 
He feyde, Godebounde he hight. 

When he gan ani mete ; 
Wiard rode after, day and night, 
Al fo fafl: as he might, 

Horn for to feke. 
Of Godebounde herd he fpeke, 
Horn no might he never gete, 

Bi way, no bi ftrete. 
Wiard rode fouthe, and Horn rode weft, 
To Wales Horn come atteleft, 

Wei long er thai fo mete. 

Thurtli a foreft as he fchuld fare 
An armed knight mett he thare, 

And bad Horn fchuld abide, 
To yeld his harneife leffe and mare, 
Other jufte, whether him lever ware. 

The lawe is nought to hide ; 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. 303 

And Horn of jufting was ful fain. 
And feyd to the knight oyain, 

Ful leve me were to ride. 
The knight toke a fchaft in hand 
And Horn wele under fand 

That he couthe ride. 

Horn tok on al fo long 

A ful tough and to fo ftrong, 

Oyaines him that tide; 
The knightes fcheld he cleve atuo, 
And of his plates he brae tho. 

And frufsed alle his fide. 
Out of his fadel he bar him than. 
He brae his arm, and his fchulder ban, 

He hadde a ful unride.* 

When he of fwoning bicam 
He afked after Homes nam, 

Whider he vvald gang; 
** In Walis lond is ther nan 
Man ymade of flefche no ban, 

Oyain the may ftand." 
Horn anfwered onan, 
Godebounde is mi nam, 

I cham comen to fand. 
For to win gold and fe. 
In fervife with your king to be. 

That lord is of this land. 

* Either this or the precedeing ftanza is defective by the 
omisfion of three lines. 



304 HORN CHILDE AND 

*' Our kinges name is Elidan, 
In al Wales is ther nan 

So ftrong a man as he ; 
While the feven days began 
Everich day with fundri man 

Jufting bedes he the. 
The eighten day, be thou bold, 
Yif thou the feven days mai hold. 

The king than fchaltow fe 
Com rideand on a ftede broun. 
With a foket o feloun. 

For to win the gre." 

Horn feyd, withouten lefing. 
For to fpeke with the king. 

For nothing wil y bide. 
The knight teld him na mare 
The king at Snowedoun he fond thare, 

Sir Elydan that tyde. 
He jufted al that feven night 
Everi day with fundri knight, 

He gat the faireft pride } 
The eighten day with Elidan, 
And wan her ftedes everilk an. 

In herd is nought to hide. 

He fmot the king opon the fcheld, 
Of his hors he made him held, 

And feld him to the grounde, 
Swiche on hadde he founde feld, 
That fo h.id feld him in the feld, 

Bi for that ich flounde. 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. 305 

The king aflced him what he hight, 
And he him anfwerd anon right. 

My name is Godebounde. 
** Y wil the yif gold and fe, 
Yif that thou wil duelle with me, 

Bi yere a thoufend pounde." 

Mesfangers com out of Yrland, 
And toke the king a letter in hand, 

And bad he Ichuld rede. 
Fro a king, that men dede wrong, 
Hisowhen fone ich underftond, 

That axed help at nede. 
He lete write a letter oyain, - 

He fchuld han help is nought to layn, 

With knightes ftithe on ftede. 
Horn to batayl was ful boun, 
And folwed the mesfangers out of toun. 

Into Irlond thai him lede. 

Hem com an haven wele to hand, 
That Yolkil is cleped in Irland, 

The court was therbifide. 
Finlawe king ther thai fande. 
For to here titheande 

Oyain hem gan ride. 
The letter told that he brought, 
Help fchuld him faile nought 

Oyaines thilke tide. 
King Finlak dede to Malkan fay, 
Whether he wold bi night or day, 

The bataile wald he bide. 

VOL. III. X 



3o6 HORN CHILDE AND 

The kinges fones riden bathe, 

To hayles Horn when thai him fathe, 

And welcomed him, that fre. 
Anon thai gun to flrive rathe. 
Whether of hem him fchuld have 

To duelle in her mein^. 
Horn anfwerd hem than as hende. 
And feyd to hem, My leve frende. 

The king than wald y fe, 
And afterward y wille you telle. 
Where me levcft is to duelle, 

And femlyeft to me. 

The mesfanger told Homes dede, 
Hou he hadde ywon the ftede. 

And hou he feighe him ride : 
** Sir, mightestow hold him to thi nedc. 
King Malkan tharf the nought drede, 

Batayie might thou bide. 
Hour king boden him gold and fe. 
With that he wil with him be. 

At this ich nede ; 
And Horn fill trewely hath him hight, 
For to ftond in ftede of knight, 

In herd is nought to hide. 

In Yrlond was ther nan, 

Thar alle thai be to Malkan gan, 

So michel was his pouft^, 
Bot Finlak king him alan 
Has the bjta>l unaertan, 

Yif Crift wil that it be. 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. ' 307 

King Malkan deck bede out here 
Opon the king Finlak towere, 

Now than fchal we fe, 
Yif he wil fight he fchal be flan, 
Yif he wil bide he fchal be tan, 

Y trowe beft he wil fle. 

Bot thre woykes were ther fett. 
That alle this folk fchal be mett 

And batayle fchal ther be ; 
The Walis king hadde gret lett, 
With windes and with watres bett. 

Sir Elidan the fre. 
He no might into Irlond come, 
For to helpen his fone, 

For ftormes on the fe. 
King Finlak feyd, Is nought to hide, 
This batayl dar y nought abide. 

Mi rede is tan to fie : 

And than was Horn as fain o fight, 
As is the foule of the light 

When it ginneth dawe : 
" Sir king, for to held thi right, 
Y rede thou bede riche yift. 

The folk wil to the drawe. 
Geder to the folk that thou may, 
And baldliche hold thi day, 

Batail fchal wefchawe, 
To fle me think it is gret fchame, 
Ar dintes be fmiten or ani man flan. 

For drede of wordes awe. 



So8 HORN CHILDE AND 

The kinges fones wer knightes bold. 
And feyd thai wald the batail hold, 

Her lives for to lete. 
Finlak king, thei he wer aid, 
Bletheli he feyd fight he wald. 

To hold that he bihete. 
Thus thai riden out of toun. 
With fpere oloft and gomfaynoun» 

Malkan king to mete, 
With fperes fcharp, and fwerdes gode, 
Thai flough mani a frely fode, 

So grimly gun thai grete. 

Ther Horn feighe the meft thrang, 
In he rides hem amang, 

And lays on wel gode won ; 
It was no man of Yrland 
Might ftond a dint of his hand. 

At ich ftroke he flough on. 

{y1 leaf, at Uajl, appears to be here wanting. Itjhould 
feem that there had been a battUy in which Horn was 
wounded^ and the hingsjons were takeen prifoners.) 

Maiden and wiif gret forwe gan make. 
For the kinges fones fake, 

That were apoint to dye. 
Finlac king oyaines him come. 
And his armes of him nome. 

The blode ran over his eighc. 
He cleped his doubter Acula, 
And bad fche fthuld a^lastcr ta, 

Of woundes was fche fleighe. 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. 309 

The maiden taft* Homes wounde. 
The kinges douhter, in that ftounde. 

Of him hye is ful fain : 
** Thou fchalt be fone hole and founde, 
Haftow Malkan brought to grounde?" 

He feyd, Ya, oyain. 
King Malkan was mi faders ban. 
And now for fothe ich have him flan, 

The fothe for to fain. 
Mi fader fwerd y wan to day, 
y kepe it while y live may. 

The name is Blavain. 

Thai birid the folk that wer flan. 
And her armour thai ladde ham. 

With hors white and broun ; 
Finlac king him bithought, 
Hou he Horn yeld mought. 

To yif him his warifoun ; 
He tok Malkan kinges lond, 
And fefed it into Hornnes hond, 

Bothe tour and toun. 
Erles, barouns, everichon, 
In Irlond was ther non, 

That * he' no com to his fomoun. 

The kinges douhter, Acula, 
Loved hende Horn fa, 

Sclie durft it nought kithe ; 
Whether fche feighe him ride or go, 
Hir thought hir hert brak atuo, 

That fche no fpac with that blithe. 
* Tafteed, touch'd, or felt, a Gallicifm, 



3IO HORN CHILDE AND 

On a day fche made her feke, 
Horn com, and with hir fpeke, 

Sche might no lenger mithe ; 
To Jiim fpac that rhaiden fre, 
And feyd, Horn, y love the, 

Man moft ohve. 

Over al Horn the priis him wan. 
He feyd it was for o wiman. 

That was him leve and dere ; 
Acula wende for than 
That Horn hir loved, and moft gode an 

Of ani woman that were. 
Of another was al his thought, 
Maiden Rimnild foryat he nought, 

Sche lay his hert ful nere ; 
The ring to fchewen hath he tan. 
The hewe was chaunged of the ftan, 

Forgon is feven yere. 

Horn wald no lenger abide, 
He buflced him for to ride. 

And gedred folk everi whare ; 
An hundred knightes by his fide, 
With ftedes fele, and michel pride. 

Her Ichippes were ful yare. 
Thai fayled over the flode fo gray, 
In Inglond arived were thay, 

Ther hem leveft ware ; 
Under a wode ther thai gan lende, 
Horn feighe a begger wende, 

And after he is fare. 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. 3" 

Horn faft after him gan ride, 
And bad the begger fchuld abide, 

For to here his fpeche ; 
The begger anfwerd in that tide, 
Vilaine, canestow nought ride ? 

Fairer thou might me grete. 
Haddestow cleped me gode man, 

Y wold have teld the wenncs i cam, 
And whom y go to feche j 

Horn to feke have i gon, 
Thurthout londes mani on. 
And ay fchal while we mete : 

And now be min robes riven. 
And me no was no nother yeven, 
Of alle this feveii yere ; 

Y go to feke after him ay, 
And thus have done mani a day. 

Til that we mete yfere. 
To day is Moging the king 
With Rimnild at fpoufeing, 

The kmges douhter dere ; 
Mani fides fchuld be bibled 
Er he bring hir to his bed 

Yif Horn in lond were. 

Wiard fchaltow calle me, 
Gentil man, yif thou be fre, 

Tel me thi name. 
Thi knave wald y fain be 
That fair feft forto fe. 

Me thenke thatow haft nane. 



31* HORN CHILDE AND 

Horn anfwerd him oyain» 

Ich hat Horn is nought to lain. 

And elles were me fchame; 
Bot, yif ich held that thou haft feyd, 
Er that thai ben in bed layd, 

Five thoufende fchal be flain. 

Wiard, oyain fchaltow ride 
To mi folk, and there abide. 

Have here mi robe to mede ; 
And y wil to court gon, 
Forto loke what thai don. 

In thi pover wede. 
Bring hem under yon wode-fide, 
Al fo yern astow may ride. 

The way thou canft hem lede ; 
And i fchal heighe me wel fone, 
Y com oyain er it be none, 

Yif Crift rne wil fpede. 

When Horn fro fer herd glewe, 

With tabournes bete, and trumpes blcwc, 

Oyaines hem he yede ; 
Muging king ful wele he knewe. 
He tok him bi the lorein rewe, 

Oyain he held his ftede. 
Wikard com, and fmot him fo, 
And feyd, Traitour, lat the bridel go; 

The blode out after yede. 
Horn ful trewely hath him hight, 
He fchal him yeld that ich night, 

A box fchal ben his mede. 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. 313 

Mojoun king was ful wo, 

That he had frnite'n the pover man fo. 

And feyd, Lat mi bridel be. 
Withthi thou lat mi bridel be, 
What fo thou wilt afki me, 

Blethelich yeve i the. 
* Porter,' quath Horn, thatow wilt* 
Yive me maiden Rimnild, 

That is fo fair and fre. 
The king was wroth, and rewe his yift, 
*• Thou aflceft wrong, and no thing right, 

Sche may not thine be.'* 

Horn feyd, Y fett a nett o time, 
Yif ani fifche is taken therinne. 

Of al this feven yere. 
No fchal it never more be mine, 

Y wold it were fonken in helle-pine. 
With fendes fele on fere. 

And yif it hath ytaken nought, 

Y fchal it love in hert thought. 
And be me leve and dere. 

Thus thai went alle y fame 
Unto the castel, with gle and game, 
A fole thai wende he were. 

Of beggers mo than fexti, 
Horn feyd, Maister am y. 

And alke the the mete. 
That y mote, and other thre. 
To-day in thine halle be, 

When folk is gon to fete; 

* The MS. evidently reads Peter ; for what rcafon cannot be 
«onceive'd. 



314 HORN CHILDE AND 

Than y wil folwe the ham. 
And that y mot with the gan, 

In atte castel-yete. 
The king him hight fikerly, 
♦« Thou fchalt in the halle bv, 

To have ther « thi' mete 

Ther was mani riche geft 
DJght unto that frely feft 

Of douhti folk in lond, 
Att^ yate was ftrong thraft, 
Horn wald nought be the laft. 

In forto gange. 
The porter cald him herlot fw^n, . 
And he put him oyain 

Therout for to ftand ; 
Horn bruft upon him fo 
His fcholder bone he brak ato, 

And in anon he thrange. 

Kokes hadde tlie mete grayd, 

The bord was fett, the cloth was layd. 

To benche yede tho bold ; 
The trompes ' blewe,' the glewemen pleyd, 
The bifchopes had the grace yfeyd, 

As niuri men of mold. 
Ther was many a riche man, 
Mete and drink wel gode wan 

To alle that ete wolde ; 
Horn fat, and litel ete, 
Michel he thought, and more he fpeke, 

For fole men fchuld him hold. 



MAIDEN RIMNILD 31^ 

Than was the lawe, fothe to fay, 
The bride fchiild, the firft day, 

Serven att6 mete ; 
Hendelich than ferved fcho, 
As a maiden fchuld do; > ;,. ; .. 

" Horn bigan to fpeke. "• 

** Maiden, yif thi wille be 
To godes men fchultow fe. 

Thou no oughteft hem nought foryete, 
And feththen the knightes fchul turnay. 
For to loke who fo may 

The niaistri of hem yete. 

Forth fche went, that maiden fre, 
And feched drink that men might fe, 

To that beggere: 
" For Homes love y pray the 
Go nought ar this drunken be, 

Yif ever he was the dere." 
The maiden by him ftille ftode. 
To here of Horn hir thought it gode, 

He lay hir hert ful nere ; 
Of the coppe he drank the wine, 
The ring of gold he keft therinne, 

Bitokening lo it here. 

•• A fely man, the threftes fare. 
Thou fchalt have a drink mare, 

Gode wine fchal it be ; 
Another drink fche him bare ; 
Sche aflced yif Horn therin ware, 

Ya, certes, than feyd he. 



3i6 HORN CHILDE AND 

Nas fche bot a litel fram him gon. 
That fche ne fel adoun anon, 

Now fwoneth that fre. 
Kn'ghtes hir to chaunber ledde. 
When fche lay opon hir bedde, 

Sche feyd, Clepe Hatherof to me. 

Knightes, goth into halle fwithe, 
And bid the kinges make hem blithe, 

That y wold wel fein ; 
Hatherof, go into the erber fwithe. 
And geder parvink and ive, 

Greses that ben of main. 
Ceiteynli, as y you fay, 
Horn is in this halle to day, 

Y wende he hadde ben flain, 
Mojoun king fchal never fpede. 
For to have mi maidenhede, 

Now Horn is comen oyain. 

Hatherof, go into halle and fe. 
In feli poverwedeis he, 

Y pray tlie knowe him right. 
Say him, Treuthe- plight er we. 
Bid him, fche feyd, as he is fre, 

Hold that he bihiht. 
Bidd him go, and me abide 
Right under yon wode-fide. 

As he is trewe knight ; 
When al this folk is gon to play. 
He and y fchal ftele oway, 

Bituene the day and the night. 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. 3»7 

Hatherof into halle yode. 
For to bihald that frely fode, 

Fule wele he knewe his viis, 
Opon his fot hard he (lode, 
Horn thought the tokening gode, 

Up he gan to arife. 
Forth thai yede tho knightes bold, 
Hatherof the maidens erand told, 

Of trewe love Horn was wiis : 
*' Y fchal com into the feld with pride, 
An hundred knightes bi mi fide, 

Milke white is mi queintife. 

Bot, Hatherof, thou moft me fchawe, 
"Wharbi y fchal Wikard knawe. 

His buffeyt fchal be bought." 
** He hath queintife white fo fnawe, 
With foules blac as ani crawe. 

With filke werk it is wrought. 
Mojoun queintife ' is' yalu and wan. 
Sett with pekok and with fwan. 

That he with him hath brought ; 
*' Wikeles queintife is yalu and grene, 
Floure de liis fett bituene, 

Him foryete thou nought." 

Now is Hatherof comen oyain. 
And feyd he hath Horn fain. 

And what folk he hath brought. 
And after • wisarmes' he gan frain, 
Was never Rimnild ere fo fain. 

In hert, no in thought. 



3i8 HORN CHILDE AND 

" Hatherof, go into halle fwithe, 
And bid mi fader make him blithe, 

And fay icham fike nought. 
Wikard that is leve to fmite, 
Horn fchal him his dettes quite, 

To night it fchal be bought." 

When thai hadde eten than were thai boun. 
With fpere oloft and gonfainoun, 

Al armed were tho bold ; 
With trump and tabourun out of toun, 
Thus thai redde the right roun> 

Ich man as he wold. 
An erl out of Cornwayle 
Oyain Mojoun faun faile. 

The turnament fchal hold. 
And Horn com into the feld with pride, 
An hundred knightes bi his fide. 

In rime as it is told. 

Horn of coming was wel wife. 
And knewe hem bi her queyntife. 

Anon thai counterd tho. 
Mojoun king hath tint the priis, 
Under his hors fete he liis, 

Horn wald him noght flo. 
To fir Wigard his fwerd he weved. 
Even atuo he cleve his heved. 

His box heyalt him tho. 
Out he fmot Wigles eighe, 
Traitours that er leve to lighe 

Men fchal hem ken fo. 



MAIDEN RIMNILD. 319 

That day Horn the turnament wan, 
Fro Mojoun and mani a nian. 

With knightes ftithe on ftede, 
He toke the gre, that was a fwan, 
And fent to Rimnild his leman, 

To hir riche mede. 
To Houlac king Horn gaii wende. 
And thonked him as his frende. 

Of his gode dede : 
" Thou feddeft me, and forfterd to man :" 
He maked Wikel telle out than 

His lesfinges, and his falshed. 

Mojoun king is ivel dight, 
Tint he hath that fwete wight, 

And wold ben oway, 
Horn, that hadde hir treuthe-plight, 
Wedded hir that ich night. 

And al opon a day. 
Now is Rimnild tuiis vvedde, 
Horn brought hir to his bedde, 

Houlac king gan fay, 
Half mi lond ichil the yive 
With mi doughter while y live. 

And al after mi day« 

Five days fat her feft. 

With mete and drink riche and oneft. 

In boke as we rede ; 
Forth, as we telle in geft, 
Horn lete fende eft and weft, 

His folk to batayle bede,* 



3J0 HORN CHILDE, &c. 

Into Northhiimberland for to fare. 
To winne that his fader ware, 

With knightes ftithe on ftede. 
With erl, baroun, and with fwain. 
To winne his fader lond oyain, 

Yif Crift him wold fpede. 

Mtchel frely folk was thare. 
Into Northhumberland to fare. 

With ftedes wite and broun ; 
Horn wald for no man fpare 
To winne al that his fader ware, 

Bothe tour and toun. 
When Thorbrond herd this, 
That Horn to lond yeomen is, 
« • • • 

(The reft is wanting.) 



THE KYNG OF TARS. 

This pious legend is takeen out of an immcnfe folio 
in the Bodleian library, known by the title of Manu- 
fcript Fernon, being a prefent from Edward Vernon 
efquire, formerly of Trinity-college, who commanded 
a company for the king in the civil wars, and in whofe 
family it appears to have been for many years. The 
writeing is, apparently, of the fourteenth century. 
The th is uniformly writen with the Saxon f ^not ]?), 
and z generally ufe'd for y at the begining of a fylla- 
ble, or for gh in the middle of one. 



NOTES. 321 

Another copy, of equal, if not greater, antiquity, 
but iinperfeft at tlieciid, is preferve'd in the Au- 
cliinleck MS. in the Advocates library, Kdinburgh. 
Scarcely two-lines together are exactly alike; but it is 
not, upon the whole, a better copy, except as it, in 
one place, fupplys a 1 omisfion. 

The title of the Bodleian MS. is in rime: 
" Her bigenneth of the kyng of Tars, 
And of the foudan of Dammas; 
How the foudan of Dammas 
Was icrilined thoru godes grace." 
That it has been translateed from the French is 
evident from the poets repeated referencees to his 
original : 

'* In ftori as we rede : 
" As ich finde in my fawe," 
^*^ Damas is Damascus, and Tars, Thrace. See 
biftiop Douglases Firgtle, and Ruddimans^/c5/ar)'. 
F. 11. That hoore rihte heir fcholde ben.'\ 
The Edinburgh MS. reads, 

'* Non fairer woman mizt ben," 
and contains variations, more or lefs important, in 
all moil every line. 

V. 85. The foudan fat at his des."] 

The Edinburgh manufcrlpt reads better; 

" As tlie foudan fat at his des. " 
V. 93. Hethene hound he doth the call.'] 
That the christians of former agees eiitertain'd an 
inveterate antipathy to the Mahometms (who, cer- 
tainly, would not have been much lefs intolerant) is 
apparent from the ancient romancees of chivalry, 
French or Engleifh, in which this equally polite and 
religious appellation, frequently occurs. Thus, in Syr 
VOL. III. Y 



312 , NOTES. 

Bays, that gallant knight, as we learn from the right 
reverend editoiir of The Rdiques of ancient Englijk 
poetry, is fo ful of zeal for his religion, as to return the 
following mesfage to a Paynim kings fair daughter, 
who had fall'n in love with him, and fent two Saracen 
knights to invite him to her bower : 

•' I wyll not ones ftirre of this grounde. 
To fpeke with an hethene hounde : 
Unchriften houndes, i rede you flee, 
Or i your harte bloudc fhal fe." 
Indeed, he ads, they return the compliment, by calling 
him elfewhere «* A christen hounde." 

V, 114. This half of the ftanza hath been borrow 'd 
from the advocates copy, being omited in the Oxford 
one, and being of itsfelf, apparently, not perfectly 
correct. 

F. 446. 5j Jovin <2B/f Plotoun.] 
," Sire Jovin," a few lines' below, is a different deity 
from " Jubiter," and, as Warton fuggefts, may mean 
the Roman cm}^CTo\.\r JoviniaUf againftwhom St. Jerom 
wrote, and whos history is in the Gata Romanorvirif 
C. 59. Plotoun is Pluto, 

r. 468. Appolin.] Apollo. ** Quel 6\e\i," fays a 
Saracen to Jofeph of Arimathea, " croyez vous? Nous 
tie avons que quatre dieux, Mahom, Tervagant, Apolin, 
& Jupin." {Lancelot du lac^ tome 2, fo. 46.) One of 
thefe Saracen deitys occurs in Syr Bevy s -. 
*' Aim! if thou wylt thy god forfake, 
And to Apolyne, our god, the betake," Gc. 

V. 469. AJlrot.'] Alhtaroth, the gcdefs of the Zido- 
nians, occafionally worfljip'd by the children of Israel. 
See I Kings, xi, 5,33. 



NOTES. saj 



EMARE. 

The immediate French original of this ancient and 
excellent romance (here giveen from a unique copy in 
the Cotton manufcript, Caligula, A II.) is not known 
to be preferve'd, though fo frequently refer'd to in 
the poem itsfelf ; for inftance: 

" As i here fynge in fonge." F. 2. 

The ftory, however, is rclateed, at great length, 
though with fome variations, and under different 
names, by the poet Gower, in the fecond book of his 
Confesflo amantis, and, after him," by Chaucer, in his 
Man oflawes tale* The former, who makes the lady, 
whom he calls Conjlance, or Custm, daughter to Tiberius 
Conjlantyn, a fabulous Christian emperour of Rome, 
refers to " the cronike," as his authority ; and may, 
therfor, feem to have been indebted to fome work in 
the nature of the Gesta Rojnanorum, in which it is not 
to be now found. It, likewife, occurs (much alter'd, 
and very concifely abridge'd) in // Pecorone defer Gio' 

* This imitation affords a convinceing proof that Gower i 
a poet anteriour to Chaucer, though many of the latters piecees 
hapen to appear with an earlyer date than his own. He, in 
fa£l, exprefsly calls Chaucer his " disciple, and poete," for 
that, " in the flowres of his youth," he had made for his fake 
" ditees and fonges glade." There could not, however, be 
much difference in their agees; as Chaucer was " nowe irt 
his dales oldej" and Gower himfelf, in 13Q6, both old and 
blind; though he furvive'd Chaucer about two years, which 
fhort period he made ufe of to damn his own reputation to 
all eternity. 



3»4 NOTES. 

vanni Fiorentino, fay'd to have been compofe'd in the 
year 1378 (fee Gior. X. No. i) ; the authour of which 
may feem to have been indebted to a MS. of the 
national library, Paris, (Num. 8701, a paper-book 
writen in 1370), intitle'd " Fabula romanenfis de rege 
Francorum., cujus nomm reticetur, quiinjiliajua adultcrivM 
(3 incestum comtnittere volvit." After all, the primary 
fourte of this popular history is, moft probablely, to be 
found in the legendary life of a fpurious Offa the firft, 
king of the Weft- Angles, attributeed to Matthew Paris 
(fee Watses edition of his HiUoria major, &c. P- 965) : 
and, in fupport of this conjecture, it may beobferve'd, 
that even Gower lays part of his fcene in Engleland. 
F. 104. Series thys ys a fayry. 

Or ellysa. vanyte.] 
The old queen, in V. 446, fays, 

" Sone, thys ys zfende, 

In this wordy wede." 
Gower, in his legend of Conjlance (the Emare of the 
prefent poem), makes Domilde, the kings mother, 
write, in the forge'd letter to her fon, 
** Thy wife, which is oifairie^ 
Of fuche a childe delivered is. 
Fro kinde, whiche ftant all amis." 
In another pasfage, of the fame tale, he fays, 
" The god of hir hath made an ende, 
And fro this yiox\AQ% fayrie 
Hath taken hir into companie :" 
but what he means, by ** tiiis worldes fayrie," is not 
eafey tofurmife. 

V.ixx. Idoyne aW Amadas.] 
The ftory of thefe loveers is mention'd by Gower 
(Confesjio amantisy fo. 133) : 



NOTES. i»$ 

** Myn ere with a good pitance 

Is fed, of redinge of romance. 

Of Idoyne and of Amadas, 

That whilome were in my cas." 
It is, likewife, as mister Warton has obferve'd, citeed 
in the prologue to a collection of legends, call'd Curfor 
mundif an ancient poem, translateed from the French: 

" Men lykyn jellis for to here, 

And romans rede in divers manere, 

Of king John, and of Ifenbras, 
Of Ydoine and Amos." 
Their names allfo occur in the o\A. fabliau of Gautier 
d'Aupah (Fabliaux ou contes, C, 335). The adven- 
tures of" la belle Ydoyne" are contain'd, according to 
M. De Bure (Cata. de la bib. du D. de la V allure: addi^ 
tionSf 53), in the laft part of the MS. Roman d'Aymeri 
de Narbonne : but this is a mistake ; " Le viel [not La 
belle'] Ydoine," being actually, in that romance, a king 
of Arabia : 

" Lejils Guyonfuz le voir iert aifis, 
Et fiert Ydoine qui fu rois darrabiz." 
" Prisfu Ydoine & Margaris li roys." 
•' Le viex Ydoine du chief de [on pais J' 
** Le viel Ydoine apela enfe croi." 
** Le roy Ydoine a pris baptizement." 

(MSS. Reg. 20 D XI.) 
Another inftance has been allready mention'd of a 
knights name in one romance being a ladys in another. 
F. 134, Trystram and Ifowde.] 
Two famous loveers; the fubjefl of many an ancient 
romance. A valuable fragment of one in Frencli verfe 
is in the posfcsfion of Francis Douce efqiiire; and 
another, very curious, and, posfiblcly, ftil older, but 



226 NOTES. 

unfortunately, imperfect, the compofition, it is con- 
jecture'd of Thomas of Learmont, or of Ercildon, 
alias Rymer, a celebrateed prophet, whether Scotifli or 
Engleifh, is preferve'd in the Edinburgh manufcript, 
and wil be fpeedyly, and ablely, publifli'd, by a gen- 
tleman every way qualify 'd to do it justice. Of 
the profe romance are feveral editions, the firfl; of 
which, with a date, was printed, at Paris, in 1489, 
though there is another, posfibleiy ftil more ancient. 
There is, likewfe, a manufcript copy in the kings li- 
brary in the Mufeum (20 D Ii); in an account of 
which, by the learned and accurate mister Pinkerton 
(Ancient Scotijh Poems, P. Ixxvi), he has very inge- 
niously converted Ifcult la blonde, the heroine, into a 
certain Seult Labonde, the authour of the romance. 
Another is in the posfesfion of mister Douce. Their 
adventures are, likewife, imperfedlly relateed in Mart 
d' Arthur. 

V. 146. Florys and^vc(\ Blawncheflour.] 
The romance of Floris and Blanchefleur is one of 
the moft ancient and popular in the French language. 
It is in verfe, and copys are extant in the national li- 
brary, Paris {Bib. Colber. j 128, and Bib. Cois. 733), and 
was in that of St, Germain-despres. (See Bib, univer- 
Jelle des remans y Fevrier, 1777, and Fabliaux ou contes, 
A, 254.) The French history in profe, (Paris, 1554, 
and Lyons, 1571,) is a translation from the Spanifli, 
f lores y Blancajlor, Alcala, 151 2, 4to. An Engleifti 
verfion was formerly in the Cotton library (Viiellius, 
D. III. deftroy'd by the fatal conflagration of 173 1) 
and is enter'd, in the catalogue, under the title of 
«♦ Verfus de amoribus Florifii juvenis & Blancheflorae 
puella, lingua veleri Anglicana." An impcrfedl copy, 
however, is preferve'd in the Edinburgh manufcript. 



NOTES. 317 

The adventures of Florio and Btancajiore, which form 
the principal fubjcft of the Philocopo of Boccace, were 
famous long before the time of that authour, as he 
himfelf informs us, Floris and Blancajlor are men- 
tion'd as illustrious loveers by Matfres Eymengau dc 
Bezcrs, a I angnedocian poet, in his Breviari d'anory 
dateed in the year 1288. See Tyrwhitts Introductory 
discourje, n. 25. 

^.218. They wefli, and feten down to mete.] 

It was an invariable custom, in ancient times, for all 
the guefts to waHi their hands before fiting down to 
table ; many other inftancees whereof occur in thefe 
romancees. 

V. 348. Dowgityr, y wall wedde the."] 

This incestuous propofal is unnotice'd by Gower 
and Chaucer, who relate this part of the ftory in a dif- 
ferent way; but Matthew Paris fuppofees the daugh- 
ter of the pelty-king of York, whom Offa finds in a 
forefl, to give him this account of herfelf : " Hujus 
incomparabilis pulchritudinis fingulartm eminenti am, pater 
admirans, amatorio dcemone feductusy cepit earn incestu lihi- 
dinofo concupiscere, et ad amorem il[icitum,fapefollicitarey 
ipjam puellam minis, pollicitis, blavditiis, atque muneribus 
adolescentuUz temptans emolire covjlantiam. Ilia autem operi 
nefario millatenus adquiescens, . . .pater itaque. . .pracepit earn 
in defertum folitudinis remota duci, vel potiiis trahi, et 
crudelisjima morte condemnatam, bestiis ibidem derelinqui." 
As it may be objedled that this princefs is banifti'd 
into a forefl, inftead of being ex pofe'd upon the ocean, 
the legendary appears to have referve'd the latter inci- 
dent for the pretended life of another Offa, king of 
the Mercians, where we are told that a certain lady, 
3 



jaS NOTES. 

couHn to Charlemagne, with a beauteous face, but no 
better than fhe (hould be, was, for a fla;>ifioiis crime 
wlwch flie had commited, put into a boar, w ithout tac- 
kleing, and expofe'd to the cafiialtys of the w inds and 
waves ; but, landing on the Britifli coaft, Ihe became, 
in a fliort time, the wife of this Offa. 

y^. 271. She nojle have with her no fpendyng, 
Nether mete ne drynke.] 

It is very fingular that thefe lines (hould nearly 
occur again in A'. 593 : 

" And lette her have no fpendyng, 
For no mete^ nyfor drynke." 
Thus in the original ; but as the word drynke by no 
means anfwers in rime io fpendyng \ and either line is 
too fliort for the metre ; though the poem is fufficiently 
corre6t, in every other place; the editour has takien 
the liberty to infert, after drynke, in the frrft pasfage, 
[givyng'l, and to alter it, in the other, to drynkynge \ 
being reducc'd to the unpleafant alternative of either 
fuffering both defefls to remain, or hazarding tJjefe 
very unfatisfactory conjectures. 
y. 649. The lady and the lytyll chylde 

Fleted forth on the water wylde... 
And when the chyld gan to wepe, 
Withfory hert, fhe (ojige hit aflepe.] 
This is the fecond time our heroine has been ex- 
pofe'd at fea, in an open boat, and tlie firft, with her 
little child. Danae, the daughter of Acrifnis, king of 
Argos, with Perfeus, her infant fon, (byjupiter, as it is 
pretended, in a (hower of gold, while flie was confine'd 
by her father, for the prefervation of her chastity^} 



NOTES. •si^ 

was expofe'd, in like manner, by that monarch, in a 
cheft ; and, being fave'd by fome fiftiermen, on the 
coaft of the iland of Seriphus, was carry'd to Poly- 
dectes, king of that country, who, afterward, fel in 
love with her. There is a beauty ful fragment remain- 
ing of an elegiack fong, by the poet Simonides (a trou- 
veur, likewife, at once, according to Huet, and chart' 
teur), which flie is fuppofe'd to make, and, Hke the 
disconfolate Emare, fing to her child, while fhut up 
•in the cheft ; thus elegantly translateed by the inge- 
nious doctor Burney : 

** Sweet child! what anguifli does thy mother know, 
Ere cruel grief has taught tliy tears to flow 1 
Amidft the roaring winds tremendous found, 
Which threats deftruction, as it howls around, 
In balmy fleep thou lyeft, as at the breaft. 
Without one bitter thought to break tJiy reft. — 
The glim'ring moon in pity hides her light. 
And ftirinks with horrour from the glialUy fight. 
Did'ft thou but know, fweet harmonift! our woes, , 
Not opiates pow'r thy eye-lids now could clofe, 
Sleep on, fweet babe! ye waves in lilence roll, 
And lull, o lull to reft, my tortur'd foul I" 

This fable may, reafonablely, be thought the germ of 
all the ftorys in which a fimilar event is introduce'd : 
for nothing feems more probable than that the com- 
pofeers of romance were wel acquainted with the an- 
cient Greek and Latin poets. 

^.796. By my krowne Pie Jhall be brent,] 
Gower, in his legend of Conjlancc, haveing relatced 
3 



•328 NOTES. 

tliis circumftance, vvhicli he fuppofees to have actually 
takeen place, ads, 

*< Which through the londe was after fonge;" 
and it may be further remark'd that our miiiftrel 
here, toward the commencement of his romance, 
fays, 

♦' Her name was called Emare, 
As i here fynge in fonge ;" 

and, again : 

" As y have herd menftrelles fyngyn faw." 
So that we are, by no means, at the end of our re- 
fearches. 

F. 876. Lordy he ftydyy hyghtk Segramowres.] 
In Gowers legend he has the name of Moris, 
Chaucer feems to have change'd it to Maurice \ and 
fays, 

** In the old Romane geftes men may find 
Maurices lif, i bere it not in mind." 
It is not, however, in any printed copy or manufcript 
of the Gesta Romanorum now known to exift. 
F. 1030. Tkys ys on o/'Brytayne layes.] 
Brytayne is generally fuppofe'd to mean Armories 
or Bafle-Rretayne. The /a^j of this country, admit- 
ing that conftruction, were anciently very celebrateed, 
alltho'.igh not one, nor even the fmalleft vestige of one, 
in its vernacular language (a dialect of the mritanno- 
Celtick), is known to exift; fo falfe are the asfertions 
of mister VVarton, that *' no part of France can boaft 
fo ^reat a number of antient romances ;" of which the 
Bretons cannot produce a Angle fpecimen ; and that 



NOTES. 339 

*' Tiany poems o^ hi^Ji ant'quity, compofed by the 
Armcrican bard., ftili remain, and are iro juently 
cited by father Lobineau m his learned history of 
BalTe-Bretaj^Mie."* 

Chaucer, in his Frankeleines prologue, lias the follow- 
ing lines : 

" Thife old gentil Rretons in hir dayes 
Of diveife aventures niaden layes, 
Rimeyed in hir firfte Breton tonge; 
"Which layes with hir inftruments they fonge, 
Or elles redden hem for hir plefanre, 
And on of hem have i in remembrance, — 
In Armorike, that called is Bretaigne, &c." 

See, too, what is fay'd on this fubjeft in the prologue 
to the romance oi Sir Orphcwe (or Orpheo). 

Chaucer, certainly, in the above inllance, and, per- 
bap, the authour of Sir Orpheo, allude to the Armorican 
Britons. 

Again, in TAe erle ofTolous : j"'- r 

" A laye of Bretayne callyd hyt ys.' ' 

The old Engleifli Ballad of fir Gowther (Royal xMSS, 

* History ofEngliJh poetry, Di^^fertation I. fig. a 2. In all 
this there is not a word of truth, any more than in his pre- 
tended migration into this country of a colony or army of the 
Welfh under Maximus, in the fourth century. The Bretons, 
as elfewhere mention'd, have but one fingle poefh, of any con- 
fequence, in their native idiom, ancient or modern : the pre- 
dictions of a pretended prophet, name'd Gwinglaff; the MS. 
whereof is dateed 1450. According to the preface to Pellctiers 
dictionary, they never cultivatced poetry ; and the language 
they fpeak feems incapable of the meafure, fweetnefs and 
liarmony of verfe. 



330 NOTES. 

17 B XLIII), as mister Tyrwhitt has remark'd, is 
fay'd by the writeer to have been takeen out of one of the 
layes of Britanyex and, in another place, he fays tkejirfl 
lay of Britanye. (Introductory discourfe, n. 24. 

In the old French romance of Merlin, that prophet 
comes into the prefence of king Arthur and his court 
at a great feaft, in the form of a beautyful blind harper, 
and harps ** ung lai de Breton." (Fo. cix.) 

There is a curious and valuable collection of French 
lais, or fhort metrical tales, by Marie de France, moft 
of which are asferted to have been made by the Bre- 
tons. See Wartons History of En gli/k poetry, Disferta- 
tionl. n.d. znATyrwMwxs Introductory discourfe, n. 24, 
and note on V, 10985.* In the prologue to this col- 
lection we are told 

• This fet of old French tales of chivalry in verfe was 
writen, as Warton pretends, by the bards of Bretas^ne. That 
it was the compofition, but not the publication, of Mary the 
poetefs, who, likewife, profefs'd to translate the fables of ^fop 
from an Englifh or Saxon verfion of king Alfred, is manifeft : 

" Oez feignurs ke dit Marie, 

Ki en fon tens pas ne foblie :"f 
whence it appears fhe was then dead ; the editour, whofe ad- 
drefs it is, periifting topraife her, though fhe were defame'dby 
perfons of great confequence. In the lays themfelves ftic 
fpeaks of herfelf in the firfl perfon : 

'* Marie at nun,Jifui de France." 
The Varice Britannorumfahilce, in the library of the univer- 
fity of Upfal, which mister Tyrwhitt took to be a translation 
of thefc lays into one of the northern languagees, feems rather 
to be a copy of the original French. A metrical verfton of 
Lay lefreine is extant in the Edinburgh manufcript, but flil 
imperfe&. 

f Soblie ffoublie) fotfoilia, rythmi gratxA. 



NOTES. 331 

" Les contes ke iofai venaii 

Dvvt li Bretun urttfait Us lais." 
This, or a fnnilar expresfion, occurs repeatedly; and 
Eltduc is expref>ly call'd 

•' Un vmt ancim lai Bretun." 
The fcene, allfo, is frequently lay'd in Bretayne, which, 
in one place, is exprefsly called Bretaigne la menur; 
and, in another, is ascertain'd by the mention of 
Navtes.* She muft, however, mean Great Britain, in 
the lay of Lanval, where (he mentions Kardoel, and 
that of Ywenet, where flie fpeaks of Carwent (i, e. Fenta 
Silurum, now Chepftow), which fhe placees upon the 
Du/as, inftead of the JVye. She, likewife, in others, 
mentions Suht-Wales, Toteneis, and Excestre. Another 
of her fcenes is lay'd in Normendie. There are other 
lays of the fame defcription, not attributeed to Mary; 
as the Laide Gnie/ati {Fabliaux ou contes. A, 125), which 
is likewife a lai dc Bretagne. In the fame book is the 
extract of another lay of Bretagne, intitle'd " Lai du 
huisfon d'epine." In tlie old profe romance of Merlin, 
that magician introducees hinifelf before king Arthur 
under the appearance of a handfome, young, and blind 
minftrel, " & it karpoit," fays the ftory, " nng lay de 
Breton, par telle /agon que ccjloit melodic de louyr." 
(Volume II, fo. 109.) The Roman de Tristan, an an- 

* One of her lays, alfo, is intitle'd LaiijHc, by mistake for 
Eaujlic, or E'aujlicg, wViich in Breton lignitys a nightingale. 
See the dictionarys of Pelletier and Rostrenen. Another is 
called Bisclaveret, a corruption, or intentional alteration of 
Bleiz-garv, a loupgarou, or wer-wolf. See Rostrenen, voce 
Garou. The words of the tale are, 

" Bisclaveret ad nun en Bretan, 

Garwaf lapelent li Norman." Fo. isa. 



S3« NOTES. 

cient manufcript already niention'd, has the following 
pasfage ; part of Tristans addrefs to Yfolt: 
** Bans lais de harpe vus apris 
Lais Bretiins de nostre pais." 
This proves, what one might naturally enough have 
fufpefled, that the Bretagne, or Bretuns, fpokecn of in 
thefe lays are not the country and peopleof Armorica, 
but Ihofe of Great- Britain; Tristan being a native 
of Liones, an imaginary distri6l, which adjoin'd to 
Cornwall, and, as Carew pretends, was devour'd by 
the fea. 

Tristan himfelf was famous for his lays, feme of 
which are preferve'd in his profe history ; and, upon 
the death of this hero, fays one of the manufcripts, 
" U rots Artus enfjl un lai, quifu aptlli le lai roial, £? 
Lancelot en fit deus autres ' (20 D II.) In the Lai du 
buisfon d'epine, of which an extrafl is giveen by Le 
Grand {Fabliaux ou contes, D, 103), the authour fays, 
of thefe lays, " They iiave been chanted in Bretagne 
and elfewhere. They preferve the originals at Car- 
lion:'' and, Carlion, or Cue rleon, was one of Arthurs 
palaceesin modern S. Wales, as was allfo Caerwent all- 
reudy alludeed to. So tiiat it is far from being certain 
that, by the Breton lays of the I'Vench romaiicees, are in- 
tended the productions of Armorica ; and, much more 
probable, that they generally, by Bretagne and Bretons, 
mean the iland and inhabitants of Great-Britain, ren- 
der'd famous upon the continent by the fabulous his- 
tory of Geoffrey of Monmouth. It does not, at the 
fame time, appear that any fuch lays are preferve'd in 
Wales any more than in Baje- Bretagne, if, in fa6l, they 
ever exifted in either country. 

F. 1032. Men callys playn the garye.] 



NOTES. 333 

Playing the gar)'e would fecm, from this pasfage, to 
mean tlie publick recitation of fuch a ftory as the pre- 
fent, accompany'd by correfpondent action, and the 
melody of the harp. We are told by Carew, that 
*' The Giiary- miracle, in Englifti, a miracle-play, is a 
kinde of enterlude, compiled in Cornifh, out of fome 
fcriptiire-history, with that groflenes which accompa- 
nied the Romanes vctus comedia. For reprefenting it," 
he ads, *' they raife an earthen amphitheatre, in fome 
open field, having the diameter of his enclofed playne 
fome 40 or 50 foot. The country- people flock from 
all fides, many miles off, to heare and fre it : for they 
have therein devils and devices, to delight as well the 
eye as the eare : the players conne not their parts with- 
out booke, but are prompted by one called the ordi- 
nary', who followeth at their back with the booke in 
his hand, and telleth them foftly what they mull pro- 
nounce aloud." {Survey of Cornwall, fo.7i,b.) Someof 
thefe ordinalia, or interludes, in the Cornifli language, 
are extant in manufcript. 



SIR ORPHEO. 

This lay, or tale, being rather too concife to be dc- 
nominafeed a metrical romance, is a Gothick metamor- 
phofis of the clasfical epifode of Orpheus and Eurydice, 
fo beautyfuUy relateed by Ovid. It profefses, like the 
tales of Mary of France, to be a lay of Britain, (whe- 
ther Great- Britain or Armorica, has been allready 
discufs'd ;) and, if it have not fo much merit as fome 
others of thefe poetical compofitions, the mod fastidious 
reader can fcarcely complain of its prolixity. There 



334 NOTES. 

are two copys of this poem ; one, from which it was 
tranfcribe'd, among the Harleian maniifcripts, num- 
ber 3810 ; and another in the Auchinleck manuftript 
(W. 4. I. number lii), in the Advocates library, 
Edinburgh : each more or lefs imperfedh The 
latter, which omits the prologue, and coniniencees, 
abruptly, 

" Orpheo was a ryche king," 
is much longer than the poem here printed, which 
feems abridge'd from it, by confiderable omisfions, 
many of the remaining lines being the fame: but 
whether it be a translation from a French original 
(which, at leaft, is fufficiently probable) there is no 
mean to ascertain. Another fragment in the fame MS. 
(num. xxxv), though upon a different fubjeft, begins, 
precifeiy, like tlie I (arleian copy, but is intitle'd Lay U 
Jreine (The tale of the afh), and, apparently, a verfion 
of Marys poem under the fame title. 

Among the " pleyfand ftoreis," enumcrateed in 
The complaynt cf Scotland, 1549, is ** Opheus, kyng of 
Poitingal :" but whether the name fhould have been 
Orpheus, and the ftory were the fame, or a different 
one, cannot be ascertain'd. " A tedious fable, ac- 
cording to Pinkerton, by [Robert] Henryfon, with a 
fpiritual moralization," of" Orpheus kyng, and how 
he yeid to hewyn and to hel to feik his quene," was 
printed at Edinburgh, by Walter Chepman, in 1508. 
In an old poem of " the laying of a gaift," quoteed, 
by mister Leyden, from the Bannatyne MS. the 
♦' gaifl" rs niarryd to " the Spenzie flie. 

And crownd him kyng of Kandelie ; 

And thay gat them betwene 

Orpheus Aing, and £/pAa queue." (P. 283.) 



NOTES. 335 

y. 29. Hisfadre was come o/'king Pluto, 

And his modur cam o/'quene Juno.] 
The original pasfage of the Harley MS. reads thus: 
** His fadre was come 0^ fir Pilato, 
And his modur cam of Yno;" 
which do not accord fo wel with the following couplet, 
'* That in time were goddys holden, 
For wordys that they dedyn and tolden," 
as thofe of the Edinburgh one: 

•* His fader was conien of king Pluto, 
^ And his moder of king [r. queue] Juno.'* 
V. 47. Orpheofujemeth in Crasfens.] 
The correfpoiiding lines of the Edinburgh copy 
are 

** This king fojournd in Tracens 
That was a cite of noble defens," 
to which it ads 

<< For Winchester was cleped tho 
Traciens withouten no." 
y. 140. Then com her kyng alfo blyve.] 
This monarch, (who is anonymous), it appears, 
from afubfequent verfe was "kyngof Fayr^," his at- 
tendants are numerous, his riches and magnificence 
immenfe ; and fuch fair knights, as the thoufand and 
more who accompany 'd him, Erodys had never feen : 
no notice, therefor, being takeen of their verdant ves- 
ture, or diminutive fize, the characteristicks of En- 
gleifh fairys, it may be fairly concludeed that the poem 
was not invented or compofe'd in this country ; the 
fairys of the French and Italian romancees being es- 
fentially distinct, and, in fact, generally females, en- 
dow 'd with fingular beauty and fuperiiatural powers. 
See an account of this fort of fairy in the roman d'Ogier 



336 NOTES. 

U Danois, or that of Hum de BaurdtauXy of which ther« 
is an Engleifh verfion. 

V. 179. The kyng of Fayr^ with his rouUf 
Com to hunte all aboute. 
With dunnyng and with blowyng, 
And houndys cryeng ; 
Butforfothe no brjl they nomty 
Ne he wijl wher they hecom.'j 
In Chancers Marchantes talt he fpeaks of 

" Pluto, that is the king of Faerie." V. lOioi, 
V. 336. And ajked what wilt thou do? 
Pcrfay, y am a myvjlral lo.] 
Thus, in the Auchinleckcopy: 

*» And afked what he wold hzvcydo. 
Parfay, qiiath he, icham a minftrel lo,** 
The Harley MS. n&Asfo, in thefirft line. 
y. 510. Explicit Orpheo regii. 
The Edinburgh copy ends thus : 
*' Now king Orfeo coround is, 
And his quen came Heurodis; 
And lived long afterward. 
And feththen was king the fteward, 
Harpours in Bretain after than 
Herd how this mervail bigan, 
And made her of a lay of gode likeing 
And nempned it after the king; 
That lay Orfeo is yhote, 
Gode is the lay, fwete is the note. 
Thus com fir Orfeo out of his care : 
God graunt ous al wele to fare." 



NOTES. 335: 

F, 29. Hiifadre was come ofSdng Pluto, 

And his modur cam o/'quene Juno.] 
The original pasfage of the Harley MS. reads thus: 
** His fadre was come oijir PilatOy 
And his modur cam oiYno'j" 
which do not accord fo wel with the following couplet, 
'* That in time were goddys holden. 
For wordy s that they dedynand tolden," 
as thofe of the Edinburgh one: 

*• His fader was comen oi king Pluto, 
And his moder of king [r. quene] Juno." 
V. 47. Orpkeofujerneth in Crasfens.] 
The correfponding lines of the Edinburgh copy 
are 

** This king fojourned in Tractns 
That was a cite of noble defens," 
to which it ads 

<« For Winchester was depcd the 
Tractens withouten no." 
F, 140. Then com her kyng al/b ilyvt."] 
This monarch, (who is anonymous), it appears, 
from a fubfequent verfe was ** kyng of Fayre," his at- 
tendants are numerous, his riches and magnificence 
immenfe ; and fuch fair knights, as the thoufand and 
more who accompany'd him, Erodys had never feen : 
no notice, therefor, being takeen of their verdant ves- 
ture, or diminutive fize, the characteristicks of En- 
gleifh fairys, it may be fairly concludeed that the poem 
was not invented or compofe'd in this country ; the 
fairys of the French and Italian romancees being es- 
fentially distinft, and, in fa6l, generally females, en- 
dow'd with Angular beauty and fupernatural powers. 
See an account of this fort of fairy in the rman d'Ogier 
3 



330 NOTES. 

U Danois, or that of Huon de Bourdeauxy of which there 
is an Engleifh verfion. 

F, 179. The kyng of Fayr6 zoitk his route f 
Com to hunte all aboutej 
With dunnyng and toith blozoyng^ 
And houndys cryeng ; 
Butforfothe no bejl they nomef 
Ne he tuijl wher they becom.'\ 
In Chancers Marchantes tale he fpeaks of 

" Pluto, that is the king of Faerie." V. lOiOi. 
Z'. 336. And ajked what wilt thou do f 
. Perfay,y am amynjirallo.l 
Thus, in the Auchinleck copy : 

" And a(ked what he wold hzwtydo, 
Parfay, quath he, icham a minftrel lo," 
The Harley MS. readsyo, in thefirft line. 
y. $10. Explicit Orphco regis. 
The Edinburgh copy ends thus : 
" Now king Orfeo coround is, 
And his quen dame Heurodis ; 
And lived long afterward, 
And feththen was king the fteward. 
Harpours in Bretain after than 
Herd how this mervail bigan, 
And made her of a lay of gode likeing 
And nempned it after the king j 
That lay Orfeo is yhote, 
Gode is the lay, fwete is the note. 
Thus com fir Orfeo out of his care : 
God graunt ous al wele to fare." '' 
In the library of Geneva (Num. 179) is " Defcription 
de la defcente d'Orphe'e aux enjers, lorsqu'il alia pour y 
•ktrcherfaftmme Eurydice." MS. en vers " tres ancien." 



MOTES. 337 



CHRONICLE OF ENGLAND. 

Of this old metrical chronicle (tranfcribe'd from a 
nianufcript of the royal library (12 CXII) there is 
another copy in that of the faculty of advocates, all- 
ready notice'd, to which are prefix'd the following 
lines by way of title : 

" Here may men read, who co can, , 

How Inglond firlt bigan ; 
Then mow it find in Englifche, 
As the Broiit it tellelh y wis." 
At the end is " Explicit liber regum Anglia." 

There can be no doubt that this and fimilar chro- 
nicles were compofe'd for the purpofe of being fung 
in publick to the harp. " Our modern ballads," ac- 
cprding to Hearne, *< are, for the moft part, roman- 
tick ; but the old ones contain matters of fa6l, and were 
generally written by good fcholars...They were a fort 
of chronicles. So that the wife founder of New-college 
permitted them to be fung, by the fellows and fcholars 
of that college, upon extraordinary days." (Appendix 
to Hemingi Chartularium,V. 662.) He refers, for the 
laft faa, to " Statuta Coll. Novi, Rubric XVIII :" the 
words of which ftatute, as giveen by Warton, are as 
follows : " Quando ob dei reverentiam out fue matris, vel 
alterius Jancti cujuscunque, tempore yemali, ignis in aula 
Jbciis minijlratur ; tunc fcolaribus et fociis pojl tempus 
prandii cut cene, liceat, gracia recreationis, in aula, in 
cantilenis et aliis Jolaciis Aonestis, moram facere condecen- 
tem ; et poemata, regnorum chronicas, et jnundi hujus 
mirabiliay ac cetera que Jiatum ckricalem condecorant^ 
VOL. in. Z 



33S NOTES. 

feriqfius pertractare." (History of Englifh poetry, T, 92.) 
•' The latter part of this injunction," he ads, " feems 
to be an explication of the former : and on the whole 
it appears, that the cantilena which the fcholars fhould 
fing on thefe occafions, were a fort oi poematay or poet- 
ical chronicles, containing general histories of king- 
doms." " The fame thing," he fays, " is enjoined 
in the ftatutes of Winchester college ;" was afterward 
*' adopted into the ftatutes of Magdalen college;" and 
from thence, if he recoUedts right, "copyed into thofe 
of Corpus Christi, Oxford." {Ibi. 93.) 

The practice of delivering oral history appears, in 
fa£l, to be of much greater antiquity, and, if not of the 
Saxon times, cannot be much lower. Matthetv Paris, 
in his legend of Offa the firft, fays that king War- 
mund, his father, is celebrateed with the chief praife 
of commendation by thofe who had ufe'd historys of 
the Engles, not onely to utter by relation, but allfo 
to infert in writeings. (P. 961). 

Even Robert of Brunne, though he profefses to have 

*' mad noght for no difours, 

Ne for no feggers no harpours," 
fays, at the fame time, 

" And therfore for the comonalte 

That blythely wild liften to me. 

On light lange i it began 

For luf of the lewed man ;" 
and concludes his prologue by affirming, that he 

*♦ Did it wryte for felawes fake, 

When thai wild folace make ;" 
that is, as mister Warton properly explains it, *' he 
intended his chronicle to be fung, at lead by parts, at 
public festivals." 



NOTES. 339 

Another poem of the fame nature may be found in 
Hearnes appendix to Robert of Gloucesters chronicle 
(P- 5°5)> in the glosfary to which work (P. 731) he 
introducees an extract from the fragment of a fimilar 
performance. 

The prefent bears internal evidence of haveingbeen 
compofe'd in the reign of Edward the fecond ; and 
that the manufcript itsfelf is of the fame age feems no 
kfs certain; haveing the pointed <-, and the K both 
Saxon characters, the latter of which is rarely ufe'd at 
a lateer period, a different letter, p, being adopted in 
its ftead. As to the reft, tl.e hand is, apparently, that 
of a Norman-law-fcribe, and bears theclofeeft refem- 
blanceto that of the Harleian MS. 2253, which con- 
tains King HoiTiy &c. 

F. 178. Four tonnes, &c.] The fragment of this 
chronicle printed by Selden, in a note upon the third 
fong of Draytons Poly-Olbion, reads, 

" Two tunne, &c." 
and contains other flight variations in allmoft every 
line. It does not appear whence he had it. 



340 NOTES. 

VOLUME III. 

LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME. 

J- HE onely copy of this excellent old romance is ex- 
tant in a paper MS. in biftiop Mores collections, in 
the publick library of the univerfity of Cambridge 
(Num. 690), writen, it feems, in or about the time of 
king Edward IV. from which it has been, and, it is 
hope'd, carefully, tranfcribe'd. No French original is 
known, though repeated referencees to " the boke'' or 
•* romance" render it more than probable that fuch a 
one has actually exifted. As to the reft, aftory, much 
more concife, indeed, but, in many refpeCts, fimilar, 
is to be fouod in the manufcript copys of the Latin 
Gesta Romanorum (Harley, 2270, &c. C. loi), as wel 
as in the Engleifh verfions of that work {Ibi. 7333, 
Num. 69, and Robinfons edition, fig. O b). This» 
which is likewife told in the Speculum historiaU of Fin- 
centius Bdlovacenjis (L. 7, C. 90), was dilateed in pro- 
faick ftanzas by Thomas Hoccleve; and a material 
incident, common to both (that of the bloody knife), 
is introduce'd into Gowers legend of Conftance, and 
ChauccTS Man of lawes tale ] though it docs not occur 
in Lmare, which, as wil beelfewhere obferve'd, isfub- 
ftantially the fame narrative.* See Wartons History of 
Engli/h poetry, III, Ixxxiii. The fame ftory, in French 
verfe, exifts in a MS. of the twelfth and thirteenth 

* This incident has, likewife, found its way into the Histoire, 
it Gerard comte dt Nnersi fee tome 2, C, 4. 



NOTES. 34t 

century, in the library of Berne (Num. 634). See 
Sinners catalogue (111,389), and Le Grand, Fabliaux 
ou contesy V, 164. It is allfo in the Patron as de Timo- 
neda, fo. 21. The MS. has every .where the Saxon p 
for th. 

* ^,* The name of the romance, or its heroine, would 
be more properly writen La bonne Florence of Rome, 
but our ancestours, who acquire'd their French, like 
Chancers priorefs, 

" After the fcole of Stratford atte bowe," 
feem to have pay'd little or no attention to gender. 
We flil call the parifli of St. Mary la bonne, as, gram- 
matically, it owes to be, St. Mary lebone. 

There is no head-title in the MS. but, at the end, is 
" Explicit le bone Florence of Rome." 

V. 33. A fourth part of this ftanza is wanting: all 
the reft are perfeft. 

F. 198. " Feyre, fyrrys, mote you befalle.''] 
This interruption in the embasfadoursaddrefs feems 
to be a compliment, or welcome, on the kings part j 
after which the embasfadour proceeds. 

F. 655. At thefurjle wynnyng of ther fchone.] 
A young or new-made knight was fay'd to zuin his 
fpurs when he firft achieve'd fome gallant action. To 
win hisjlioes is a phrafe of fimilar import, but of lefs 
dignity. It occurs again, in Thefquyre of low degre : 
" For, and ye my lo^e fhould wynne, 
With chyvalry ye muft begynne. 
And other dedes of amies to done, 
Through which ye may wynne your Jhone \" 
Again : 

" And whan ye, fyr, thus have done. 
Than are ye worthy to were your Jhone." 



34* NOTES. 

At the battle of Cresfy, the prince, Edward, being 
hard befet, " fcnt a mesfanger to the kinge, who was 
on a lytell winde-mill-liill ; then the knig'ite fayd to 
the king, Sir, therle of Warwike, and therle of Cam- 
fert, fir Rcynolde Cobham, and other fuche as be about 
the prince your fon, are fiersly fought withal, and are 
fore handled; wherfore theydefyre you that you and 
your bataile wold come and aide them, for if the 
Frenchmen encreafe, as they dout they wyll, youre 
fonne and they fliall have muche ado. Then the kynge 
fayde, Is my fonne dead, or hurt, or on the earth 
felled ? No, fyr, quod the knight, but he is hardely 
matched, wherefore he hath nede of your ayde. Well, 
fayde the king, retourne to him, and to them that 
fent you hither, and fay to them, that they fende 
no more to me for any adventure that falleth, as long 
as my fonne is aly ve ; and alfo fay to them, that they 
fuffer him this day to wjnne his spurres ; for, yf 
god be pleafed, i will this iourney be his, and the ho- 
nour therof, and to them that be about hym." (Frois- 
Jarts CronyckSf by fir John Bourchier, lord Berners, 
1525, P. 65 See allfo Fabliaux ou contest D, 107.) 

y. 134a. The three laft lines of this ftanza are ap- 
parently mifsing: every other confifting of twelve, of 
which the rime of every third line is uniform. 



THE ERLE OF TOLOUS. 

This romance is printed from a tranfcript made, for 
the editour, by his amiable and accomplifii'd friend 
the late John Baynes, from the MS. in the publick 
library of the univerlity of Cambridge allready de- 



NOTES. 343 

fcribe'd. There is another copy of it in the Aflimolean 
mufeiim (45, 4to), of which doctor Percy has got a 
tranfcript, and a third" (imperfect) in the library of 
Lincoln-cathedral. This laft is intitle'd as follows: 
** Here bygynnes the romance of Dyoclecyane the 
eniperour, and the erle Berade of Tholous, and of 
the emprice Beaiililione;" and commencees, unme- 
tricaliy, 

'* Jhu Crifle god and lorde in trynyte." 
No French original is known : the " Roman de Dioclt- 
tian" (as it is occafionally call'd) being that of The 
feven wife masters of Rome: neither has the ftory itsfelf 
been met with, though incidents of a fimilar nature are 
not uncommon. 

Warton thinks he has " feen fome evidence to 
prove, that Chestre [the authour of Sir Launfal] was 
alio the author of the metrical romance called The erle 
cfTholoufe." (H. E, P. II, 103) : it is a pity he could 
not recollect where or what, as no one, it is believe'd, 
has been equally fortunate. 

V. 355. Hur hondys whyte as whallys bonne.] 

This allufion is not to what we now call zvhale^bonet 
which is wel known to be black, but to the ivory of the 
horn or tooth of the Narwhal, or fea-unicorn, which 
feems to have been mistakeen for the whale. The 
fimile is a remarkable favourite ; Thus, in Syr Egla- 
mour of Artoys : 

" The erle had no chylde but one, 

• A mayden as white as whales bone." 
Again, in Syr Ifembras: , 

" His wyfe as white as whales bone'* 
Again, in Tkefquyr of low degre: 

" Lady as white as whales bone." 



344 ' NOTES. 

It even occiirs in Skeltons, and Surreys Poems, and, 
what is ftil more extraordinary, in Spenfers Faerie 
quene, and Shakfpeares Loves- labours-lqft (if, in fa£l, that 
part of it ever receive'dthe illuminateing touch of our 
great dramatift). Mister Steevens, in his note on the 
laft inftance, obferves that whales ** is the Saxon geni- 
tive cafe," meaning that it requires to be pronounce'd 
as a disfyllable, (thus, whales, or, more properly, 
whaU'e's,) wliich it, certainly, is in every inftance. 
F. 522. Thoujhalt take us with the dede.] 
That is, with the manner (a law-phrafe, cum manu 
opere, ovesque le main auvre), Jlagrante delicto, or in the 
very aft, and, in what the Scots call'd, in refpecl of 
their deer-ftealers, the reid, or iluidy, hand. 
^.1213. A lay of Bretayne callyd hyt ys.'\ " 
See Emare, V. 1030, and the note upon that pasfagc. 



THE SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 

This ftrange and whimfycal, but genuine Engleifh, 
performance is Jiere giveen from a copy in quarto, 
and black-letter, without date, " Imprented at Lon- 
don by me Wyllyam Copland," extant among mis- 
ter Garricks old plays, now in the Britifti mufeum 
(K. vol. 9). That it was printed before 1575 is evi- 
dent from Lanehams •' Letter," allready mention'd ; 
and, in faift, as Copland dye'd in 1568, or 1569, could 
not be lateer than one of thofe years. It was, more- 
over, licenfe'd to John Kynge, on the loth of June 
1560; and, from the apparent modernifation of the 
printed copy, feems of much greater antiquity. Spen- 
fer, in. his Faery quene, has introduce 'd " The fquire of 



NOTES. 345 

lowe degree;" and, in Shakfpeares play of King Henry 
the fifth, captain Fluellen fays to ancient Pistol, •* You 
call'd me yesterday mountain [quire, but i wil make you 
■to-^sy a /quire of lozoedegre" (Aft V, fcene i), Thefe 
allufions prove, at leaft, the popularity of the poem; 
its age, however, cannot be eafeyly ascertain'd; for, 
though it has been thought even anteriour, in point 
of date, to the time of Ghaucer, it is never mention 'd 
by any one writeer, before the fixteenth* century ; 
nor is it known to be extant in manufcript; and, in 
faft, the Mufeum c©py is the onely one that exifts in 
print. 

V. I, It was a fquyer of lowe degre."] 

A fquire was a Itate or condition inferiour, and, 
generally fpeaking, preparatory, to that of a knight, 
upon whom the fquire attended in the nature of a fer- 
vant ; haveing the care of his horfe and armour ; drefs- 
ing and undrefsing him; and carveing his meat, and 
ferveing him with bread and wine, at table. See Me- 
moires fur I'ancienne chevalerie, tome I, P. ii, &c, A 
moft curious and intei'ening account of the education, 
employments, and progrefs, of a page, varlet, or fquire, 
wil be found in the Histoire etplaifante cronicque du petit 
Jehan de Saintre, an excellent romance of the fifteenth 
century (Paris, 1523, 1724). 

F. 29. And in the arber was a tre, &c.] 

Warton, who conjectures this poem to be " coeval 
with Chaucer," fays, in a note, " From this pasfage, 
and another of the fame fort, an ingenious correfpon- 
dent* has taken occafion to confider Chancers Rime of 

* This ingenious correfpondent turns out to be mister, af- 
terward doctor Percy, fince dean of Carlile, and now biftiop, 
of Dromore. See a note in his Reliques of ancient Engli/k 
poetry, London, 1794, III, xxiii. 



346 NOTES. 

Jir Thopas in a new light ;" and tranfcribes his words. 
*' The rhyme of fir Thopas was intended, by Chaucer, 
as a kind of burlefqiie on the old ballad -romances ; 
irany of which he quotes..., Now, in thefe old ro- 
mances, nothing is fo common as impertinent digres- 
fions, containing affected enumerations of trees, birds, 
&c. There is a fpecimen of the former in an old ro- 
mance, intitied. The fquyer of lowt degre:* where it is 
remarkable that the author has reckoned the lily, the 
pianyy {\\e fctker-uiood, Sec. as trees. With the fame 
accuracy the pie, the popinjay, the fparrow, &c. are 
clafsed among the finging birds in the lines which im- 
mediately follow the lift of trees. ...From thefe lines 
we (hall eafily perceive the drift of Chaucer's humour 
in the following ftanzas of Sir Thcpas: 

There fpringeii herbes grete and final, 

The lycores and the fetuall, 
And many a clove gelofer. 

And nutmeges to put in ale. 

Whether it be new or ftale, 
Or for to lie in cofer. 

The birdes fingen, it is no naie, 

Ihcfperhawke, and the popinjay e. 
That joye it w as to here ; 

The throstell eke made his lave, 

The wood-cockc upon the fpraye. 
She fong full loud and clere. 

♦ Though this " ingenious correfpondent" has allready 
fay'd, that, in what he is pleafe'd to call " the old ballad- 
romances," nothing is fo common as thefe impertinent digres- 
fions and enumerations, he was not able to produce a fmgle 
inftance, except The fquyr of loue degre, which, after all, is 
not prove'd to be one of thefe " old ballad-romances j". none 
of which, in fa6l, contains any fuch irapertinencees. 



NOTES. 347 

The ** ingenious correfpondent" ads that Speght and 
Urry have " fubftituted wood-larke, indead of wood- 
cock, not confidering that Cliaucer is jocofe." Tyr- 
whitts edition, however, indisputablely the beft, reads 
wood dove; and as Lybtaus Disconus, one of the ro- 
mancees enumerateed by Chaucer, is alhideed to in 
The fquyr of lowe degre, it is not, probablely, allfo, of 
his age. (See Obfervations on the Fairy queen, I, 139.) 

Bottom, the weaver, in Shakfpeares Midfummer- 
nights-dream, after he has receive'd Robin Good-fel- 
lows favour of an afses head, fings part of one of thefe 
** old ballad-romances," to convince his companions, 
whom he fuppofees to be within hearing, that he is 
not afray'd : 

♦< The woofel cocke, fo blackeof hew, 

With orange-tawny bill, 
The throstle, with his note fo true. 

The wren with little quill ; 
The finch, the fparrow, and the larke, 

The plainfong cuckow grey ; 
Whofe note full many a man doth marke, 
And dares not anfwer, nay." 
Dureing the performance of this fingular melody, the 
queen of Fairys, allure'd out of her nap by fuch har- 
monious ftrains, exclaims, 

" What angel wakes me from my flovv'ry bed.'' 
V. $1, The jaye jangled them amonge.'\ 
Thus, in The cherrie and thcjlae : 

" The jargon of the jangling jays." 
Again, in The houlate, a ftil more ancient poem, by 
Holland : 

" Thus jowkit with juxters the janglaneja." 
Agaiji, in Wedderburns Complainte of Scotland, St. 



34S NOTES. 

Andrews, 1549; ** the jargolyne of the fuallou gart 
the jay jangil." 

V.Z2. As was the giaunte fyr Colbraunde.] 
This Colbrond was a Danirti giant, whom fir Guy, 
earl of Warwick, hke another David, fought in fingle 
combat, defeated, and flew. The combat is elaborately 
defcribe'd by Robert of Gloucester, and Henry de 
Knyghton, the historians, and Michael Drayton the 
poet, each of whom, no doubt, was indebted to the old 
Engleifli romance of " Sir Guy,'* or the Latin one of 
a certain imaginary Girardus Cornubienjis, for whom 
fee Hearnes appendix to the Ckronicon de DuvJlapUy 
Num. XI, and who was translateed, in drawling 
ftanzas oibaladt royal, by dan John Lydgate, monk of 
Bury; though it hapens not to be mention'd by any 
historical writeer of or near the time of action. War- 
ton, indeed, an admirable judge, to be fure, of literary 
antiquitys! feems to have no doubt of both Bevis and 
Guy being " Englifli heros," and actually refers, for 
the latter, to " Will. Malmesf. Gejl. Angl. ii. 6. where 
it would, probablely, be fomewhat difficult to find 
him. Canfden, indeed, a profefs'd antiquary, and 
even the more learned Selden, are nearly ascredulous 
as " honeft Tom." 

F. 140. Lynen cloth i (hall none were.] 
He means, in faft, to become a pilgrim, not " an 
hermyte," the former being a vagabond, the latter 
ftationary ; and, inftcad of a linen fhirt, would wear 
one of hair or woolen; as fuch-like ignorant and 
despicable enthufiafts were wont to do. Thus, fir 
Armado, in Loves labours loji, fays, " The naked truth 
©fit is, i have nojhirt ; i go woolward for penance." 
Again, in Yuiaine and Gawain, F. 267 : 



NOTES. 34^ 

*' It was a wonder wede, 
That the cherle yn yede, 
Nowther of wol, ne oiline." 
V. 148. For his love that harowed hell, J 
This means Jefiis Christ, who, in the interval be- 
tween his crucifixion and afcenfion, is fay'd, in the 
apostles creed, to have " defcended into hel." This 
vifitation is relateed, mod at large, in Nichodemuse^ 
gqfpel. In Hearnes appendix to Forduns Scohchronicon 
(P. i4o?-3), is a fingiilar engraveing from an old illu- 
mination, in which " Ihefus Christus {refurgtns a mortuis 
fpoliat infernum," not faint Patrick, as doctor John fon 
mistakes) " is reprefented," as he fays, " vifiting hel, 
and piiting the devils into great confurion...of whom 
one... [with a prong and a horn] has a label isfuingout 
of his mouth, with thefe words, " 2Dut out arongjt!" 
(Note in Shakfpeare, '793» VII, 342.) The harowingqf 
hel (which feems to mean Jacking or plundering, as 
Chrift goes arm'd with hiscrofs, and releafees Adam, 
his children, and all the faints) is frequently men- 
tion'd in the ancient mysterys. In one of The Coventry 
Corpus-Christi-plays [Conon MSS. Vespafian, D, VIII, 
fo. 185, 6) Belyallcrys when Chriftsfoulis at the gates of helj 

** Alas, alas, out and harrow!" 
In one of The Chester-WhitJun-plays (Harley MSS, 
Num.2015), call'd The harrowing of hell {io. 5), the 
fecond daemon exclaims, 

<* Out harrowel where is cur mighte?" 
«* Haro" according to Warton, " is a form of ex. 
clamation anciently ufe'd in Normandy [clameur di 
Haro], to call for help, or to raife the Hue and cry 
[erroneously, fuppofe'd by fome, on that account, to 
be a corruption of ^a Rou! i. e. RoUo, D. of Nor- 
mandy]. (06. on thtF. Q. I, 171.) In faft, however, 
Pharroh was the old war-cry of the Irifh (fee Canidens 
Britannia, 1695, P, 1047 5 and Spenfcrs Fiew of Ireland, 
P. 39). The word, too, or crie de guerre, of Joan of 
Arc, " was Hara ha!" ( Howell s Letters, P. 113.) 
3 



350 NOTES. 

V. I'll, FoTy and ye my lovejhoutd wynntf 

With chyvalry^« muji begin. "^ 
In like manner Horn-child, before he wil agree to 
marry Rymenild, thinks it necesfary to fpend feven 
years in knightly adventures. See, allfo, the advice 
giveen to Petit Jehan de Saintre, by la jeune dame des 
helUs coujines (P. 169, &c.) and his fubfequent condu6l. 
r. 175. Through which yt may wynne your fhone.3 
See l.ebone Florence of Rome ^ V. 656 ; and the note upon 
that pasfage. 

r. 215. Both O and RJhall be therein, 

With A and M it Jhall begynne.'\ 
His device would refenible that of Chancers priorefs: 
" Of fniale coral about her arm fhe bare 
A pair of bedes, gauded alle with grene. 
And theron heng a broche of gold ful fhene, 
On which there was firft ywriten a crouned A, 
And after, Amor vincit omnia." 
V. 306. And Jet his chaplet upon his head.] 
A chaplet, it is prefume'd, was a garland of flowers. 
V. 390. But thou myght take him with the dede.] 
Unlefs, that is, thou fliould'ft take him with the 
manner. See before, Theerle oJTolous, V, 522 ; and the 
note on that line. 

V. 541. Undo your dore, my ladyfwete.^ 
From this repeated exclamation of the poor terri- 
fy'd fquire, he feems to have acquire'd it as a nick- 
name, the printers colophon being — " Thus endeth 
Undo your dore, otherwife called, the fquyr oflowe 
degre." To Undo your door is, to open it. Thus 
Gower, Confesfio amantis, fo. 41 : 

** This Geta cam than at lafte 
Unto the dore, and faide Undol" 
So, likewife, in Kynge Horn: 

" Horn bed Undo, wel fofte, 
Monityme and ofte.'*' 
This fenfe of the word, however, would feem to have 
been obfolete in the time of Shakfpeare, who, in the 



NOTES. 351 

fragment ot an old fong, fuppofe'H to be fung by 
Ophelia, has 

" — dupt the chaniber-doore." 
V. 591. I pray to god, and our lady. 

To fend you the whele of Victory.] 
This couplet has allready occur'd. This illustrious 
princefs, however, is here made to confound the wheel 
of Fortune with that of Fictory, a godefs who had no 
wheel. 

F. 614. Whan the dwarfe and mayde Ely.] 
See Lybeaus disconus, F, no, &c. where, however, 
the dwarf fays nothing at all; fo that, it is probable, 
there has either been a different edition of Lybeaus in 
French or Engleifh, or the prefent minftrel has iTiis- 
reciteed the one we have. 

F. 714. With browes brent, and eyes Jul mery,'\ 
The printed copy reads " browes dent:" the emen- 
dation is founded on the authority of an old Scotiflifong : 
" In January laft. 

On munanday at morn, 
As through the fields i paft, 
To view the winter corn, 
I looked me behind, 

And faw come o'er the know 
Ane glancing in her apron. 
With a Sonny brent brow." 
Again, in The Jilhen-J'nooded lafsie: 

" Fair her hair, and brent her brow." 
In the glosfary to Ramfays Poems Brent'brow 19 
cxplain'd " fmooth high forehead." 
F. 773. Homward thus Jliall ye ryde. 

On haukyng by the ryvers fide.] 
This is an ordinary pastime in the eld romancees. 



35» NOTES. 

Thus Adam Davie, in his I.yf of Alyfaunder '. 
*' In green wood and of huntyng. 
And of ryver of haukyng." 
So, likewife, Chaucer, in liis Rime of fire Thopas : 
** He couth hunt al the wild dere. 
And ride an hawking by the rivere." 
Again, in ThefrankUins tale: 

*• Thefe fauconers upon a faire rivere, 
That with the hawkis han the heron flain." 
F. 824. Your maryners fall fynge arowe 

Hey how and rumbylawe.] 
Some fong, with this burthen, feems to have been, 
formerly, peculiar to feamen. Thus, in Cocke Lorelles 
bote, b.l. 

•* For joye theyr trumpettes dyde they blowe. 
And foiiie fonge heve and kcwe, rumbelowe." 
Skelton, too, in his Bowge of court has the following 
lines : 

*' Holde up the helme, loke up, and letegod ftere, 
I wolde be nierie, what wind that ever blowe, 
Heve and how romhelow, row the bote, Norman, rowe :" 
alludeing, it appears from Fabian, to " a rouiidell 
or fonge," made by the watermen in praife of John 
Norman, mayor of London, in the thirty fecond year of 
Henry the fixth, who, inltead of rideing to Weftniin- 
fter, like his predecesfors, " was rowed thyther by 
water." Its high antiquity is further manifefted by 
the fragment of a very ancient Scotifh fong, preferve'd - 
ty the fame Fabian, and other older chronicleers, on 
the battle of Bannotk-burn, in 13 14: 

" Maydens of Englande, fore may ye morne. 
For your lemans ye have loft at Bannockys-borne, 
With heve alowei 



NOTES. 35J 

What weneth the king of England 
So fooneto have wone Scotland? 
With rumbylowe." 
Again, in another old fragment: 

** I faw three ladies fair, Tinging key and hotOf 

Upon yon ley land, hey : 
I faw three mariners, finging rumbclowy 
Upon yon fea-ftrand, hey." 
V. 941. Farewell golde, pure andfyne., 

Farewell velvet, anrffatyne; &c.] 
This lift of adieus might have been reafonablely 
prefume'd to have been parody'd by the immortal 
Shakfpeare, who, certainly, was not very fcrupulous 
in the felection of his literary asfistants, where he 
makes his hero roar out his final 

" Farewelll Othello's occupation's gone!" 
if his industrious editours had not allready provideed, 
for the illustration of their inimitable authour, a fuf- 
ficient quantity of thofe exclamatory perorations. (See 
the edition of 1793, XV, 543O 



THE KNIGHT OF CURTESY AND THE 
FAIR LADY OF FAGUELL. 

The history of which we have here a fimple and 
romantick, but, at the fame time, interefting and pa- 
thetick, narrative, is relateed, with fome prolixity, by 
Fauchet, from an old chronicle, writen about the year 
1380, and is generally believe'd to be founded on 
fafts. Le chastellain de Couci, the conftable, that is, of 
Couci-castle (fo ftrai)gely perverted in the prcfent poem 

VOL. III. Aa 



354 NOTES. 

to " The knight of Curtefy")*t and la dame de Faid 
(Gabrielle de Vergi, or de Levergies), here call'd 
«' the lady of Faguell," are celebrateed loveers, and 
the fubjedl of a metrical romance in French of the 
thirteenth century, ftil extant in the national library at 
Paris (Num. i95).t 

This amiable and accomplifh'd hero was a poet of 
lingular merit for his age, feveral of his pasfionate and 
tender fongs being preferve'd, and in the hands of 
the publick. He appears to have accompany'd his 
lord, uncle, and name-fake, Raoul fire de Cmidy in 
1190, to the holy-land, where the latter was flain, at 
the fiege of Acre, in the following year. He has been 
generally, but improperly, confounded, as the poet, 
and loveer of the fair Gabrielle, with his chasuUain, 
who receive'd his mortal wound at the fame fiege. It 
is, however, fay'd, in the ancient romance, that he did 
not arrive in Palestine, with king Richard, til after 
the capture of Acre, where his uncle Raoul had been 
kii'd. The husband of this unfortunate lady was Au- 
bert de Faiel, lord of the castle and feignory of that 
name, near tlie town of St. Quintin. See Fauchet, 
Recueil de I'origine de la latigue & poejie Franfoifcy 158/, 
and *' Memaires historiques fur Raoul de Coucy," Paris, 
1 78 1 (the latter of which works contains his fongs), 
and Le Grand, F^liaux ou contes, D, 142. It is fay'd, 
in the Freiich romance, that Fai'el, fearing lelt the 
relations of his wife Ihould avenge her death, caufe'd 

* His name was Raoul, though mistakecnly call'd, both by 
Fauchet, and the French romance, Regnaud or RtgnauU. 

t Le GramI, who lowers this MS. to the fifteenth, allows it 
may be the copy of one of an earlyei age. 



NOTES. 355 

her to he inter'd with a great deal of honour, and de- 
parted for the holy.land. The remembrance, how- 
ever, of his barbarity purfiie'd him every virhere : 
after he return 'd home he was never feen to laugh, 
and furvive'd his wife but a few years. 

This anecdote is, allfo, told by Howell, from the 
relation of a knowing gentleman whofe fociety he 
lighted upon in his return in a coach from Paris to 
Rouen, in a letter. To his " honoured friend and fa- 
ther Mr. Ben. Johnfon," in 1635, i" which he calls 
the loveer ** one captain Coucy, a gallant gentleman* 
of an ancient extraction, and keeper of Coucy-castle, 
which," he fays, *• is yet (landing, and in good re- 
pair." The gentlenjan aded that this fad ftory was 
painted in Coucy-castle, and remain'd frefli to that 
day. In the above Memoires is a fniall view of it. 

The prefent poem, fome fort of translation, it is 
prefiime'd, from the French (but not, it feems, the 
Roman du chastdlain de Coucy C3 de la dame de Faiel, be- 
fore-mention*d, unlefs with great libertys), is now 
republifli'd from an old quarto pamphlet in black- 
letter, and without date, ** Imprynted at London by 
me Willyam Copland," before 1568. The ful title is 
** Here begynneth a litell treatife of the knight of 
Curtefy and the lady of Faguell." The copy made 
life of, in the Bodleian- library, is the onely one known 
to exift. 

An elegant romance, on the unfortunate loves of 
Gabrielle de Vergi and Raoul de Coucy, was writen by 
the late duke de la Valliere ; which, it feems probable, 
is the ** beautiful old ballad" mention'd to have been 
feen by the editour of '< Reliques of ancient EngliQi 



356 NOTES. 

poetry," III, xlii. The ftory appears to be ftil pre-*- 
ferve'd by tradition at St. QMintin and Fai'el. 

The romance of La chatelaine dt Vergy, which feems 
to have been confounded, by Froisfart and others, 
with that of Le chdtelain de Coucy, is an entirely different 
ilory. See Fabliaux ou contest D, 49. 

An anecdote, fimilar, in its main circumftancees, to 
this of Raoul de Coucy, is relateed of William de 
Cabestaing, a Catalan or Provencal poet of the fame 
age. See Histoire litter aire des troubadours, I, 134. 
Boccaccio has made it the fubjeft of one of his novels 
{Gior. 4, No. 9). 

F. 32. TAis lorde toferve tmth kumylite.'\ 
The authour feems to have made ufe of an original 
which, in this refpeft, confounded the two ftorys of 
Kaoul de Coucy and William de Cabeftaing. The 
latter, indeed, applys for, and obtains, a fervice as 
valet or page with Raymond de Castel Rousfillon, the 
husband of his mistrefs ; but neither the old romance 
nor Fauchets chronicle relates any fuch event of Raoul. 
He was castellan, in fad;, of his uncles castle of Coucy, 
whence he occafionally vifited the fair Gabrielle, whofe 
refidence of Faiel was at no great distance, fo that he 
could go and return in the courfe of the night : though 
it appears, at the fame time, from an extra6l of the old 
romance, that, being once on a vifit to Faiel, he was 
prefs'd by Aubert to remain there in his abfence. 
V, 177. A payre ojjhtres &c.] 
V. 205. Than did he her hcer unfolde, &c.] 
This incident is notice'd both in the French ro- 
mance and the chronicle citeed by Fauchet. " La dame 
de Faielj" fays the latter, ** quand elle ffcut qu'il fen 



NOTES. 357 

devoii alltr^jiji un lags defoyt moult bel & ti'enjatt, (3 y 
avoit de fa cheveux ouvres parmi la foye ; dont I'oeuvre 
Jtmblot moult belle (3 riche : dont il lioit un bourrelct moult 
riche par desfus fon heaume: & avoit longs pendans ^ar 
derriere^ a gros boutons de perles." 

K 222. So when he came to Lumberdye.l 

This adventure with the dragon is unnotice'd both 
in the extrafts from the French romance, and by 
Fauchet. 

/^. 277. Towarde the Rodes.'] 

It was Acre, not Rhodes. 

f . 375. He called his page hajlely."] 

The name of this page is Gobert in the French 
romance. He lud been in the fervice of Aubert. 



GLOSSARY. 



Abade, abode, 

Abayft, abajh'd^ ajhame'd. 

Abbas, Q.bbefs, 

Abenche, upon a bench. 

Abohte, II, i49» Aboth, 305, bought: abohc, S. 

Abothe, abode. 

Abought, II, 84, bought. 

Abfolent, III, 171, abjolute. 

Abugge, ^^yifufferj or atone for, 

Ac, but: ac, S. 

Achon, each one. 

Acketoun, II, 50, Actoun, frequently uje'd for the 
hauberhy corslet, or complete coat of mail, but, Jlri&ly, a 
leathern or Jluf d jacket, worn under it. Thus, in Ywaine 
and Gawin, r.2616: 

«* Both haubert and his actoun :" 
acqueton, or hoqueton, F. 
Acyce, asfze. 

Admyrold, Amerayle, a corrupt title giveen by fame 
ancient historians to the Saracen kings ; whence, it feems, 
our admiral : the original Arabick is ameer al omrah, 
cr printe of the princees. 

Adrad, Adradd, Adred, afray'd, terrif/d. 
Adrcnche, II, 95, Adrynke, 97, 13a, drowUf drink* 
Adronque, 133, drown d\ abjionc> 5. 
Adyght, II, 3 1, dight, deck'd. 



36a GLOSSARY. 

Afeng, II, 60, receive dt anpenjan, S. 

Afert, II, 173, afeardy afrayd. 

Afurfte, II, 137, atjirji. 

Afyn, I, 184, Afyne, II, 242, injinty at lajl. 

Agafl, qfray'd. 

Agethe, go'th. 

Aght, eight ; aught j owe'd. 

Agramed, II, 81, angery, furious'. 5Jiani> S. 

Agrayde, I, 209, graith, drefsy decorate. 

Agros, II, So, \4r6,Jhuderdy tremble' d. 

Agryfe, II, %$, Jhuder., tremble', be frighten' df terri- 
fydy angery, or in a pasfion : ajjiijan, 5. 

Agye, I, 197, II, 87, to guidey manage, goverrijaR for. 

Agynne, begin : aginnan, S. 

Ah, but. 

Ahte, eight. 

Aknen, upon his knees. 

Alablaft, 5« Arblaft. 

Alayes, alleys : allies, F. 

Albidene, I, 3, 22, 37, 88, 125, 149* i5»» «5^» Al- 
bydene, Allbedene, III, 143, All bedeene. III, 13, 
^43i ^57* alltogether, wholely, entirely, one after another- 
Thus, too, Robert of Brunne, P. 45 : 

" Lyndfjie he deJlroieddW bidene." 
This phrafe is of infcrutable etymology. See Bydene. 

Aide, old, 

Alexcion, election. 

Algrade, [r. AlgardeJ afpecies efSpanifh viiru. 

Al if, allthough. 

Alkins, Alkyn, likewife, 

AUane, Alloon, alone, 

Alner, apurfe, or bag, to hold money. Chaucer calls it 
an aumere alraoire, f. 



GLOSSARY. 361 

Alowte, lout, tend, bow, kumbU himfelf. 

Als, ci. Als, Alfe, fl/^o. M-ione, forthwith. 

Altlier-furfte, Alther-laft, Alther-next, &c. the 
JirJ}, lajly next, of all. 

Alweldand, all-widdingy all- governing \ omnipotent: 
alpolba, 5. 

Amall, enamel: emaille, F. 

Anieraud, emerald. 

Anierayle. See Admyrold. 

An, on. An, Ane, one. 

Anamered, enamour d. 

Anblere, on an ambleer., or ambleing nag. 

And, I, 73, III, 152, an, if. 

Ande, the breath-, oiib, S. 

Anes, once. Anly, only. Ant, and. 

Antioche, fome kind of wine, probablely imported, or 
introduce' d, from that country. 

Apayde, pleafe' d, fatisfy' d, content. 

Apertly, openly, plainly. 

Aplight, Apliht, Aplyght, II, 87, 161, 164, 178, 
completey perfe6l» The etymology of this word cannot be 
ascertain d. 

Apryfe, II, 26, enterprife, attempt, adventure. 

Aquelde, quel'd, kil'd. 

Ar, Are, ere, ever, before. 

Arafte, II, 48, reft,fmote. 

Arblafte, a crofs-bow : arbalefle, F. ' 

Aiber, Arbere, arbour. 

Are, oarx ap, S. 

Areche, II, 119, expoundf explain, interpret: ajiec- 
can, S. 

Arere, razfe. 



3<J» GLOSSARY. 

Arefon, najoti vnthy addrefs, talk to, cowoince hy argu» 
mint. 

Arewe, rue. 

Armyne, ermine. 

Armyte, hermit, 

Arioxiny /addle', Arfouns before and behind, forthe^ 
arfoun, hinder arfoun, The bows or elevatims at each end 
cf the /addle : arfon, F. 

Arft, er/l,/irJ{,/ooner. 

Arunde, errand- 

Afcry, de/cryy discovery betray, Afcryed. 

Afowr, azurey blue. 

Asfaye, es/ayy trial. 

Asfoyle, ab/olve. Asfoyled. 

Aftrote, III, 85, bulging, /Iruting out, 

Afwogh, Afwowe, in a/zooon. 

At, that J to. At ane. At on, A ton, at one, agree' d, 
er atme'd. 

Ateoned, II, 270. 

Ateyned, I, 68, Ataynte, 203, attainted. 

Ath, oath, 

Atrayyed, II, lii , poi/on'd: attjieb, S. 

Aught, II, 44» otve'd, ozvn'd, pos/e/sd. 

Aunterous, adventurous, abounding with adventures. 

Avaunt, boa/l, extol', avant, F. 

Aveaunt, III, 29, Avenant, I, 163, Avenaunt, 
III, 6, comely, hand/ome, grace/ul, weUbelmie' d. Ave- 
nant, I, 133, 158, promi/e, agreement, condition. 

Aventayle, II, 69, aperture in a clo/t helmet, through 
which the wearer was to breathe j otherttn/e, according to 
Cotgrave, " the /ight oj the beaver \or vi/ory'* ven- 
taille,J. 



GLOSSARY. 3«j 

Avente, III, 82, open (for the purpoft ofhreaJthdng 
through). 

Aventurs, adventures. 

Avefe, avyfe, I, 6, 31, advife'dy wary^ discreet, or the 
like : avifer, F. 

Avyfe, III, 39, conjider, think of it. 

Avyfement, advice, deliberation : avifement, F, 

Avyfyd, III, 14, advijed. 

Aw, I, 5, 6, oiuesy or owns, oait or own. Aw, ici, 
awe, power, tyranny. 

Awede, II, a?, 41, Awyede, II, 17, be mad or fu- 
rious: apeban, 5. 

Awreke, revenge' d'. apjiecan, S. 

Axfy, ajk. Axede, ajk'd'. acjian, 5. 

Aye, ever. 

Ayen, Ayens, ayeynes, again, againjl. 

Ayre, heir. Ayre, III, 166, probabkly for Yarc, 
whichfee. 

Bacinet, Bacinette, Bafenet, Basnet, a kind of helmet, 
or arm'd covering for the head, differing, in fame refpe£i, 
from a falade, a banniere, or a heaulme. See Histoirc 
de petit Jehan de Saintre, P. 650. Basfinet, F. 

Balde, I, 8, bold, certain, wel-asfure'd'. bate, S. 

Bale, evil, mischief, forrow, misdeed, and the like; in the 
plural, ha.\ys I beal, 5. 

Band, I, 75, bound. 

Bandoun, I, 81, Baundoun, government, 6onds,power, 
hands, confinement. 

Bane, death, mifery, evil, mischief, curfe ; bana, S, 

Baptyfte, baptifm. 

Bare, a wild-boar', bap, S. 

Barme, II, 25, bofom, lap, womhx beajim, S. 



354 GLOSSARY. 

Barme-teme, III, i, brood. 

Barn, I, 23, child: beajin, S. 

Barnage, I, 53, baronage^ peerage ^ nobility. 

Baslarde, III, 187, a /wordy or dagger. So, in Pierce 
Plovvman,yo, 16, 6. 

" j4ll that beareth baslarde, brode fwerde, or launce :" 
Again, fo. 79 : 

*• A\iz{€i&xdi,oraballcKke-knife, with bottons over gilt." 
** Bafelard, fica." Promptorium parvulorum (Har- 
leian MS. 221). 

Bastarde, a wine of Corjica, fo catl'd, as is conjecture'dp 
from being mix'd with honey. It zdas a common beverage in 
London, fo late as Shakfpeares time. 

Bate, I, 56, bit. 

Bay, beft broght to bay, II, 66, at his lajl gafp, or 
tuhen the deer, when weary of tuning, turns upon thehoundsy 
and holds or puts them to bay : abbois, F, 

Bayn, ready, near. 

Be, I, 170, by. In would have been better', but, as the 
judicious Tyrwhitt has chferve'd that BY isfonutimes ufe'd 
by Chaucer, with thefgnif cation o/'iN ; that may, likewife^ 
be the cafe here. See his Glos, under the former word. 

Bcde, I, 41, offer, afford; baeban, 5. 

Bedep, II, 290, prayers. 

Bedene, I, 125, 142, 160, all, alltogether, together; 
III, 156, one after another. 

Beende. See Bende. 

Jitiy\\,befel: bejrealen, 5. 

Behete, Bihete, promife, asfure : behatan, S. 

Bekeand, beeking, warming, or fweating. 

Bel and boke, I, 127. Afolemn curfe,or anathema, in 
the popeifi religion, denounce'd at high mafsf with the 
ringing of a belf and the reading of a book. 



GLOSSARY. 365 

Rc]amy, good /rieiid: Bel ami, F. 

Bcld, II, 90, Belde, I, 52, help, proteBy defend. 
Belde, III, 73. 

Belyfe, Belyve, bilive, afterward, foon, by and by. 

Bemes, I, 188, horns, trumps-, byme, 5. 

Bendc, II, 11, bondage, bands, bonds, prifon: baenbe, S, 

Bente, III, 148. 

Benynge, benign. 

Bentys, bents, grounds near the fea, on which bent, a 
soarfe large grafs, grows. 

Ber, Bere, bier; bear. 

Befawntes, III, 9, a piece of gold, fo call' d becaufe firjl 
coin'd at Byzantium, now Constantinople, worth, in French 
money, fifty pounds Tournois : Befant, F. 

Befofte, befought, entice' d. 

Befte, deer. 

Beftadde, bejlead, circumfiance'd. 

Befterede, befiir'd. 

Bet, beter; beter'd, or made heter, amended: betan, S. 

Bete, III, 9, beaten, plaited, inlay' d, embroider' d. 

Beth, be. * 

Bewrye, III, 55, bewray, betray, accufe, 

Bewtefe, I, 129, civilitys, ceremonys. 

Beye, II, 95, aby, revenge, atone for. 

Beyete, begot. 

Beyke, to beek, or warm, as before a roufeingfire. 

Beyne, II, 128, bain, fon? 

Bical, bikalles, impeach, accufe. 

Bicaiiht, II, 176, deceive' d. 

Bicollede, colly d, blacken, or blacken d. 

Bide, abide, await, 

Biforn, before. 

Big, build. 



356 <5L0SSARY. 

Bigonne, began. 

Bihete. See Behete. 

Bilive. See Belyfe. 

Biment, II, aoo. 

Birful, I, 70, roaring. 

Bitoke, betook, commited to, 

Bityme, betijnes, in time. 

Bhriy Jop'd, ceafe'd. See Blynne. 

Blauner, II, 6. 

Blawand, blowing. 

Ble, Blee, Bleo, Bio, hue, colour, complexion. Bio, 
II, a 17, black-blue : bleo, S- lividus, luridus. P. P, 

Blew-out, breathe' d hard, puf'd. 

Blift, I, r33. 

Blome, Blofle, bloom, blosfom. 

Blyn, Blynne, ^0/', ceafe; putajiopto: bhnnan, S. 

Blyve, I, 200, III, 111, blithe; corrupted, occafionaUyf 
from both bely ve, and blithe. 

Bo, both. 

Bodely, III, 97, bodyly. 

Bonaire, debonair. 

Bone, boon, reward, 

Boones, bones. 

Boofys, III, 17, bojses, or tufts; boce, wboos, P. P. 

Boot, boat. 

Bord, Barde, board, dineing table : bojib, S. 

Borjaes, I, 178, burgefses. 

Borken, barking : beojican, S. 

Borowed, III, 74, Borwyth, I, 187, borrow'd, 
pledge' d, redeem' d: bojijian, 5. 

Borows, I, 82, borwes, pledgee's, furetys : bojih, S. 

Boscage, zuoodf underwood: boscage (awybocage), F. 

Boft, boaf. 



GLOSSARY. 367 

Bote, hot; good] remedy, recompence^ amendment, puv" 
pofe': bot, S. 

Bote, boat. Bote, but. 

Boteles, bootlefs, without remedy. 

Bother : Thair bother wil, the wil of both. 

Bonn, Bowne, ready, prepare' d; redi, or redy boun, 
a pleonafm. 

Bour, chamber. Bowrys, chambers. 

Bour-wemen, chamber-maids. 

Bourd, I, 81, jejl, fun, a pasfage of humour, or plea ■• 
fantry. Bourdmg, jewing, or ridiculeing. 

Bourned, gilded, burnifh'd. 

Bowrnes, bums, rivulets. 

Bowfiim. See Buxum. 

Boyft, a box : boifte, F. 

Brade, I, 8, 12, broad, Bradder, broader. 

Brand, afword. 

B rayde, drew quickly. 

Brayded, I, 87, roar'd. 

Brayn-wode, Jlarh-mad. 

Bredde, bread. 

Bregge, a bridge. 

Breke, breeches: bjisec, 5. 

Breme, brim, fierce. Wei breme, I, ao8, very clear. 

Bremly, I, xn, fiercely. 

Brenne, burn: Brenning, burning. Brent, Brente, 
ium'd: Brente it do, caufe'dit to be bvrnd. 

Brere, brier. 

Brefyd, bruifed. 

Bretife, a bretife brade, I, 8, a gateway, or portal of 
defence, in the rampire, or wall, of a castle, or teum : 
bretefque, F. 

Brether, brothers^ bretheren. 



368 GLOSSARY. 

BrcyAt, Jlarty hurry. 
Briddes, birds. 
Bride, bridle : bride, F, 

Bright, as byrde bright, a complimentary y or affec- 
tionate addrefs, or appellation, of a beautyfuly or beloved 
young woman. 

Broche, a hind of buckle, broad, round, and worn on the 
breajl, or on the hat with a tongue; a breaji pin. F. 
Brok, badger. *' Tojlink like a hrock," is proverbial. 
Brond. See Brand. 
Brondys, brands, faggots, 

Brooke, III, 50, Brouk, II, 100, Broiike, 134, 
brook, employ wel, make the beji of, ufe, enjoy: bjiucan, 5. 
Brudale, brideale. Brude, bride, 
Brugge, or Brygge, a bridge. 

Brunie, II, 121, acuirafs, or coat of mail: brugne, 
or brunie, F. 

*• Mid helme, nc mid brunie, ne mid non other gere." 

Cot. MS. Caligula A. IX. 
** Fierent i paiens on hianme quere brunis." 

Enfantes d'Ogier, fo. 345. MS. 
Bryd, a bird. Bryd on bowe, bird on bough. See 
Bright and Byrd. 

Brym, Befyde that river brym, If, 59, Befde the 
brim, margin, or bank, of that river: b/iym, 5. See 
Breme. 

Bud, behove'd; as in Laurence Minots poems, P. 20 j 
*' Fer might thai noghtjle, bot thaire bud thambide." 
Bueth, be^th, be, are. 
Buinbarde, III, 190. 
■ Bun, Bunden, bound. 

Burland, III, 97, burling, zoeltering. 
Burne, III, 38, baron. 



GLOSSARY. 369 

Bus, I, 46, behoves. 

Buflce, to prepare, or make ready. Bulke her, make 
her neat and trim. Bufkyd, drefi'd, prepare' d. 

Biifkes, buj}u%. 

But, I, 199, without , unlefs. .„ 

Buxum, buxome, yielding, obedient: bocfum, 5. 

Byd, to pray. 

Bydene, II, 52. See Bedene. 

Byger, a builder. Bygged, builded, Bygginge, hdld- 
ing, houfe: byjjan, 5. 

Kygly, Bygly blys, HI, 71, Bygly hows, 63, Bygly 
lands, 10. 

Byht, beeth. 

Byker, to bicker, fight, orjkitmipi, 

Bylaft, lejt behind. 

Bylayne, ill, 46, lain by. 

Byn, within, 

Byradden, II, 271, advife'd. 

Byrd, a damfel, young lady or woman. See Bright and 
Bryd. 

Byrke, birch. 

Byron nc, overrun. 

Bys, Purpur bys, I, 182, purple colour: bis, /. 

Byfeke, brfeech. 

Bysniare, I, 210, dishonoury derifion, infamy: biji- 
mepj S. 

Byfuyke, IT, 103; Byfwike, Byfwyke, ^/roy, ^o 
guile, deceive: be|pycan, S. 
Byt, bite. 
Byttur fpredde. III, 78. 

Calle, caul, caPf hood, or Aead'dre/s. 
Camaca, III, 180, according to Spthnan, a hind of 
VOL. III. B b 



370 GLOSSARY. 

dothy a kind of cloth (whether wooUtiy h'nen, or cambrickf 
he profefses not to know), of which, under the age of Ed- 
ward III. they made the church-vejlments ; fometimes whitif 
fomelimes red. 

Carackes, large Jhips: carraque, F. 

Cardevyle, Cardelof, Carlile. 

Carke, cark,care: cajic, ccejician, S. 

Carped, talk'd, converfe'd 

Cafte, III, 59, 86, purpofe, contrivance^ intention] 
112, occajion, opportunity. 

Cees, ceafe. 

Qt\\\, felly, filly. 

Certes, certainly. Certcys, courteous. 

Chamberer, I, 38, chamber-maid. 

Chang)', change. 

Charbokull, III, 17, carbuncle: efcarboucle, F. 

Chare, chariot. 

Chafe, chofe. 

Chaftlayne, the confiable of a castle : chastelain, F. 

Chafy, to chafe. 

Chauntemente, Chaunterye, enchantment, 

Chavyl, I, %^,jaw. 

Chepyng, a market. 

Cher, countenance. . 

Cherel, cherl, churl, carl, downy old fellow : ceopl, S. 

Chefe, chofe. 
• Chesten-tre, Chesteyn-tre, chesnut-tree. 

Chev crd, Jhiver'd. 

Child. See the note on King Horn, F. is* 

Choi I, I, 84, jowl, head, 

Chorle. See Cherel. 

Chrystendome, Chrystent^, all countryi collectively in 
zvKick Christianity prevails. 



GLOSSARY. 371 

Clar^, I, 184, clary, a mixture of wine and honey: 
Clairet, F. 

Cleche, IT, 131, click, catch, lay hold of, 

Clefe, cleave' d, cleft, clove. ■ 

Clene, III, 217, chajle, pure, innocent. 

Clepede, call'd, name'd: cliopian, S. 

Clere, a clear, chajle, pure, beautyful young lady. 

C\eth, to clothe, or drefs. 

Clippe, clafp, embrace. 

Clodes, clothes. 

Clodeth, clothe' d. 

Clokarde, HI, 190, 

Clongyn, III, 114, clung: clinjan, 5, 

Clyne, III, 48, encline. 

Clyve, clif, rock. 

Collede, colly'd, black. 

Come, I, 4, comeing ; elfewhere came. 

Commendry, III, 174. 

Comunalte, III, 190, commonalty, community, people in 
general, or coirtmon. 

Corefur, III, 134, horfefcourfer, horfe-dealer. See 
To-fcouife in Sherwoods Engleifli- French dictionary. 

Cornall, Cornell, Coronall, Coronell, a crown, coro- 
net, iron-point, or head of a f pear, a fpear-head: as in 
Lybeaus, V. 1 603 : 

*' Tho he tok a fchaft rounde, 
Wyth cornall fcharp y grounde :" 
which proves they were not allways ** a contrivance," as 
captain Grofe thinks, '• to prevent penetration" at a tilting- 
match, ( 

Cornell, III, 35, Florence lay in a Cornell, " the 
forepart of a houfe," Coles. 
Corven, carve d. - . 



37* GLOSSARY. 

Coflantyne the nobull, III, 2, ConftantinopU. 

Costerdes, II, 180. " Duo costers panni magni de 
velveto, pro principalibus festis." — " Do Sc lego Ri- 
cardo de Nevil filio meo...unum lectum de arvas, ciun 
costeris paled de colore rubeo, qui folebant pendere in 
magna camera. Du Cange^ \\,ii2i. 

Courage, III, 213, heart: corafon, Spa, 

Covenaunce, III, 182, covenants. 

Covenawnt, III, ^o, faithful. 

Cover, I, 90, III, 1C9, recover. 

Covering, I, 126, recovery? 

Cowre, crouch, " ruch down" Coles. 

Cracche'd, ycra/c^V. 

Crapawtes, II, 210, Crapowtes, II, 208, the Jiont 
chelonites, or toad-Jlone : crapaud, a toad, <?rcrapadine, 
the Jlone, F. crepawnde, or crapawnde, a precyons 
Jlone, fmaragdus, P. P. 

Creant, I, 133, Creaunt, recreant, craven. 

Crompyld, crumple' d. 

Cronde, II, 145, 

Cropoun, I, 104, Croupe, ^ocA, taU. Croupier^ M; 
buttock- piece. 

Crouth, 11, 7, a crowd, or Jlring'd injlnment, lately 
known to the Welfh, and formerly to the EngUiJk', wkAce 
Butlers Crowdero : cjiu)>, S. (Lelands Col.) 

Crowlande, III, 36, 

Croyz, II, 145, crofs. 

Guide, II, 163, kil'd. 

Culpons, I, i%,fhreds,fplinters. 

Culvard, II, 303, trracherous, infamous: culvert, /. 

CuQiand, Cumandes, I, ^,6, command; come, comeing, 
1, 13. Cumen, I, 21, come. 

Cumlyng, I, 69. Robert of GlauctsUr mak$* king 



GLOSSARY. 373 

^offar thus exclaim againft Brut and Corineus, toho had 
plunder d his country : 

" Ori! htfeide, the grete defpite^ that ife tome here, 
That thisjile and komelynges castelles leteth rere." 
Thomas Heame, his industrious editour, explains it *' a 
comeling, one newly come." It is writen comIyng3y Robert 
ef Brunncy on the capture of Hengijl : 

*' Sir erle this honde, this comlyng, 
On my halve prefent him the kyng." 
" Comelyng, new-cum-man or woman." P, P. 
Curnvay, convey. 
Cun, II, 294, kine, cows. 
Cunne, II, 98, kin. 
Cure, care. 

Curtayfe, Curtes, courteous, 
Cufle, kifs. Cufte, kifs'd. 
Cutted, cut, fplity form' d orfkape'd. 

Da, a doe. 
Dampny, condemn. 

Dang, I, 1^3, Jmote (plural of Ding). 
Dawe, dawn. Dawed, Dawyd, dawn'd, 
Dawes, days. 
" De, the, thee. 
Ded, Dedd, Dede, dead, deatn. 
Defull, a defull dede, II, 229, a diabolical aB.: 
beopol-baeb, 5. 

Dele, dolour, forrow, grief. 

Dele, to part ; to deal. 

Deme, deem, judge, judgement : benian> 5, 

Denketh roun, II, 20, think to run. 

Dentys, dints, Jlrokes, blows. 



374 GLOSSARY. 

Der, dear. Der, Dere, Derye, ^arw, hurtf damage," 
distress, mischief. Derid, hami'd: bejie, 5. 

Deray, II, 17, noife: desroy, F. 

Tiernt, fecret, fecretly, obfcure, obfcurely. 

Derworthe, WlyST, precious, value' data high rate, T. 

Defe. See Deys. 

Deftrer, II, 25, a destrier, war, or tilting, horfe! 
dextrier, F. dextrarius, L. from being led on the right 
fide, or with the right hand. 

•' Unto a fwier gan he f aye, 
Gofwith, andfadel my palfray, 
Andfo thou do my ftrang ftede." 

Ywaine and Gawin. 
His '* palfray," therefor, was his ordinary road-horfe ; his 
*^ Jlrang Jlede" the dejlrier, or led-horfe, which he onely 
mounted in battle or ftngle combat. It is fngular, if not 
improper, to find a damfel upon a deftrere, as in Lybec^us 
Disconus, F. 120. 

Defcrive, defcribe. 

Deftriiyt, dejlroy'd. 

Dewkys, dukes. 

Dey, II, 56, they. 

Deye, dye. 

Deys, I, 208, hye deyfe. III, 74, an elevateed part of 
thefoor at the uper end of a great hall, upon which, under 
a canopy, food the large dineing table ; fit obferv able in the 
univerfity college'e's and ins cf court. Both the elevation and 
the canopy were call' d indifferently by the name of tAg 
Dais. See Wartons H. E. P. I, 422, n. 

Dight, I, 18, dccorateed, decA'd. 

Discrif, defcribe' d, form' d. 

Diskere, Dyskere, III, 119, discover. 



GLOSSARY. 375- 

Do, I, 2, done. 

Doftyr, daughter. 
' Doght, I, 208, thought. 

Dole, I, •^6,forrow, grief, 

Dolys, doleSf deals, or money distributeed to the poor^ 
from a religious motive. 

Dome, judgement. 

Donder, thunder. 

Donked, I, 195, thanked. 

Donne, I, 213, dun, dim. 

Dorth, I, 214, through. 

Dough, I, 178, though. 

Dour, endure. 

Dowe, II, 189, 

Dowte, doubt, awe, fear. ' ' 

Drake, II, 173, dragon : bjiaca, S. 

Dravve, I, 196, thraw, throw, time,fpace. 

Drede, dread, fear, terrour. 

Dreche, I, 21, vex, trouble^ torment: b/iecan, S. 

Drench, II, 138, drink. 

Drewries, I, S9ijewels. Thus, Lawrence Minot {P. $0) : 
" Quite ertou, that wele we know, 
(yca^f//, and of drewries dere." 

Dreye, Dreygh, II, 41, Drye, bear,fustain, endure, 
fuffer : abjieojan, 5. 

Drof, drove, drifted, fail' d, 

Drogh, Droghe, Drowe, drew. 

Dromedaryes, I, 179, large fhips, more properly ^XQ- 
nionds or dromants, F. 

Drowe ; quike to drowe, to draw alive. 

Drury, I, 213, gallantry^ illicit love. Drury, II, 238, 
dreary. 

Druye, II, 284, 



37« GLOSSARY. 

Drye, III, 80, tedious, irkfome. 

Drynge, throng. 

Dryve, T, 204, driveen. Twelve knyghtes wer dryvc 
to boke, noty as mister Ellis furmijeesy ** Were ordered to 
conftUt the law," tut were compel' d to iejwom on a book, 
or, in other words, to take their oath as the jury or oijite* 

Dulcemere, a dulcimer. 

Duere, dear, 

Durftede, II, 57, thirfied. 

Dwergh, Dwerk, a dwarf. 

Dy, thy. 

Dydyrward, II, 71, thitherward. 

Dyght, I, 10, Dyghte, 204, cutandfervt; \i,drejsd, 
prepare'd. 

Dyke, a ditch. 

Dykke, II, 19, thick. 

Dyne, I, 187, thiiu. 

Dynge, din, fwife, clajh of arms. 

Dyscry, defcribe, discern f 

Dyskere, III, 119, discover. 

Dyfour, II, 7, talker, or tale-teler. 

Dysfees, deceafe. 

Dystawncc, III, 90, 171, discord, pruU, 

Echadell, each a deal, very muck. 

Ede, II, 96, Eode, 107, Eoden, 97, xotnt. 

Eem, Eme, uncle. 

Eft, Efte, after, afterward. 

Effe<5l, III, 15. See Estyrs, for which it is, preba- 
blely, a corruption. Posfiblely both cftyrs, ways, gallerys, 
entrys, walls. Skinner. 

Eglehorne, III, 177. An egkyl appears to be afpecies 
of hawk: fee Strutts Manners, &c. Ill, 124. 



GLOSSARY. 377 

Egyll, III, 17, eagle. See Launfal, T. 26S, 271. 

Elde, age. 

Enchefon, Enchefowne, caa/e, occqfion, reafon. 

Endofe, I, 6i,Jiting at hortUy as it were with his back 
againjl a chair: endosfer, F. 

Enoynr, anointed. 

Enterement, interment. 

Envye, dislike, hatred, malice, 

Er> Err, are. 

Erdyly, earthly. 

Em, an eagle : eajin, S. 

Ernde,IJ, 142, yearn, dejire*d. 

Errour, courfe, runing. 

Erft, before. 

Ertou, Ertow ? art thou? 

Erynde, errand. 

Efle, <afe. 

Estyrs, III, 13, the inward parts of a buildings cr, 
according to Heame, *^Jlates, conditions, things ;" estres, /", 
See Effea. 

Ethe, eafeyly. 

Eveneliche, evenly, equally, 

Everuchen, every one. 

Evyl, a diseafct a disorder, a Jit ofmadnefs, 

Eyer, Eyr, air. 

Fa, a foe, enemy. 

Fachon, afaulchion, afword, 

Faderfowl, I, i^, fathers foul. 

Falde, fel. 

Fale, II, 43, Fel, Fele, Feole, many. 

Faleweden, II, zi \, fallow' d. 

Fame, III, 161, defame. 



yjT. GLOSSARY^' 

T amen, Jbemen, tiumys, . . 

Fand, Fzndit, found. Fande, I, 14. 

Fang, I, 13, catch, fcize, lay hold of', iii, catch, take, 
receive. 

Farde,fare'd. 

Farn, fared: How has to farn this day ? How haji 
thou fare' d to day f 

Faun plate, II, 66, Vamplat, or Avant plat, an iron' 
plate, which defended, in front, a cavity for the reception of 
the hand, near the but^cnd of a tilting-fpear ! avant a^id 
plat, /. 

Faun fere, II, 77. 

Fafe,yoM. 

Fafoun, Fasfyoune, fasten, form. 

Faiint, infant. 
** And confrmen fauntekyns, and other folk learned." 
Pierce Ploughinan,_/(>. 67, b. 

Faxe, hair. 

Fawe, II, 194, glad, aj fain. T. See Fayn. 

Fawtede, I, i-ji, faulted, fail'd, was uanting to. 

Fay, II, 21, faith. 

Fayn, Fay nc, fain, joyful, glad, gladly: fajen, 5. 

Fayne, joy, gladnefs, 

Fayntife,' I, 4, idlenefs, lazeynefs, floth (which might 
prevent their rifeing) : faineant! fe, F. Q^ 

Fayrfe, Fyers, fierce. 

Fayry, II, 208, afairyifm, or appearance of the ima- 
ginary fpiritsf call' d. Fayrye, I, 215, IT, 72, ^i*r>- 
land', magick, illufon. 

F cart, fair. 

Fecche, fetch: jreccan, 5. 

Feer, ferce ; fre. 

Fclaurade, II, 98, Christen felaurede, 168, Felaw- 



GLOSSARY. 379 

rede, 195, 201, a fellozvjhip, or company \ few or many; 
a christian nation ; an anny of 60,000 knights ; proba^ 
bldyfromy.^^, many, or ye\aj>, fellow, andp'i'QorJ^&'Os, 
an inroad on horjeback. 

Feld, folded. 

Fell, a mountain. Felle,^t«.' J^ell, 5. 

Feloun, wicked, ferce, cruel. 

Fehred,Jelter'd, hairy, Jhagy, 

Felwet, velvet. 

Felyoles, III, 180. 

Femyn, venom. 

Fen; fowyll fen, II, 64, mud, mire, filth: fenn, S. 

Fend, defend. Fendes, fiends, devils. 

TeneW, fennel. \ 

Feorlych,y<r/-/)', wonderful. 

Fer, Fere, fear ; fire. 

Fer, Feor, far. How fer fchall all this good i 
(I, 186) i. e. How fdr Jhal it go? and not •* Fare — to 
whomfhall it go ?" 

Ferd, Verde, fare' d, hapen'd: feoji, 5. 

Fere, In fere, in company, together, as companions: 
Fere, II, 97, healthy, found; cure, heal; wife, companion. 
Feren, Feres, companions, friends, fellows. Fendes fere, 
II, 58, companion of devils. Withouten fere, III, 216, 
without equal. 

Ferly fayne, wonderously glad, or joyful, Ferly fare, 
firange chance. 

Feft, I, Z^, fasten d. 

Fete, Fett, fetch' d; Fette, fetch. 

Fevite, fealty. 

Fey re, fair. Feyrhade, FeyrneSe, faimefsf beauty. 

Feytes, III, 155. 

f ith, fight. 



3to GLOSSARY^ 

Flankys, Tafte my flankys, III, 6, ful my flanks^ 
Jides, or loins, 

Flaugh, Flawe, le\t\g\\,Jlew,^fled. 

Flenied, banijh'd: jrlyman, 5. 

Fleon,_/Z^f. 

Fleoten,_/Zo<z/, or Jail. Fletcd, Y\t\Xtw,Jloated. 

Flet, I, i\r, parlour, antechamber: jlec, 5. 

VXeiXCyfofyd, fleet. 

Flites, /colds. Flyt, fcolding, fcandal, or il words. 
Flyte, I, 44, ckide: flican, 5. 

Y\o,Jlay,f^a. ¥\ogh,flay'd. 

Flome, II, lO, river. 

Floranfe, Florences, florin, florins, or /rancs, ancient 
toin of France. 

T\oTykeiH, flourifli' d. 

Flottered, haver d,fwun,flx>ated: flottcr, F. 

T\\i^e,flu/h'd, orpv/h'd. 

¥ode, flood. Fode, Foode. So fals a fode, I, 68, 
Joflalje a man (Twain) ; My doughter, fayreft fode o 
JyvCj 95 > My child, my oune fode, II, 147 ; Mony a 
freely foode, 163, many a free man; Freely was that 
fode, 225 [Emarees Jon) ; That fode to longe with no 
foly, III, \(>o\ freely fed, gentlely nurture'd, wel-bred 
(fiib. child, youth, or perfon , Jpoheen of); poeban, S. to 
feed ; a frequent epithet in thefe and all other old metrical 
Tomancees. It is, even, ufe'd by Wyntoam, the Scotifh rimC' 
ing historian (f peaking of queen Maid) : 

** Syne Saxon and the Scottis blude 
Togyddyr is inyhon frely fwde." 
The phrafe Fayr food occurs, alljo, in The Coventry 
corpus-christi-plays of Vespa. D. VIII, fo. 84, b), as 
does that oj Fayereft food in The Chester Whitfun- 
plays, (Har. MSS. 2013, fo. 44). It feem to anfxuer to 



GLOSSARY. 3S1 

the old French pkrafe la belle n^e, which occurs in the 
Fabliau du fot chevalier. 

Folde, III, 15. 

Folow, I, 2^,follow'd. 

Fon, Voon, foes. 

Fonde, II, 97, meet zmth, receive. 

Fonge, take: jrenjan, 5. 

Forbode, injunction^ prohibition : jrojibo^, 5. 

Force, mak na force, I, 33, take no heed ^ have no care. 

Forfare, loje, forfeit^ ruin., dejiroy. Forfard, II, 6i^ 
hj}, &c. Forfarn, Iqfe, throw away: jrojijrajian, 5. 

Forkarf, caved through. 

Forleofe, to lofe entirely : jrojileoj-an, 5. 

Forlete, II, ico, to give over \ to quit: jrojilaej^an, 5. 

Forlore, loj : fojilopen, 5. 

Formaft,_/bre»!^. 

Fornc, Jbr. 

Foror(\, Jur'd. 

TorovfSfJurrows, 

For-texhcy /ore- teeth. 

Forther itie^ fore-feet. 

Forthy, therefor, for this, for that: J^oji^i, 5. 

Forward, I, 82, promife, covenant, condition, agret' 
ment: j:o]iepeaji&, S. 

Tory^U forgave. Forref, forgive. 

Foryelde, reward, recompenfe, make amends. 

Founde, I, 63, 90; III, 13, endeavour, attempt, 

Fous, II, 13. 

Fowre, HI, 55 

Fraifted, I, 136. 

Frayned, ci/k'd, demanded, enquire' d, 

Fredde, II, \\e,,fru'd. 



3*2 GLOSSARY. 

Frek, man : fpec, S. 
YremcACj Jlranger: jrjiemeb, 5. 
Fristele, I, 59. 

Frith, I, 7, Fryght, wood, forejl. Frythes, xooodsf 
forefts. 

Froted, II, rub'd, orfcrub'd. 

Fun, Fundenyjound. YundVmg, Jbund/ing, 

Fiirryth, Jur'd. 

Vuioun,foifon, plenty, 

Fy\de,JiM. 

Fyle, I, 203, II, 46, viie, fouL Fyle ataynle tray- 
tour ! File attainted traitour! Aventurus fyle, 11,52. 
Thus Lawrence Minot ' 

" Philip the Valas was a file, 

Hejled, and durjl noght tak his dole." 
It is here uje' d Jo r coward. 

Fyne, III, i,%y jinijh'd, accompli/h' d : fine, F. 

Fy tlielers, jiddle'ers, 

Gabbeft, II, io6,fayeJl. 

Gabuls, cables, 

Galowe-tre, gallows : genlj, 5. 

Game, G^^rnxn, pleajure, Jport : gartien, 5. 

Gan, began to; Gane, I, 34, go, or have gone. 

Gar.e, Gayne, Gaynert, near, nearejl. 

Garnarde, a wine o/"Granada. 

Gzxion, youth or young man, knight or foldier \ in the 
plural Garfoun : garjon, garfons, F. Thefe words, in 
Engleipi, are allmojl peculiar to the romance of Le bone 
Florence of Rome. 

Gar)'e. See the note on Emare, y, 1032. ; 



GLOSSARY. 3S3 

Gafe, goes. 

Gate, way. Gatys, ways. Thus in Syr Bevys : 
" He rannefajl on his gate, 
Tylhe cam to (^<castel-yate." 

Gateward, porter. 

Gayne-come, comeing-agairiy return ] or, posjiblely^ 
meetings from gean cyme, S. 

Gedering, gathering. Gedyrd, gather d. 

Ger, Gar, cauje., make. Gert, cauje'd, made, 

Gertte, girt, girded. 

Gent, Gente, neat., pretty. F. ' 

Ger, Gere, geer^ apparel, necesfarys. 

Geft, a romance. Gestours, minjlrels. 

Geftes, I, 188, guejls. 

Get, her of yet, II, 271, goat, goats hair. 

Geth, goeth. 

Gethe, III, 68. 

Getron, gittern, cittern. 

Gilry, I, 68, deceit. 

Gle, glee, mirth, minjlreljy. 

Glede, II, 27, a bright fre, a burning ccal, blaze^ 
Jlame, or /park, 

Glemed, III, 72, gleam'd, glitter' d^Jkone. See Leo. 
mede. 

Gleynge, melody, minjlrdfy. 

Glod, I, 185. 

Glode, III, 72, glid, glideed. 

Glyfte up. III, 70. 

Gode, III, 109, good, alms. 

Godele, godly : goblec, 5. 
, Godneday, good-day. 

Gome, II, 47, man; Gomen, Gomes, men. 

Goo, go, . 



j»4 GLOSSARY. 

Gore, II, 63, mudy mire, dirt. 

Gorgete, a gorget, armour for the neck : gorgercttc, 
or gorgerin, F. 

Gram, I, 127, mischief, injury, anger, fury, 

Gramercy, many thanks. 

Gray, II, 36. See Grys. 

Grayd, T, 36, 124., graith'd, array' d,Jited up. 

Graythly, I, 55, readyly. 

Grcdde, II, 1 41 , cry d, xoept ; Grede, cry : jjiaeban, S. 

Grenes, I, 16, grennefs. 

Gret, greeted. Grette, wept. 

Greves, II, 24, 27, groves? 

Griht, Gvyo^M, peace: gj>i^» S. 

Grim, I, 70, 

Grifely, I, 161, dreadful. 

Gro, I, 180, a kindoffur,Jimilarto Grys, which fee. 

Grome, a man-fervant. 

Groued, grew. 

Growht, II, 232, 

Griif, II, 111, grave? groveling? 

Grunden, I, %<), ground, fharpen d. 

Grylle, II, 79, III, 105, harm. 

Grym, I, 92, out of humour, Jlem, auflere. Grym 
agros, II, 80. 

Grys, I, \%o, fur, from a kind of weqfelt er little ani- 
rnal,Jo call'd, of a grey colour.' gris, F. 

Guide, gold. 

Giirden, girded, girt. , 

Gyf, 7f 

Gyle, gtii/e. 

Gylle, a gil, or glerif a narrtm valley bettcten two feep 
hils. 

Gyn, Gynne, contrivance. 



GLOSSARY. 38s 

Gynnynge, iegining. 
Gypell, II, 10, 50, an outward garment. 
" Of fustian he wered a gipion, 
AlU befmottred mth his haubergeon." 

Chancers Pro. T. 75. 
So me wold ben armed in an haubergeon 
And in a brejl plate, and in a gipion." 

Idem. ^. a 1 2 1 . 
Gippon, F. GipfFel, T. 

Gyfarmes, II, 47, a fort oj" halberd, which emited two 
pikes with ajhoot: Guifarme, F, 

" Withfwerde, orfparthe, or with gifarme." 

Romant of therofe, V.S91S- 
See Spel. Glos. 

Ha, have. 
Habbe, have. 

Habergeons, coats of mail, either of plate^ or chain' 
mail, without Jleeves. 

Habide, Habides, abide. 

Haby. 5« Aby. 

Hailsed, Haylsed,_/a/af^i'</. 

Halde, hold, prifon^ castle. 

Hale, Hoole, whole. Halely, Holly, wholely. 

Hales, halls. Hales in the hall, II, 95, holes. 

Halp, holpe, help'd. 

Hals, I, 87, neck] III, 63, throat: halp S. 

Halt, held. 

Halt, II, 71, holds. 

Halvendel, half. 

Haly gaft, holy ghof. 

Ham, them. 

Hame, home, 

VOL. III. CC 



386 GLOSSARY. 

Han, have. 

Happe, III, •6, covery or bind, with the bed-clotha* 

Har, their. 

Harbroughe, Harburgerye, harbour, lodgeing. 

Harburgens. 5« Habergeons. 

Harowed, harry' d, plunder' d, ravage' d. See the note 
on V. 148 of The fquyr of lowe degre. 

Hafe, hoarfe. 

Hat, order'd, commanded; call'd. 

Hate, hath ; hot. 

Hattc, kight, call'd, name'd; is call'd. 

Hauberke, Hawberk, coat of mail. See Brunie. 

He, I, i<)i, Jhe, they: never " Her," as mister Ellis 
improperly explains it. 

Hcare, Heere, hair. 

Hedur-come, hither-comeing, arrival. 

Hedurward, hitherward. 

Heed, head. 

Heele, danger. 

Heire, higher. 

Hele,-I, 209, cover; III, 136, conceal, hide. 

Hele, health, welfare. 

Helt, I, 16, pour'd. 

Hem, them. 

Hende, kind, civil, gentle, obligeing, polite, courteous. 
Heiidefl:, I, 4, mojl polite or courteous. 

Hendely, kindly, &c. 

Henge, hung. 

Hening, II, 313. 

Hcnne, hence. 

Hent, Heiite, to take, catch, or receive; took or caught. 

Weo,fie. 

Heore, their. 



GLOSSARY. 3«7 

Her> hear ; her^ here, their ; ere, before. 

Herbers, harbours, tod^ees. Herberd, harbourd^ 
lodge'd. 

Here, hair; hear. 

Heried. See Harowed. 

Herlotes, I, 191, bafe varlets, nwrthlefs knaves. 

Hern -pan, brain-pan, fcul. 

Heryn, I, 135, hern, cave, fecret place : ejin, S. 

Hefte, to command. 

Hete, to promife, or asfure. 

Hethin, hence, 

Hette, commanded', was called, 

Hevyd, head. 

Hilles, I, 32, pvoteQs, preferves. 

Hire, her. 

Heylc, III, 42, 116, 136, conceal. 

High-dayes, I, 3, Hyegh-deys, II, 75, great frap, 

night, promife' d, undertakeen. 

Hingand, hanging. 

Hinde. See Hende. 

Ho, rvlio. Ho, Hoo, III, <)^iJlop, ceafe, dejijl. 

Hodur, II, 6, huddery hug. 

Hoi, whole, found, 

Holde, II, I \i, firm, faithful: holb, 5, 

Holtes hore, I, 177, Holtys here, II, 256, hoary 
holts. To chafy yn holtes hore, to chafe in grey woods. 
In Lyes Saxon dictionary " pole, holre," is explain' d 
** An holt. Lucus, fylva, nemus:" a grove, fore^^ or 
wood. Thus, too, in Chaucers Prologue, V. 6 : 
" Whan Zephirus eke with his fote brethe 
Enfpired hath in every holt and hethe." 
Again, in Troilus and Crefeide, B. 3, T. 352 ; 4 



388 GLOSSARY. 

" But right fo astkefe holtes, and thefe hay is, 

That han in xvintir dedde yben and drie, 
Devestin hem in grene, whan that Maie is." 
Bifliop Douglas Jeans to ufe holtes as hils : foy in P, 365, 
L.T. 

** Than throw the woddis, a»d thir holtyes hie." 
Again, /». 373, F. 16 : 

" Thay hard hillis hirjlisfor till ere. 
And on thir wild holtis hars alfo 
Infaynt pastome dois thare beijlis goe" 
Ruddiman, however, though he explains his authmtrs words 
" hills, higher ground, from the F. hault, haut, Lat. 
altus, high, a high place, hight ;" ads ** Or rather holt 
^fuiyfignify a wood or foreft, as in Lincoln/hire: ab AS. 
holt, fylva, Belg. hout. Teut. holtz, lignum. 111. holt, 
falebra." 
In Robyne and Makyne, Robert Henry/on fays, 
•* Makyne went hame blyth enough 
Outowre the holtis hair." 
Turberville, lihewife, in his " Songs and fonnets,'' i$6t, 
iiTno,/o. $6,feems to conjider them in the fame light! 
*' Yee that frequent the hilles, 
And \\\ght^ holtes of all." 
In a very ancient Scoti/k fong, however, citeid in the royal 
ballad of Pchlh to the play, itfeens to be ufe' d for wood 
or foreft : 

" T hair fur e one man to the holt :" 
as, infaQ, it is, in another infance, by bfhop Douglas^ 
P. 201, C. 15: 

♦• tVoddiSfforefiis with nahet bezois blout, 
Studefripit of thare wede in every hout." 
Honder, a hundred. 



GLOSSARY. 389 

Hone, I, 1 54, Jhane : honte, F. *' Honifoit qui mat 
ypenfe." 

Honge, hang, Hongeth, hang'd. 

Hope, I, 17, expeB,fuppofe,fear, am afrayd. Hoped, 
Hopid, Hupud, expeBed, &c. 

Horde, I, 3, Swilk. lofe thai wan with fperes horde; 
Ord, Mid fperes ord hueftonge, II, 149 ; i. e.Jharp or 
pointed /peers : 0|ib, 5. That fperes horde, or ord, « 
Jynonimous with fperes fcharp, feems clear from both thefe 
pasfagees, compare' d with another : 

*' fVith fperes fcharp, and fwerdes godc : " 
and with I, 56 : 

*' Thai rade togeder with fperes kene." 

Hore, II, 39, ^oary, (gT^-. 5e< Holies. 

Hore, whore. 

Horedam, whoredom. 

Hos, hoarje. 

Hofcht, hujh'd. ' 

Hofe, whojo. 

Hofelde, III, 33, houfef d himy i.e. administer d the 
eucharijl: huj-lan, S. 

Hostell, I, 143, in, lodgeing. 

Hote, Hoten, call'dy name'd. 

Hoth, I, 180, heath. 

Hove, II, 144, dub'd. 

Hovede, hover dy Jlay'dy Jlood Jlil. \{ovcihy hoversy 
Jlaysyjiandsjiil. 

Hue, heyjhey they. Huem, ihem. Huere, Hure, thdr. 

Huert, heart. 

Hulde, I, 381. 

HuUes, hil. 

Hurne, II, 148, cave^ hoky comtr, or niche: hyjin, S. 

Hutte, hit. 



390 GLOSSARY. 

Huyde, Huyden, hide. 

Wy,Jhe, they. In hy, I, 19, in hajle. 

Hyde, hide,Jkin. 

Hydofe, hideous. 

Hyght, Hyghth, call'd orname'd, or am, is, or was,fo. 

Hyghynge, II, 325, 

Hyllynges, III, i8q. 

Hyne, it. 

Hynge, hang, 

Hyre, her. 

Ibite, tajle, drink. 

I bore, born. 

Ichul, ijhal. 

Icore, n, 179. 

Iheled, I, 182, cover' d. 

Ikarneled, kernel' d, castellate'e'd, embatiel'd. 

\Wf:.,Jame. 

Ilka, each, every. Ilkane, each one, every one^ 

Ipelvred, I, 180, \%i,furd. 

Is, his. 

Iftlayne,77a/«. 

\vizx\\, gone. 

Jennettes, mares. 

Jerfawncon, afpecies of hawk. 

Jcwyfe, I, 90, capital punishment^ execution' ber 
jewyfV, Jvffcr punishment. 

Jogelers, jugglers, minftrtls. 

]o\yf, jolly. 

Jorne, journey, walk. 

Jiiell, jewel. Mister Ellis, who prints qijell, ads *< / 
cannot underjland this phrafe." It occurs, however, in 
Lybeaus, F. 879 : 



GLOSSARY. 39r 

" With many a juall." 
Again f T. 1025 : 

*' Nefaw i never «o juell." 
Juftus, ;?//?j. 

Kan, knows. 

Kantell, cantle^ piece. 

Kardevyle, I, 170, Karlof, II, 35, Karlyle, 46, 
Carlile. See the note on Launfal, V. 8. 

Karl. 5«Carl. 

Karlyoun, Caerleon. 

Karpet, /ay' d, prate'e'd. 

Karping, I, 6, talk, prate, intemperate. 

Kayme, Cain. 

Kaytyf, caitif, wretch. 

Kecche, II, 148, catch. 

Kedde, I, 185, knew, i^^,^ew'd. 

Keele, cool. Kelde, cold. 

Kelle, II, 217, calle, cawl, cap, hood, or head-drefs. 

Ken, know, inform, make or let know. Kend, knew, 

Kende, Kenne, kind, kin, kindred. 

Kennes, I, 1% ^, kind, fort of . 

Kepe, I, 75, care, heed, notice. 

Kerteles, I, 180, kirtles, uper, or outer, petticoats. 

Kervore, carver. 

Keft, caf, threw. 

Kefte, I, 185, Aj/j'J. 

Keth and kende, II, 17, kyth and kin, acquaintance 
and kindred. 

Kevechers, kerchiefs. 

Kevere, recover. Kevered, Keverede, Koverede, 
recover d. 

Kirk, church. 



39» GLOSSARY. 

Kind, I, 85, nature. 
Kith, I, ()(>yjhew. 
Kleke, click, catch, Jnatch, 
Klypped, clip'd, clafp'd, ernhraced. 
Knagg, III, 76, the tine of a harty or wooden pin j uje'd 
to hang any thing upon. 

Knave, a boy, page, or man-fervaiU: cnajra, 5. 

Kopeth, II, 6. 

Kownand, covenant. 

Kowrs, covers. 

Kowth, could, knew how. 

Kroupe, croup, the ridge of the both. See Cropoim. 

Kun, I, 42, can, wil, knows how. 

Kurtull, II, 230, a kirtle, outer-pettycoat, 

Kufs, kifs. 

Kyd, Kydde, known. 

Kyght, II, 229, (Kyth) country: LyS^e, S. 

Kynde, kind, race. 

Kyndeli, naturally. 

Kyrtell, III, 69, bed-gown. 

Kyth, Kythe,_^«tf, try, prove. 

Lac, I, 12, 4S, fault, defeS. 

Ladd, led. 

Laft, left. 

Lagh, laugh, Laght, Lawe, Logh, Lowe, Lowgh, 
laugh'd. 

Lahte, II, loi, latch' d, caught, acquire' d, learn d. 

Lainc, At laine, Layne, to conceal. Layned, conceal' d. 

Lake, lack, want. 

Lange, to long; Langes, I, lifi, belong. Me langes 
fare him for to fe, I, 45, 1 long fore to fee him. Laagiog, 
hn* longing. 



GLOSSARY. 39J 

Lappe, enfold^ embrace. 

Large, I, 198, grnerousy liberal ^ bounty fid. 

Largefle, generqfity^ liberality, 

Lafle, lefs. 

Late, II, 66, Ut,Jlop, Lates, I, 22, let. 

Lath, loth. Lathly, lothly. 

Launcer, II, 69. Lybeaiis hytte Lambard yn the 
launcer of hys helm fo bryght, // is unnotice'dby Grofe^ 
nor mention d by any one elfe, 

Lavedy, lady, 

Lavendere, a laundrejsy or wajherwoman. 

Laverock, lark. 

Lawnd, a plain in aforejl. 

Lay, law, religion. Lays, laws, 

Laye, bet, wager, 

Layn, I, 25, conceal it, bejilent. Laync, 92, conceal, 
Layned, III, 34, conceal'd. 

Layt, I, II, late,feek,fearck, 

Lebard, leopard. 

Leche, a leech, or phyfician. Lcche-craft, I, 115, 
■medicine. Lecheing, 1, 119, under cure. 

Ledd, lead. 

Lede, lead. Lede, 1, 37, Leede, II, 233, any land or 
country, 161, lond and lede; 11, lawjjaithy religion; 
III, 31, man or people : leob, S, 

Leef, love. 

Leende, wait,jlay. 

Lees, Les, lyes, or a lye \ Lefinges, lyes^ fooli/hjiorys, 
Lefyng, Lefynge, lyeing: leaj", leafunje, S. 

Leeven, believe. 

Lef, Lefe, loveing, friendly ^ affectionate', Lefe, defiroust 
belove'dj wiling. 



394 GLOSSARY. 

Leffome, lovely. 
' Legge, II, 53, lay down: lejan, S. 

Leghed, I, 120, layd [falfe accufations], 

I.el, Lele, true. Lely, truely. 

Leman, a zuife^Jweetheart, mistrefs ; a term of endear- 
ment; a concubine. LemnnnySf gallants. 

Leme, gleam, glifien, Jhine, Leomede, gleam' d, glijt- 
end,Jhme. 

'LendiCjJlayy remain. Lendedj^^ayV. 

Lene, I, 32, lend; lean. 

Lengell. See Lyngell. 

Lengor, longer. 

Lenkith, length. 
' Lent, II, 221, /fa»V. 

Leode, lead, bring. 

Lepe, leap'd. 

Lepes, I, 4, leapSyJlorys, lyes. 

Ler, Lere, Leren, learn, teach, inform. Lered, learn' d, 

Lefe, leajh. 

Lefte, pleaje. At the lefte, at the leajl. 

Let, hinder, deprive, obftruQ ; I, 6^, fail. 

Lete. Hem ne dude in lete, II, 153, He did not let 
them in. Lete, lofe. Lete, T, 85, 183. 

Lethir, I, 27, wicked, dangerous. 5« Lither. 

Lette, delay. Lettyd, let,Jlay'd. 

Leve, belove'd. • 

Leve, Yleve, i believe; live. Levyth, live'e'tk. 

Levening, lightening. 

Lever, Levyr, rather, foorier. Levefte, Levyft, mofl 
dejirous. 

Levore, lever, mace. 

Lewt^, loyalty. 



• GLOSSARY. 395 

Ley, lay. Ley re, 

Ley, a lay, or tale in verfe. 

Leyre, Lire, Lyre, cheek, face, colour^ complexion 
thereof. The mayden with the hly Hre, 

Libbe, lives. Lifand, livcing. 

Lig, lye. Ligger, tycer. Liggunde, lyeing. 

Lightli, eafeyly. 

Liked, lick'd. 

Limes, lymes, limbs. 

Liftes, II, loi, arts: lijt:, S. 

Lite, I, 48, little. Led with lite, 68, treated her with 
littlenefsy or indifference, 

Lither, wicked: ly^P» 5, 

Live, life. 

Lodlick, loathly. Lodlokeft, Lotlokfte, loathlyejl. 

Logge, lodge. 

Londe. Wei londe, i. e. cfforfrom the land, 

Honge, lungs. Longe, III, 160. 

Loone, III, 81. 

Loos, wyckkede loos, II, 2, had reputation, 

Looveyd, III, 30, 80, 90, ^i, praife'd, 

Lorayns, reins. 

Lore, learning. My lore, III, 116, myfpeechy what i 
an about tofay. 

Lorell, II, 12, a worthlefs fellow, afcoundrel. 

Lorn, lojl. 

Los, I, 204, Lofe, I, 3, Loos, wykked loos^ II, a, 
praife,fame, report, in a good or badfenfe: los, F. 

Lofed, loji. 

Lofenjoure, I, (>%, flatterer , parafite, prateer, deceiveer . 

Louding, lauding, praifeing. 

Loure, II, 102, fad; discontented, downcafl. 



39« GLOSSARY. 

Loverd, I, 80, lord. 

Loverd-fuyke, II, 313, treacherous, guilty of high 
treafon ? 

Lowe, I, 15, a firey blaze, or Jlame. See Logh. 
Lowe, II, 43, hil. 
Low the, loud, 

Luef, love, Luffom, Luffume, lovely. Luffumer, 
lovelyer. 

Luft, dejire, luijh. 

Lut, II, ii6,feTt). Alutewiht, II, 112, a light blow, 
Lyfand, liveing. 

Lyfe. Then anfweryd that lovely lyfe, III, 116, 
the empre/s). See Leve. 
Lyflothe, livelyhood. 
Lygg, lye, or lye with. 
Lyghted, lighten d, made lighter. 
Lyghth, I, 183, alighted. 
Lyghtly, III, 206, readyly. 
Lygyng. lyeing. 
Lyht, lyeth, 
Lym, lime. 

Lynde, II, 45, lime, teil, or linden-tree', and hence, 
figuratively, a tree, or a clump octrees, in general. 
Lyngell and trappure, II, 37, 54. 
" Of the felve colours, 
And of non other floweres, 

Was lyngell and trappure." 
*♦ Lyngell armes trappur was fwych, 

Thre mammettes therynne wore, 
Of gold gaylyth geld." 
U is fay' d, when they are arming Ly beaus Discontu (IIJ, 10, 
r, 2ZZ, &c.) 



GLOSSARY. 39^ 

" They cajle on hym a fcherte of felk, 
A gypell as whyte as melk, 
In that femetyf ale." 
Hence Mauugeys {V. 1 2S0) ** cryde to hym yn defpyte^* 

** Say^ thoufelaw in whyt ;" 
(haveing hinifelf 

** Hysfcheld as blakke as pych,") 
to which Lybeaus replys, 

— *• thou devell yn blak, 
Make the redy now." 
"Lynnetjiop, ceafe. 
Lyre. See Leyre. 

Lythe, III, 36, londes or lythes, Londys lythys, and 
rente, 48, plains. 

Lythe, I, 173, lijlen^ attend; fometimes her and lythe, 
andfometimes lythe and lyften ; /mile, calm, /often. The 
wether was lythe of (or on) le, II, 218, 239, mild or 
calm on lee, the lee, or lee-Jide, of a Jfiipt being that from 
which the wind blows. 
Lythyr. See Lither. 
Lyte, I, 178, light. 
Lytte, little. 
Lyve, I, X9, life. 

Ma, more; make. 
Maad, mad. 
Maght, I, 152, might, 
yidm, force, Jlrength. 

Maiftri, I, 155, mastery^ masterfhip, fuptriority^ per* 
fection. 

Make, make. 
Mall, mallet. 
Malmefyne, malmfey : malvoifie, F. 



398 GLOSSARY. 

Malt, I, 202, melted. 

Mane, mean, moan. 

Maner, manor. 

Mane fworn, manfworn, perjure'd. 

Mangere,JcaJi. Mnnger\, Jeqjling. 

Mankyn, mankind. 

Marred, III, 37. 

Mas, Mafe, makes. 

Mafer-tre, maple, or wi'd-ajh. 

Mate, dead,Jlupefy d, confufe' d, fenfelefs. 

Mametes, Mammettes, idols. Maumetrie, idolatry, 
or idol-worjhip, Makometifm. The Christians, wko invented 
this Jialfehood, were alltuays image-wor/hipers, but the 
inufulinans, or moslem never. 

Marlin, III, T46, if the minjirel intended a Jinging- 
bird, the merle, or black-bird; if, as it is fuggejled, he 
ignorantly or dejignedly mistook, then the merlin, afpecits 
of hawk. 

Mavis, thrujh. 

May, maid, damjel, virgin, young lady, or young woman. 

Mayne. See Main. Mayne. Menye. 

Mayfterye, 211, magick, necromancy. Mayftri, I, 168, 
masterjhip, fuperintendence, controll. Mayftrrie, II, 72, 
mastery, masterjhip, mcchanijm^ workmanjhip, any thing 
fuperlatively clever. 

Meate, meet. 

Me, I, 189, 190, 214, II, 54, 62, 128, 130, nun. See 
the note on 

Mede, meed, recompence, reward. 

Mekyl, much. 

McU^, medley, quarrel, disturbance. 

Meng, I, 73, mix, mingle, 

Menlke, mence^ decency. ' 



GLOSSARY. 399 

Menftralcy, minjlrdfyy mufical performance. 
Ment, I, no, knew? 
Meny, attendants, fervants. 

Menye, I, 9, family', houfekold, domesticksy attendants, 
fervants. 

Merlyon, III, 177, merlin^ a fpecies of hawk: enie- 
rillon, F. 

Mefs, I, 131, mafs. ♦ 

Mefe, the mefsesy di/keSf dinner^ or arrangement of the 
table. 

Mefelle, a leper. 

Mester, mystery, bufynefs : mestier, F. 
Meteles, meatlefs. 
Mette, mate. 

Mewfe, to mufe, or meditate. 
Mid, Mide, Myd, with. Mitte, with thee. 
Misforfchapen, misjhape'en. 
Mister. See Myster. 
Mo, Moo, more. 
Mody, moody. 
Moght, might. 

Mold, Molde, I, 42, mould, earth ; allfo, head, or 
crown of the head, as in 210, F, 940 : 

" Sche hadde a croune upon her molde, 
Of ryche Jlones and of goldcj 
That loffom lemede lyght :" 
Mister Ellis, indeed, has been pleafe'd to put this conjlruc- 
tion and punctuation upon thefe lines, with the utmoji violo' ' 
tion offenfe and rcafon .' 

♦' Sche hadde a crounne upon her, molde 
Of ryche ftones and of gold, 
Tliat lovefome lemed lyjt :" 
as ^ MOLDE were the verb moulded, or model'd; of 



400 GLOSSARY. 

tohichy it is believe* dy no parallel pasfage can be produce' d 
from any ancient poet .' but whether or not, it is, certainly, 
not Jo in this injlance ; as zoil be manifejled by fever aljimi' 
lar or appofte p as f agrees, as, for example, from Lybeaus 
disconiis, V. 841, 877, and ^o%■\ : 

" A fercle upon her moldej 
Ofjlones and of golde. 

The bejl yn that enpyre." 
** A fercle upon her inolde« 
Ofjlones and of golde. 

With many ajuall. " 
*• Whan the lady was come to towne, 
Of golde and rychejlones a krowne, 
Upon her hedde wasjette. " 
Again: Allready, in Launfal, r. 238: " coronell <?« 
^2<r hedd7f«." 

•' Hur heddys were dyght well withalUj 
Everych had oon a jolyf corondW 
With fyxty femmys and mo, ' ' 
So, in The fquyr of lowedegre, r. 719 : 
" Ye ware the pery on your head, 
With Jlones full oryent, whyte and read.'* 
Again .' 

" Farewell cravfn unto my hcde." 
Again, in Sir Orpheo, F. 147 : 

** The king had a crowne on his hede, 
It was no felver ne gold rede, 
All it was of precious ftone." 
Molde is Jlil apply' d by nurj'ees to the form of a childs 
fkul. Other Jynonims for head are cawl, clioll, costard, 
jowl, nowl, poll. 
Mon, mujl. 
Monhede, manhood. 



GLOSSARY. 4" 

Moni falde, I, 26, many fold. 

Mornyng, mourning. 

Mote, might., may. Mote, I, 140, mooty contend, 

Mountance, Mountawnfe, Mountenaunce (111,165), 
amount, f pace of time it would take towalk or ride, Chaucer 
hasy likewife, mountance ; but, in Syr Tryamour, it is 
mountenaunce : 

** He had not ryden but a whyle, 
Not the mountenaunce of a myle.'' 

Mowne, may. 

Moyles, mules. 

Munftral, minjlrel. 

Munt, II, 124, mind. 

Muscadell, a French wine. 

Mustre, II, 290, minjler. 

Mut, might. 

Myddyllerd, Mydle-erde, I, 161, the earthy world, or 
globe. 

Mykel, 7nuch. 

Myld, II, 94, mercyful, 

Myn owe, mine own. 

Myn, Mynne, le/s. 

Mynge, II, 243, Aimfelf reminded, or mention made : 
mynjian, S. 

Mynt, I, 35, 144, threatened, aim'dy attempted. Mynt, 
I, no, threat, attempt y aim. 

Myrght, mirth. 

Myslikeing, Myslykyng, dislikey or disgujl. 

Mysrede, misadvife, mistetch- 

Mysfay, to belye, wrong, or fay what is amifs. 

Myster, I, 33, My sty r, needy want. 

Nakette, II, 208, 210. 
Nakyn, no kind of. 
VOL. HI. D d 



4Qa GLOSSARY. 

Name, Namm, Nom, Nome, took. 

Nanes, I, 47, for the nanes,ybr the nonce, for the put' 
pofe, or occajion ; pro nunc, L, 

Naft, (ne haft,) hajl thou not. 

Nay, neigh. 

Neeve, III, 69, neifyfijl, orclafp'dhand. 

Neghed, nigh'd, drew near. 

Neght, nigh. 

Nell, wil not. 

Nempne, name. Nempnede, natne'd. 

Nere, were not, 

Nerre, nearer, 

Nefe, a nofe. 

Neflche ne harde, II, f>z,foft nor hard: nej-e, S. 

Nete, an ox. 

Nevyn, name. Nevys, nanus, 

Ney, eye. This, and Jimilar words, are corrupted by 
changeing the Jituationof the jinal n oj" the precedeing word; 
as my ney, for injlance, or a newt, a nothe, injiead of 
niyn ey, an ewt, or an othe ; and others, by remcveing 
tkefrjl letter of the fecond word to the end of the firji, ai 
an apron, an ouche, both which would be properly writen 
a napron, a noiiche, as they are in the original French, 

Nobiliary, I, 150, noblenefs, nobility. 

Nolde, ne wolde, would not. 

Nome, name. 

Nomeliche, namely. 

Nones, Noonys, nonce, purpofe, occafon. See Nanes. 

Noon, none. 

Noonre, a nunry. 

Nortour, nurture. 

Not, ne wot, wot not, know not. 



GLOSSARY. 403 

Noth, Nothe, oath. 
Nouthe, II, 7, now^ 273, nothing. 
Nower, no where. 
Nowther, neither. 
Noyes, noife, grief., lamentation. 
NuUy, II, 138, ne toil i, i toil not. 
Niifle, Nyfte, wijl not, knew not. 
Nuthake, III, 147, nuthatch, nut-jober, wood-cracker. 
Nycke, neck. 

Nyghyng, approaching, drawing near. 
Nys, nice, foolijh : niais, F. 

Nythyng, II, 99, a wicked or good for nothing vian, an 
tutlaw or vagabond. 

Occlent, Occident, wejl; much more probable t/ian ocan. 

Odoun, down, or adown. 

Odur, Odyr, other, others. 

Ofte-fithes, oft-times. 

Ogains, agai?ijl. 

Ogayne, again. 

Oght, owe'd, ozim'd. 

Ohtoun, II, 148. 

Olyfant, elephant. 

Olyroun. See the note on Laimfal, V. 1023. 

Olyve, alive, life. 

Omell, among. 

On, one. . 

Onane, anon. 

Onde, II, 313, hate, hatred, 

Oo, Oon, one. 

Oolde, old. 

Oones, once. 

Ooft, hoji. 



404 GLOSSARY. 

Ord, I, 183, Old and ende, begining and end \ birth 
and life. 

Old, II, 81. His fword was fcharp of egge and ord, 
i. t. of edge and point; 149, Mid fperes ord hue 
ftonge, with Jharp or pointed fpears; 117, A boven 
othen orde, Jit upon his fword the head above at the point. 

Ore, grace, favour. See the note en Lybeaus, F. 1423. 

Orgenes, organs. 

Oryall, III, 149, Oryall-fide, 106. The word Oric], 
which has various fgnif cations, feems, in both thefe in- 
fana.es, to imply a recefs in a chamber, hall, or chapel, 
formed by the projection of a fpacious bay (corruptly bowj- 
ii<iiidow,from top to bottom, occafonally, it would fcem, or— 
vamented with painted glafs, illuminate'ed by the rays of the 
fun. This kind of window isjlil to be feen in ancient halls 
and the ins of court, and hence, it is probable, the name of 
Oriel-college. Itfhould be notice' d, at the fame time, that 
the Alder, by the compileer of the Promptorium parvulo- 
nini (Harleian MS. 221 J is allfo call' d the •* Oryell tre." 

Orybylle, horrible. 

Os, as. 

Ostel, Ostell, an in. There are fome fmall collegees in 
Cambridge, which were formerly call'd hostels, and fit 
prferve the name. It is the modern French and Engleifh 
word hotel . 

Ofylt, oufel, a different f pedes from, the black-bird, but 
of the fame colour. 

Other, or. 

Oii-felven, Ou-felven tiieie, Your two f elves. 

Out-beode, he order d out. 

Out-take, Owt-takyn, except, or excepting, 

Over-blenche, II, 150, overfet. 

Over-geld, over 'gilt. 



GLOSSARY. 4©S 

Overt, open. 
Overtwert, overthwart. 
Ovyr-hylte, cover' d over. 
Ovyr-tyte, over-foon. 
Ow, you. 
Owthe, owe. 
Owther, either. 

Paid, apay dyfatisfy' dy content. 

Paiens, Payens, Payenes, Paynes, Payns, Pagans, 
heathens, Saracens, Danes. 

Pales, Paleys, a palace. 

Palle, I, 211, fine cloth, ufe' d for the robes of kings, 
princees, and perfoHs of rank or confequence : generally 
jnirpel, or purpur. Thus Milton: 

** Sometime let gorgeous Tragedy 
In fceptred pall come fweeping by" 
In Langhams Letter, ^Sl 5f ^' ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ " P'^^^ of white 
filk," It is now confine d to velvet, blacknejs, and funeral 
procesfions, 

Pallyng, III, i88, 

Palmere, II, i^A) a pilgrim, who walk' d to Jerufalem, 
probablely from the palm-branch he wore on his hat. 

Pane, I, 9, 

Panele, I, 21, pannel, ajluf'd cifliion, lay' d upon the 
faddle. 

Panter, III, 161, an ofjicer, or fervant, who has the 
care of the pantry, now call'd a pantler : pannetier, F. 
It is ufe'd, likewife, by Robert of Gloucester, P. 187 : 
** He yefthat land of Aungeo Kayeys panter." 

Parage, I, 53, kindred. 

Parayle, II, 198, rank: pareille, F. 

Parell, peril, dangers. 



406 GLOSSARY. 

Parred, I, 135. 
Pafe, II, \%ypafs. 

Paynime, in the manner of the Pagans; k la Payenne, /. 
See Paiens. 

Paytrelle, I, 211, potlrinal, pectcral, or ireaji-plate ' 
poitrail, f. 

Pece, I, 33, a cup, or drinking-vesfel. 
Pee, magpie. 
Pell, II, 60, fur. 

Pelryne, II, i^i, pilgrimy or palmer: pelerin, F. 
Pelvred,/arV. 
Pende, II, 138, hond. 

Penfel, penont ^fanner, enfign, or banderoU^ near tit 
point of a lance. 

Pere, III, 28, ^«rar. 
Perfay, by my faith. 
Perfounde, prrfound, 

Perrd, III, 9, 107, Perry, I, 47, jewels, precious 
Jlones: pierreries, F. The latter injlance, however, dtstin' 
gnijhes it from ** preciows ftanes." Ye ware the pery 
on yourhead, III, 175. Your fester pery at yourhede. 
Your head-ftiete (hall be of pery pyght, 180. 
Pert, I, 182, II, 6, 157, brijk. Pertly, bri^ly. 
Perydotes, II, 210. 
Perys, peers. 
Pefe, peace. 
Pine, pain, punijhment. 
Flawe, play, 

Playn pafe, I, ii(),fulfpeed. 

Playnere, Plener, Pleyner, ful, fully, pUntyfut, 
complete, 

Plevyne, I, 53, warranty, asfurance: pleuvinc, F. 
Plex, II) 6. ** Loricam liabuit in corpore, plectas in 



GLOSSARY. 407 

p(ctore ferreasy ocreas in tibiis, &c." Spelman, under 
Plecta. *' Piecta, parma, dipeum, fcutum, defenfa- 
culuni." Du Cange. The text is To hys gerdell henge 
the plexy which was, likelyy the vfual dispqfition of the 
Jliitldy while the knight was peaceablely rideing along the 
road. 

PI eye, play^ d if port. 

Plyght, I, ^ If pledge' d; i-jiy pledge, asfure. 

Pole, a pool. Poles, pools. 

Pomels, III, 17, balls, apples. 

Pomely, II, 36, a pomely palfray, a palfray fpoted 
with round f pots like apples', dapple' d: Pomelee, F. 

Pomet touris, II, 55. 

Popinjayes, parrots. 
I Poscescon, posfesfion. 

Poust^, Powste, power. 

Pover, 1, 124, poor: pauvre, F. 

Poverly, I, 179, poorly, pityfully, fneakingly, " to 
avoid the fpectators ;" and not, as mister Ellis conjectures^ 
" powerfully," which was, furely^ never fgnify'd by 
poverly. 

Povert, 1, 11%, poverty. 

Poyle, Apulia. 

Poynt, II, 21^, point. 

Praye, prey. 

Pres, a prefs^ or croud, 

Prekc, Fnke, to prick, J^r, ridef gallop. Prekand, 
pricking, &c. 

Prefand, I, 56, prefented it to. 

Prefent, I, 53, prefence. 

Prefoun, I, 82, Prifoun, Pryfoun, prifoner, captive. 
Prifons, Pryfouns, plural. 

Preft, prompt, ready. 



4og GLOSSARY. 

Prefyd, prefs'd, throng' d. 

Prime, I, 97, the firjl quarter of the artificial day, or 
three o'clock. 

Prow, Prowe, I, 49, II, 55, advantage^ prowefsf 
honour. 

Pryfe, price, value. 

Puple, people. 

Piirchafe, acquifition. 

Puryd, Jur'd. 

Purpur, purple. 

Piirrt, I, 54. His prowde wordes er now al purft. 

Pufte, pu^'d. 

Pych, pitch. 

Pyght, pitch'd. 

Pylte, II, 150, Set, hruife'd: pilan, pileb, S. * 

Pyment, I, 184, an artificial wine, refembleing clary 
or hippocras: a mixture, that is, of wine, honey, and 
fpicees. 

Pyfane, II, 69, Jome part of the coat-armour, Crofe 
cites " 3 coleretcs pizaines de jazeran d'acier." 

Qii^arell, the arrow, or dart of the crofs-how, 

Qiied, II, 279, Wende to the qued, went to the hady 
i. e. the damn'd; 2S8, mischief 

Qnede, II, 56. 

Quelle, II, 93, kil; Qu^elthe, II, 51, quel'd, kil'd. 

Quemc, I, 208, to pleafe. Quemetli, II, 1 1 \,pleafeith, 

Qnere, quire, choir. 

Qnert. My joy, my comfort, and rny quert (I, 63), 
my heart, in a tenderer affectionate manner; My lady 
wend he had hir hert, Ay for to kepe and hald in 
quert (68), My lady thought he had her heart, to keep and 
holdfor ever in affection, tendernejs, or the like j Madame^ 



GLOSSARY. 409 

and he were now in quert (73), if he were now in good 
health, or condition, in his found fenjees, or, in heart or 
Jpirits, as hefhould be ; Thai faid, He fal never rife in 
quert (136), The byjlanders, at an equestrian combat be- 
tween Lybeaus disconus and tvio glotownes, haveing ob» 
ferve'd one of them brayd downe to the earth by Libeauses 
lion, fay, as above, Hefial never rife again, in life, healthy 
Jlrength, vigour, comfort, good condition, or the like ; Al 
fwilkjoy tharof fho had in hert, Hir thoght that fho 
was al in quert (i4i)> She hadfuch joy in her heart, /he 
thought fie was all in joy andfpirits ; Him liked it wele 
in his hert, That he faw her fo in quert (145), He was 
pleafe'd to fee her fo jocund orfpirited'. He bopud wele 
in hys herte That hys wyfe was not in querte (III, 
127), He fufpeBed, or was afray'd. That his emprefs was 
not in health, fpirits, or comfort, or, as he fays, a few lines 
before, from, a dream he had, — " he hopyd than Hys lady 
was in woo." — This word has not been found explain d, or 
etymologife' d, in any glosfary hitherto publifi'd, or, at 
least met with: posfiblely from quert, cuer, or^coeur, F. 

Qi^eft, inquejl, asfize, trial. 

Queynte, II, 16, quaint, fkilful. 

Ciueynteofgynne, II, 78, quainty orcuning,ofenginef 
tr contrivance. 

Quit, rewarded. Qu^ite, quit. 

Questeroun, I, loi, cooks, or fcullions. 

Quoke, quake' d. 

Quyn, whin, furze. 

Quyt, quit. 

Quyte-claynied, quit-claim' d, acquitedy discharge d. 

Quytt, rewarded. 

Quelle, to kil. 



410 GLOSSARY; 

Rach, II, 46) a intch-hound. Raches, hounds. 

Rad, I, 21, 

Radde, red. Radder, reder. 

Rafe, rove, tore. 

Raft, reft. 

Rakede, III, 136, toatk'd apace. 

Rampande, III, 36, rampant. 

Randoun, at random, a fwift or violent courfe : ran- 
den, F. 

Rappes, II, 50, blows, thumps, ^rohes. 

Rafe, rofe. 

Rath, I, 46, quick, foon. Rathly, quickly, foon. 

Ray, I, 1 94, a robe of ray. Cloth of ray was cloth 
not colour d or dye'd, and is mention' d, in many old Jla' 
tutes, in contradistinction to cloth of colour. See 17 E. 3. 
c. I. 7 H. 4. c. 10. II H. 4. C.6. I R. 3. c. 8. Stow, 
however, under the year 1252, Jays M. Adam Frauncis, 
mercer, mayor of London, " procured an aR of parliament, 
that no known whore fhould weare any hoode, or attire on 
her head, except reied, or ftriped cloth of divers colours, 
&c." (Survey, 1598, p. 430). In the Lytell gefte of 
Robyn Hode, V. 106, his yeomen are defcribe' d with 
" — every ch of them a good manteUf 
0/"fcarlet andofvvjt." 
Certainly, therefor, " a robe of ray," is, very improperly, 
explain' d " array." 

Raye. Ryche yn ray, II, ^^\, Ryche raye, 222, a 
title give'e'n to the king ofGalis, in Eniare. 

Ray me. III, iii, cry out againjl : hjieam, 5. 

Rayne, Clothe of rayne. III, lio, cloth of Rennes, a 
city of Britany. This cloth is notice' d by Chaucer for its 
particular f of tnefs : 



GLOSSARY. 411 

*< And many a pilowtj and every here 
Of clothe of raynes toJUpe onfofte^ 
Him thare not nede to turnin ofte." 

Real, 1, 131, royal. Seethe note. Really, 66, royally. 

Recche, Recke, care. Ne recchi, I care not. 

Rechafe, III, 177. 

Recomforde, recomforted. 

Recorde, III, 190, recorder. 

Recreant, I, 138, coward. 

Red, advife'dy counfel'd. 

Redd, Rede, advice^ counfet. Rede, to adxnfe or counfd. 

Redde for ronne. III, 80. 

Redies him, makes himjelf ready . 

Rees, III, 138. S«Refe. 

Reft, bereave'd, 

Relygyons, I, 188, religious perfonSf monks, friers , 
hermits. 

Reme, II, 154, rim, imbank: Jieoma, S. 

Remes, realms, 

Ren, ran, Rennande, Renin, runing. Rennyth, 
runeth. 

Renable, I, 10, reafonable. 

Reprefe, Repreofing, reproof. 

Rerde, I, 87, cry, roar, 

Reryd, III, 97, reard, ratje'd. 

Refe, I, 136, III, 104, race, courfe^ toithforce. So, in 
The tale of Gamelyn, F. 1085 : 

** How Gamelyn and Adam had y don a forry res." 
Again, in the Prologue to that o/^Beryn, ^. 498 : 

*' Wherfor he Jill fodenlick into a wood refe." 
Again, in Troilus and Crefeide, B, 4, T. 350 : 
" But in a rage to Troilus he wente." 
Infome MS. "in a refe." See Tyr. glos. 275. Raef, S. 



419 GLOSSARY. 

Refpice, a wine now unknown, 

Reuthe, ruth, farrow. 

Reykyd, raked, went hajleyly. 

Reve, bereave, rob. 

Reven, torn, 

Reyfet, III, 74, receiveir, (of a thief), or, rather, the 
place 0/" receipt ; according to an old Scotifli proverb, " The 
refett is as ill as the thief." See Ruddimans glosfary. 

Rofe, rove, tore. 

Reykyd, III, 70, rake' d,flrode,flep'd hajleyly. 

Reyn, II, 91, rain. 

Ribible, a fort of fiddle, with threefirings. 

Rinand, runing. 

Roche, rock. 

Rochell. A French wine, exported from that place. 

Rod, Rode, rood, crqfs, Chrifis crofs. 

Rode, colour, complexion, rednefs of the check. 

Roght, I, 41, III, 119, reck'd, care'd. 

Romaynce, Romans. 

Ronne, III, 80. 

Roo, III, 36, 122. 

Rope, I, 1 1, rowp, cry out, or, loud. A roup, in Scot- 
land, is, elfewhere, call'd a canting or out-cry^ 

Rofe-reed, II, 61, Rofyne, II, 38, rofey, rofe-co- 
iour'd, rofcai: rofin, F. 

Rote, III, 75, a mufical infirument, by the French, at , 
preftnt, call'd la vieile {zvhich formerly fignify' d a violin), 
and by the Engleifli mandolin or hurdy-gurdy; being 
fufficiently common both in Paris and London, chief ly^ 
however, in the hands of Savoyards. 
Rothe. SeefLod. 

Roune, II, 43, murmur, ruful roun, lamentation; 
145, kynges roune. 



GLOSSARY. 413 

Roufe, I, 49, red. 

Row me, I, 6, roomy y wide, 

Roumede, II, 273. 

Rowthe, III, 105, ruth, as in Chaucer, 

Rowncy, a road, or cart, horfe, 

Rowned, III, 74, wliisper'd, 

Rudde. See Rode. 

Ruddock, a red-breajl. 

Rump.ey, III, 753, a wine which may have obtain' d its 
name, from being imported into that place; or, posfiblely^ 
from la Romance, a province^ or vineyard, of Burgundy f 
famous for its wine, 

Rulhis, r2ifi. 

Ryall, royal. 

Ryclie, rihe, realm, kingdom. 

Rydyght, rideeth. 

Ryfe, rife, common, plentyful : III, 48. 

Ryg, back. 

Rygge, ridge. 

Ryglites. Arioon ryghtes, right anon. 

Ryght wes, Ryght wyfe, Ryht wes, righteous. 

Rys, I, 210, Ryfe, II, 53, branch, twig. 

Ryke. See Ryche. 

Ryne, \\,C)i,rinc, the white covering of a nocturnal frofl. 

Ryve, II, 155, the bank, orfhore, ofthefea: rive, F. 

Ryve, to tear. 

Ryve, arrive. Ryved, arrive' d. 

Sagh,y2z2y. 
Saght, \\,^^, fight? 

Saght, I, 163, Saghtel'd, 166, fettle'd. Saghtelyng, 
I, 166, afettlcing, or agreement. 

Saint, cincture, girdle : cein(5l, or ceinctiire, F. 
Saket, 11,66, 



414 GLOSSARY. 

Sakles, T, io6,fackUfsy innocentf guiltkfi, 

Sii],j!al. 

Sale, r, 191, Salle, a hall: falle, F, 

Salmes, pfalms. 

Sambus, I, 2 1 1, a houfeingy orfaddle-cloth : fambii^, ¥. 

Same, Samen, Samin, Samyn, In or Yn fame, 
together. 

Samyte, II, id, a richfdk, orjluf, more precious than 
Saye. See Memoires de chevaleriey II, 223. 

Sarazynes, Saracens, Pagans, heathens, Danes, North-, 
men. 

Sar, Sare, fore. Sari, forty, forrowful. Sarily, Jor^ 
rowfully. 

Saiigh,yari'. 

Savage, I, 946, wild. Savagelycli, I, 175, wildly, in- 
conjideratcly . Mister Ellis prints it fan gelyth, and /up- 
pofe'e's this unintelligible word nay posfiblcly ** be a miUake 
in the MSS." [MS.] which, however, is not the cafe. If 
favagcly mean fagely, the poet mufl be ironical. 

S3iVfe,fpecch, words, fayings . S&Vits,fpeeckes,fayings. 

Sawnfaile, without doubt. 

Sawter, ihepfalter. 

Sawtry, a pfaltery. 

Say, II, 4, a fort offuf. 

Sayn, I, (>■},, fay. Sayne, III, 13, izot Jign, Sayned 
him, 26, crof d himfelf, or made theftgn of the crofs. So 
Cryrte me fave and fayne (III, 13). 

Sayde, asfay'd. 

Scath, harm. 

Schalmufes, II, i^ifhalms. 

Schare, S\\drt,fiore, cut. 

Schawc, II, 48, III, 6if, fhaw, fhade, grave, copfe, 
within a wood. Schawys, II, z<,i, fhaws, &c. fceaft, 
S.Q. 



GLOSSARY. 415 

Sche, JJig. 

Schend, II, 86, put to death, kily Jlay\ Schende, 
I, 193, defame, degrade, injure, hurt. Schent, ruiu'df 
undone. 

Schene, Jhineing. 

Schepe, ajhip. 

Schere, 1, 188, as flcere,yr«, dear, 

Scliilde,_/7'«/^. Schelde, I, \Yi,Jhield, prtvent, 

Scho,_/%e. 

Scliold, Sch.\X(ii,fiould,Jhould go, 

Sc\\ome,Jhame. 

SchoTp, J/iape'd,Jorm'd, made, create'e'd. 

Schrede, I, 187, II, 2, /creed, Jcreen^ clothe, dreft 
himfelf. 

Schrewe, II, 80, Shrewes, Jhrew, Jhrews, atrocious 
rascals. 

Schrlve, Schryve, confefs (to a priejl). ScJirofe, 
Shriveen. 

Schyre, I, 180, III, 5, clear. 

Sc\\\,Jkill, caufe, reafon; advice, counjel', art, knowlege. 

Sclaveyn, II, 135. See the note on V. 1060 (y^ King 
Horn. 

Sc\swt,Jlain. 

Sclegh, II, i6,Jly. 

Sclo. To fclo, to hejlain, or put to death. 

Scryed, III, 15, discover d, dejcribed. 

^cy\Qre.^e,Jkiver' d. 

St, fee, look to, regard, preferve. 

Seek, Seke,JicA. 

Seende, II, 162. 

Segge, II, 291, fay. Seggeth, 297,/ayi. 

Seh, faw. 

Seker, SekYr,Jicker, certain, fure. Sekyrrae, asfureme. 
Sekerly, /wrf/y. Sekernes, certainty, furety, asfurance. 



4i6 GLOSSARY. 

Sdcouthf Jlrange. 

Se\de,feldo>n ; II, io8, Ofkiindeme ne felde. 

Selly, I, 5, 147, Jilly, fmple, foolijh. A gretc felly, 
1^1, a great folly. 

Selve, I, a,, f elf, fame yf elf -fame. 

Sembelde, asfemble'd. 

^&vMi2iX\A,femblancey appearance. 

Semblant; welcome. 

Sembyll, asfcmble. 

Semelant, II, 261, refemblance. 

Semelych, /fewz/y. 

^tViffince. 

Sendell, III, 8, a thin ftlk like cyprefs. 

Sent, III, II, asfent, confent. 

Senfours, cenfers, incenfe-pots, 

Ser, I, 6r, Sere,feveral, different. 

Sere, I, i8i,^r. Serrys,^rj. 

Sered, cere'd (with a cere-cloth). 

Serewe, Serwe, forrow. 

Serke, II, 225, farkjfiirt. 

ScTv Andes, fervants. 

Sefcyfes; ceafe. Sefed, ceafe'd. 

Sefowne. This day was us fet fefowne, This day was 
thefeafon, or time, appointed to m. 

Sete,fat. 

Scth,feeth'd, boil'd. 

Sethen, Sethin, Seththe, Sey then, /««•<•, afterward. 

Sev6,feven. 

Seyde, I, 195, F. 569. Mister Ellis perverts Seyde 
to Geydc, atid explains it, upon whatever authority', 
«* Thought." 

Seygh,>a'. 

Seylys,7aj7i. 

Shame, I, 10, aj/iame'd. 



GLOSSARY. 417 

ShuTCffcar, cut. 

Shaws, coppiceis. 

Shenche, 11, 106, Jerve, minister (wine or other drink)* 

Shenc, Jhineing. 

Shent, Shcnte, Aurt, vex'df ruined, undonef blame'd* 
See Schend. 

Shcxe, J^oot. 

Sho, /ke. 

Shonde, harm, mischief. 

Shoope. See Schop. 

Shrede, to clad, or clothe. 

Sibbe, II, 94, relateed, ally'd. 

Sides, III, 178. 

Sith, Sithes, time, times. 

Skalde, I, e^,fcold.,fpeakcr offcandal, il tongue' d. 

Skapy, to ejcape. 

Skath, harm, lofs. 

Skeie, I, 204, 208, a 1 3, II, X't,, Jheer, free, clear, quit, 
ticquit. Mister Ellis explains it *^ fecure^ asfure." 

Sket, II, 2c, ready, apt: jceot, S. 

Skyere, /^«zV*. 

Skyll, II, 78. 

Slake, I, 199, tocoelyjlackenf decline, ' 

Slape, fleep. 

^\cn,Jlay. 

Silk, Slike,/ac-4. 

Slo, Jlay. Slogh, Jleit. Slon, Sloo, ^ay. Slogh, 
1,86, 

SXodi, JUd. 

Slope. On flope. III, 69, aJUep. 

Slouthe, III, ios,Jloth. 

Smertly, quickly. 

^nell, quick, Jharpfkeen,fwift, nimble^ active I ifnel, /". 
VOL. III. £ e 



41 S GLOSSARY. 

Snytcs,/mpes. 

So, as. 

Softty fought. 

Sold, Solde, S\i\^yJhould, Jkould be, 

Solers, I, 35, uper rooms, enjoying the light and heat of 
the fun, for the purpofc of retirement \ garrets, lofts. 

Somers, Somer-horfes, fumpter-horfees, loaded, or 
carrying baggage: Sommiers, F. 

Somned, fummon'd. 

Sond, Sonde, a mesfage, or mesfenger. 

SonAt,fand. 

Sole, fweet. 

Soth, truth. Mister Ellis has printed this word, cor- 
ruptly, for, and explain d it, abfurdly, fure. 

Sothely, truely. 

Sothen, fodden. 

Soxhtyr, foot her, more true. 

So wdear s, foldiers . 

Sowles hele, Sowle-hele, tie healtk, or falvation, <ff 
thefoul. 

Sowipe\h, fup'd. 

Soyorne, fojoum. 

Sfdrryd, /par'd,fhut,fqfien'd, bolted. 

Spec, J poAe, or befpoke. 

Spell, I, 37, fpetch, narrative, relation, fiory, taUi 
Lutel (peile, few words. 

Sper, Sptr, to a/i, or enquire. Speryd, Spird, q^'d, 
enquire' d. Evyr fperyng ther gatys gane, ever a/king 
their near ways. 

Sperd, Sper red. See Sparryd. 

Spred, A bytter fpred. III, 78. 

Spreteth, I, lii, fprcadetk. 

Spylle, dyCf be put to death. For drede fche fchuldc 



GLOSSARY. 4«9 

hur fpylle, III, 36, for fear Jhc Jhmld make away with 
berfelf 

Spyr. Su Sper, 

Stabull, tfiablifh. 

Stad, Stadde, hejiady beJUdy circumfianct d, 

Sta)ii,Jhick,pul'dto. 

Stall, I, 30, place, pasfaget entrance, inclofure. 

Stalworth, I, 65, 146, Jlrong, Jlouty lujly ; " £? ftal- 
worth knight als ftele." R. ofBrunne. 

Stark, Jirmg. 

Staty^ate. 

Sted. 5ffStad. 

Stedd, III, 18, Stede, placej or country. 

StckythyJicketA. 

SteY)\i\,^eepie. 

Sterc, Jleer, govern, manage. 

Sterin, 1, 135. 

Stcrvc, Jiarve^ dye. 

Sterye, Jieer. 

Stevene, II, 148, Stevyn, III, 15, voice, found, fpetck. 

Stighteld, I, x-ifi, jlrengthen' df recover* df 

Sx\rt,Jlarted. 

Stoken, I, ^o, fuck, fa/ien'd. 

Stokkes, III, 4^,focks. 

Stonayd, afionifh'd. 

Stor, I, 55, Store, loud, ilustering. 

Store, III, 124^ fir: i'ji,fark. 

Stour, Stoure, Stowr, Stowre, difficulty, embarafs- 
ment, jeopardy, dangcTf extremity, disorder, tumult, battle, 
fkirmfk, and the like. 

Stownde, I, i,fpace of time, mare orlefs. 

Strath, fraight. 

StrCffraw. 



420 GLOSSARY. 

Strckk, III, 6^y firttchingy pafiing : jTjieccan, S. 

Stroye, dejlroy. 

Strynde, III, ^\,Jlrair.f race^ defctnt. Thus Wyntoam 

(1,^37): 

•* He is Tta man, offvnlka kynd 
Cummyn, hot o/'the dewylis ftrynd." 
Stude, II, lo^yjleeds, horfeis. 

Stum, ^ern. 

Sty, I, 26, 83, place, koufe, building; a word common 
in Scotland, andjlil preferve'd with our/elves in hog-fty ; 
8cije, S. 

Styk, I, 12S, Jitck. Styke, II, 44, ^icAV, wounded ' 
]-ncan, S. 

Styntc,Jint,Jop,Jay. 

Stythe, II, iTo, Jlrong: jci^, 5. 

Suere, Swere, Swyre, neck, 

Suert, II, I20. 

Sugerneth, /ojoumetA. 

Suggeth,fay. 

Suithe, Suythe, Swith, quick, fpetdyly, very. 

Sumwet, II, ii(), fomewhat. 

Suykedom, treachery, treafon, 

Swu, fo. 

Sware, III, 5, Hys doghtur fvvete and Jware. The 
fignijication of the word fware, as it occurs in this pas fage, 
has never, it is believe' d, been explain' d ; if, in faB, it 
occur anytuhere elfe. Sware, III, 19, neck^ is a different 
word. 

Swart, black. 

Swayne, I, (>$, feme kind of inferior fervant, 

S we me, 111,33, afwiming, or qualm , See the next word. 

Swevenyng, Swevyn, dream. 



GLOSSARY. 4" 

^vvier, fqutrt. 

Swilk,^c^. 

SvlO^^,fwoon, 

Swyke, I, it^yfikty hoUy ditch. 

Syclatowne, III, 8, m, ^jy C/5a«ffr,c<2//Vchekelatoiin, 
butfeettii, rather., in the judicious Tyrwhitts opinion, to be 
merely a corruption of the French Ciclaton ; which, he 
fays, originally Jignify'd a circular robe of ftate. Some 
MSS. however, he allows, read Ciclaton, and Spenfer, he 
ebjerves, writes Shecklaton. 

Syde. «* Andyode ayen the thrydde fyde," i. e. riKnt 
again the third time. See Sythe. 

Sye, Sygh,/aa;. 

Sygh, Syght. See Sythe. 

Sygned, asfign'd. 

Syke, Syken, Jick,J}gh. 

Sykyrlyke, certainly, fur ely. 

Symplyte, I, \'](j, fimplicity, or fmplenefs ? 

Syrrys, III, 9, 19, z<),firs. 

Sytole, II, 75, <z citole ; a kind of dulcimerf according 
to fir John Hawkins. Sytolys, 1, 199. 

Sytolphe. 

Syte, III, 69, 

Syxht, fde\ afterward; f nee. 

Syitandff ting. 

Ta, take, betake. 

Taffetra, II, 178. 

Talme, III, 33. 

Talvace, I, 132, call'df likewife, pavais, or pavache, 
a large fhield, or rather, as Grofe ads, portable mantk, 
capable of covering a man from hand to foot. 

Tan, Tane, take, Tane, takecn. Tafe, takes. 



43S GLOSSARY. 

Tane, one. 

Teem, II, xift^fom,, iifue^ offering, 

Telde, told 

Telde, I, 86, lodge? 

Teme, temd. 

Teen, Tene, Teon, II, 106, Teone,forrow, pasjion, 
anger y il-wil. Tene, Jlay. Teon, II, 118, taket or 
betake. 

Tent, I, 41, heed, 141, attendf pay attention, 

Tha, I, 43> ikffi' 

Thartyll, thereto. 

Thawghte, Tliawghth, taught. 

Thay, I, 199, day. 

The, thee. The, Thee, thrive. 

Thede, II, 43, did. 

Thede, III, 11,65, land, nation^ countryt kingdom: 
}>eob, 5. 

Theder, thither. 

Theer, II, 48, deer. 

Thenche, think. 

Theode, II, 197, faitky belief , religion. 

Thepartyth, departetk. 

Therforne, then/or. 

Thethin, thence. 

Thewe, virtue, good manneri. Doctor Percy, who knew 
<* Thewes" to m^aa " manners," and, attordingly, Jo 
explains it in the Glosfary to the ^d volume of hit Reliques, 
ads, immediately, ** In p. la, itjignijies LiMBS ;" adeci» 
Jive jtroof of the forgery, or interpolation, of the ballad 
refer d to. Shakfpeare loasfngular in this mistake. 

They, though. 

Thilke, th.s, thiifame. 

Thir, theft. 



GLOSSARY. 423 

Tho, then ; do (I, 204 ; not •• For xhoityfuffer" as 
Mister Ellis thinks) \ fo (II, 226); thofe. Tho, /or do 
recurs in Lybeaus, f^. 160, 309, 532, 835, 1076, 1510. 

Thogh, II, 27, doth. 

Thoghte, I, 192, thought. In mister Ellises edition, the 
text has '* Hym pogte," the comment, " In poft^, Fr. in 
power ;" than which nothing can be more ridiculous, 

Tlioghty, II, 8, Thoughty, 178, doughty. Thogh- 
tyer, doughtyer. 

IhoXc, fuffer, undergo ; Tholcd. 

Thonor, thunder. 

Thoo, then; thofe. 

Tho re, there. 

Thores, II, 76, doors. 

Thorh-reche, II, 145. 

Thorft, Thorfte, II, 49, 72, durjl. 

Thoune, I, 196, down. 

Thowghter, daughter. 

Thra, I, 150, III, 47, Thro, II, 200, eager, fierce, 
defirous. 

Thral, Thrall,^at;f, captive, bafe wretch. Thralhede, 
Jiate ofjlavery or captivity. 

Thraw, Thro, Throp, Throw, Jhort Jpace of time^ 
trice. 

Thriswald, threjhold. 

Throo, "ijirowe. III, 87, 187, troubk'd, offiiBed, 
forrowfulf 

Throteboll, I, 84, 

Thrydd, Thrydde, third. 

Thrynge, throng. 

Thuiicketh, thinketh. 

Thus-gate, thus-wifej this-way. 

Thwang, thong. 



4*4 GLOSSARY. 

Thyll, ta. 

Thynke, thing. 

Tide, betide. 

Tint, bji. 

Tit, ll, 147, receive* d^ toekf 

Tite, I, ^,Jbon, quickly. Titter, /oontr. 

Tithand, Tithandes, Tithyng, tidtirtgs, neusi 

To, thou (I, 39) j til; toe; too. 

Toe, took. 

To-brefte, I, 190, iurfi. 

To-drever, II, 20a, drioecn, purfiu'd. 

Todur, otAer, others. 

Tokenyng, token, keep-fake. 

Tome, toom, teem, empty. 

Too, take ; to ; toe. 

To-dere, too dear. 

To- rent, rent, torn. 

To-{cyvercde,Jfiiver'd. 

To-terys, tears (verb). To-torc, ttm, 

To-whiles, mean-wkile, mean-time. 

To-yeynes, againjl. 

Traifed, betray d. 

Traifted, trvfied. Trayftes, trujls. 

Traitour, II, ^cS, betrayer. 

Trappes, II, 13, Trappur, II, 54, Trappure, 37. 
See Lengell. Neither can be discover'd. # 

Tre, tru, wood. Goddes trc, Chrifis crofs. Trefe, 
trees. 

Tredd, III, 79, trod. 

Trente, II, 109, enhraced: 

** Bitrent and writhin is thefweet wood binde." 

Troilus & Crefeide, B. 3, V. 12^7. 

Trewes, Trues, truce^ 



GLOSSARY. 4«J 

Trift, /ure, 

Trom^VLTitlyillt trumpeters* ^ 

Trofcls, trifles. 

Trowage, I, ia7, Truage, tribute, 

Trowes, trowejly believeeft. 

Trowth, truth. 

Try ft, III, 177, pqft orjlation. 

Tryfte, trufl. 

Tuafte, II, 272. 

Turmentrye, II, 73, torment^ torture. 

Tuye, twice. 

Twyes, twice. 

Twyn, twine, party feparate. 

Tyd, Tyte, tite, quick, foon, 

Tyger, III, 15, Tiber. 

Tyght, I, 6, begun; III, 17, pitch' d, fix' d. 

Tymberde all my teene, III, 24. So in The aunter 
of fir Gawane : 

♦< Thusjkall a Tyber untrue tymber with tene." 
Again, in Minots Poems: 

" Towrenay zow has tight 
To timber, trey, and tene.,*' 

Tyre, attire, drefs. 

Uche, each. 
Umage, homage. 
Umbithought, I, 67, bethought, 
Umbraydeft, upbraidejl. 
Umftrade, I, 55, bejlrode. Thus Minot: 
«* The king 0/ Berne had cares colde. 
That was Jul hardy and bolde^ 
AJlede to umftride." 
Uncouth, Uncouthe, unknown, Jlrange, foreign. 



4i6 GLOSSARY. 

Vnderfonge, /eize, catchy take, meet with. 

Under molde, II, 104, under earth. 

Undertane, undertake. 

Undo, open. See the note. Undone, prepare d^ made 
ready for the /pit. 

Undern-tyde, I, 179; Under-tyde, I J, 151; Un- 
durne, III, 64; the third hxmr of the artificial day; nine 
of the clock in the morning ; and not, as mister Ellis thinks, 
*' after-noon." So Robert of Brunne.' 

" Bituex underon and non was the field alle wnnen.** 
*• Died that lady bituex undron and prime." (243.) 

Undur-lace, III, 77, a woman, firom her lace. , 

Undur the molde. III, S2, under-ground, dead and 
bury'd. 

Unement, ointment, 

Unfawe, I, 201, 

Unfayne, 

Ungayne, III, 60, Thefe gatys they are ungayne, 
Thefe ways are not near, or in the right road; III, 79, a 
roche ungayne, an aukward rock. 

Unliele, il health, unhapynefs. 

Unhende, unciml, unpolite, diiobUgting, rude. 

Unkowth. See Uncouth. 

Unkunand, not cuning, unknowing, ignor ant , uninfiorm'd. 

Unlek, II, 77, 

Unnefe, Unnethes,ycarc*/)'. 

Unorne, II, 105, 

Unpees, no peace, war, 

Unryde, II, 162, bafie, iniquitous: unjiiht:, S. 

Unfely, unhapy, unfiortunate. 

Unfliet, Unfteke, unfhut, open. 

Unfyght, II, 57, unfeen (by each other, en account of 
their helmets) . 



GLOSSARY. 4J7 

Unther, under', not ** beHdes^' as it is explain' d by 
tni^'er FAlis, who fays, it is v/e d by thi avthour o/'Launfal 
*' with ^rc:t Latitude" which does not appear. 

Uniher-gare, II, 212, Uniherkelle, II, 217, Un- 
thei-lyne, II, 240, Unther ferke, II, 225, Unther- 
wede, 11, 214: alljigurative appellations for youngwomtn. 

Unto, until. 

Unvelde, III, 5, unwieldy. 

Unwreft, II, -jog 

Urnare god, II, 307, a good runer. Urneth, runetk. 

Us, Uiis, ufe, habit, custom, 

Ufedenn, yfe'd. 

Vacclie, Vecche, II, 142, 148, watch. 

Valour, I, 212, value, importance. 

Vasfage, I, 105, 1 22, Vasfelage, I, 53, knight fervice, 
valour, courage. 

Vayage, voyage, journey, adventure. 

Velany, Vylanye, villamy, evil, bafenefs^ impertinence^ 
impropriety, mischief, injury. 

Venei i, hunting, the chace, 

Ventall. See Aventayle. 

Vernage, probablely Vin de Vernou, a district in 
Touraine. 

Verraye, true. Verraiment, Verrayment, truely. 

Vurfle, worji. 

Vys, II, 3, Vyys, phyz,J'ace, countenance. 

Vys, II, 12, fwych vy%,fo powerful. 

Wajoiir, wager, 

Wald, would. 

Wan, I, 76, got. Arft yif him wan and wrake, II, 
'59 5 If he fhould even frjl grow pale and ttn-etched. The 
foudan fwart and wan, 11, 168, black. 



4Jt GLOSSARY. 

Wandremc, Til, i^^, joyUfsnefSf tribulation, agony of 
• ndnd: pan, and bjieam, 5. 

Wane. Gude wane, I, 60, great many, plenty, Wil 
of wane, I, 69. 

War, I, I, wary, prudent', 53, were; 68, war with, 
atuare of. 

Ware, expend, fpend, lay out. Ward, Wared, ex- 
pendedy fpent, lay' d out. Ware, xuere. 

Warifown, I, 39, Warifowne, I, 101, Waryfon, 
III, 24, help, cure, remedy, reward, recompence. 

Warift, I, III, cure'd. 

Warm, II, S 4, worm,ferpent. 

Warned, apprtfe'd, inforvid, caution d, or haveing 
notice. 

Warye, curfe. 

Wate, I, 19, thought; 31, think ; know; knows. 

Wax, Waxe, Wex, Wox, wax'd. 

Wawe, wave. 

Wayes. Begodys wayes. III, 51. 

Wayte, III, 121. Or fche wayte us wyth that woo, 
heforejhe canferve usfo. 

Wedde, gage, pledge. 

Weddewede, widowhood. 

Wede, armour, apparel, drejs, robe, garment. 

Wedc, I, 153, III, 71, He ferd right as he wald 
wede, behave' d as if he were mad. See Awede. 

Weders, weather, 0/ different forts ; wind, hail, rain, 
&c. 

Welde, wield, rule, reign, govern; II, 104, Me to 
fpoufe welde, take me to wife. 

Wele-lykeand, wel-looking. 

Wele-rinand, weUruning,fwift. 

Welk, walk'd. 



GLOSSARY. 429 

Wemnie, III, 163, wem,fcaT: pemme, S. Thus,in 
Syr Bevys : 

** Syx hundred men he felled to grounde. 
Yet had neyther wemme nor woundc," 
WendjWende, Wendes, Wendyth, Wending, ^oz«^, 
gOy depart. 

Went, go, gone; II, 109, turn'd: penban, S. 
Wene, ween, think; Wenes, think'Jl; Wend,Wende, 
ween'd, thought: penan, S. Without wene, I, 200. 
Wepe, zoeep'd, wept; weeping. 
Wer, I, 44. 

Wer, Were, Werie, war (verb), defend^ fight for ; 
rescue, proteB (I, 164) ; Wer, where. 
Were, war. Were, Werie, wear. 
Werne, warn, prohibit, II, 128, 129. 
Werr, rdtirfe. 

Werry, fight, make war, or battle; II>42. 
Wet, what. 

Wete, know, Wetyn, known, fufpeSled, been aware ofi 
pitan, 5. 

Weved, wave'd. 
^ Wha-fum, whofoever. Whare-fum, wherefoever. 
What-fom, whatjoever. 

Whate. Wel-whate, II, 74, hot, very hot. 
Wheme, III, 7. 
Wher, Wherein, were. 
Whefch, wafh' d {their hands). 

Whide-war, I, 158, wide-where; widely far and near, 
Chaucer, in his Man of lawes td\e,fpeaks of— 
— " Chapmenrich, and thertofad and trewe^ 
That wide- where fenten hir fpicerie." 
White the non, II, 152, do not torment thyfelf. 
Whofe, whofo. 



43© GLOSSARY. 

Whychyd, bewitch'd. 

Why-ht. See Wight. 

Whythe, wight. 

Wight, I, "i^yjliong^ powerful \ per/on, man orwoman. 
Wightly, fpeedyht boldly^ refotutdy. Thaf wyght was 
undur fchvlde (III> 2), That wasjlrongunder ajhield. 

"Vi iht, II, 112, a blow, 

Wik, Wike, week. 

Will of rede, I, 17. 

Willes, wilt dejire. 

Wis, I, Tjyjhew me, take me. 

Wifle, II, 108, 152. 

Wift, I, 154, knew. 

Wit, Wite, learn, know\ I, 38. Wite, blame^ I, 38. 

Withfiigge, witkfay'd, gainfay'd. 

'Wines, fen/e, wifdom. ♦ 

Wive, I, 39, wife. 

Wobigane, I, 140, woe-begone. 

Wode, rnad. 

Wode-fchawe, II, 48, coppice in a wood. 

Wogh, I, 38, wrong? 

Wolde, old. Yn wolde, II, aai. 

Wolte, wilt thou ? 

Won. Good won, often, many tivies ; A worldly won, 
IT, 31, aworthy,orworfhipfulmanfionhoufe, II, 128. 

Wonde, II, 122, wait,Jlay\ III, 141, dejijifrom; 
allfo, refufe'd, decline'd, heftateed, zmthjlood (II, 105). 

Wone, delay. Woned, tvont ; dwel'd, live'd, or lain. 
Wones, palacees, houfees, dwelings, erections. Wonie, 
dzvel. Wons, lives, rejides. Won, Woon, Wonyng, 
dweling, rejidevce, lodgeing. 

Wood wale, III, 147, woodwele, tuitwall, kickway, or 
heighaw, yellow'peak, goldammer, or golden merit, call'd. 



GLOSSARY. 431 

allfof the orioi, and thencey corruptly.^ in Frtnch^ lorion, 
or loriot, a /pedes of the woodpecker. It is nention'd in 
Chancers Romaunt of the rofe, P''. 657 : 
'* In many placis nightingales ; 
AndalpeSy and finches, and wodewales. 
That in their fxntU Jong deliten. 
In thilhe placis as they habiten." 
It is frequently notice' d in the old French romancees, and 
fayd to make a crying noije: as, for injlancet in Fouque 
de Candie, (Kings MSS. 20 D IX) : 

*• Cefut el mois de May que la rofe efifleuris. 
Que li rousfeignols chante et li oriolle crie." 
Word, II, 17, Worde, III, 119. See Ord andende. 
Wordes, II, 238, worthys, things of worth. Wordylye, 
worthyly. 

Worth, I, 24, i^fitfhat; I, 201, wroth. An hongeth 
worth thou hye and hard (I, 200). Worthly, I, 9, tucr- 
thyly. Wortheft, II, 105, wert, wajl. Worth, 11, 119, 
135, were, was. 
Wofo, whofo, 
Wottyft, knowejl. 
Wowe, 11, 132, wall, or windoztie. 
Woxyn, waxen. 

Wrake, III, 26, 83, II, 162, wreah'd, revenged. 
Chaucer has yvi rake in the farufcnfe. 
Wrangdomc, wrong. 

Wrecche, wrack, mischief; allfo, wretch, caitif, or 
miferable creature {\, 144). 

Wrcche, I, 123, wretched', wretch. See a note on 
Launfal, T. 393. 
Wreghed, I, 120. 
Wreke, wreak, revenge. Wroken, wreaA'd, revenge' d. 



+32 GLOSSARY. 

Wreth, Wretlie, Wreththe, revenge, toratk, harmy 
miichitf. 

Wreye, Wrye, bewray, betray Wreyede, betrayed. 

Wroght, I, 200, luroth. 

Wrothe hele, II, 161, Wrothherheyle, III, 157, lofs 
of health or falvatioriy malediction. Wrothe hele is uje'd 
by Robert of Gloucester ; though Mannyng has, repeatedly, 
wrotherhaile, a«</wrotherheile; as,forinJlance, P. 201 : 

** Therfor the pape of Rome curftd them wrotherhetle." 

Wriyyng, II, 186. 

Wrthe, II, 94, were. 

Wryt, writeing, letter. 

Wymmanne, women. 

Wyck, III, 61, wicked. 

Wylde of redd. III, 2, regardlefs of counfel, or 
advice. 

Wyne of Greke. Le vin Grec is mention' d by M. Le 
Grand d'Ausfy, who {and not, as mister Ellis fays, M. de 
Paumy [meaning the marquis de Paulmy] was the authcur 
of " La vie priv^e des Franfois," which has even his 
name in the title-page. 

Wyrhale, II, 43, 

Wys, advifeifi. Wyft, knew. 

Wyght, I, 185, whit. 

Wyn, 1,38, win, obtain. So have i wyn, 9J. 

Wyfte, wijlejl, knew. 

Wyt. See Wit. . 

Wyte, I, 198, know. Wyte, III, 69, blame. 

Wyth, wight, Jlrong. 

Wytherlyiig, II, 97, adverfary, enenry : fVSejxhn^, S. 

Wyttore, whiteer. 

Wyttyrly, utterly, thoroughly. 



GLOSSARY. 433 

Ya, Yaa (III, 73), ya. See the note on Ywaine and 

Gawin, F. 43. 

Yaf, gave. 

YdXdie, yieldedyfurrender'd. 

Yapys, japes, jejls. 

Yar, Yare, ready: jajie, S. 

Yarked yore, II, 218, 1%!. 

Yate, gate. 

Ybake, bake'd. 

Ybe, been. 

Ybore, bom. 

Ycham, i am. Ychulle, ijhal or wit. . ' 

Yclepte, embrace' d. . 

Yede, went. 

Yef,z/. 

Yelde, I, 97, yield, reward, recompenfe. God yelde 
the dy whyle, II, 85, god yield, or grant, thee thy wil. 

Yelp, outcry, blabing; boajl (I, 201). 

Yeme, 1,50, III, 7, take care of, Yemes, 65. Yemes 
it wele, take great. care of it. Yemed, II, 2-]6,govem'd. 

Yen, eyes. III, 7. 

Yend, Yent, II, 133, 140, through. 

Yeode, went. 

Yerly, early. 

Yern, I, 135, eager, eagerly, earnejl', Yerne, II, 129, 
earn; II, 18, 19, 22, III, 82, iz,faji. Yerne, dejire^ 
wijh. Yernes, I, 53, defres, piifhes: gypnan, S. 

Yeve, give. 

Yfere, companions. 

Ygelt, gilded, gilt. 

Yghen, eyes. 

Yharneyfyth, harnefs'd. 

Ying, young, 

VOL. III. F I 



434 GLOSSARY. 

Ylerde, Uarrid. 

Ylefte, lajUd. 

Yleve, II, 114, believe. 

Ylome, II, 99, lately. 

Ylore, lojl. 

Ylyche, alike. 

Ylythe, II, 91, lijlen. 

Yment, I, 187, meant, intended, dejign'd. 

Ympe-tre, II, 2$i, grafud tree. 
^ Ymone, II, 113, 126, companion? 

Ynome, takeen. This word is once ufe'd by Robert of 
Gloucester: 

** He grette him anon, andfeyde, Hay I thou bekyng one, 

So nysyt noght, quath the hyng^for my kynedomys y nome» 

Vor an felawe^cA aibe therto thatych loveynou." 
Heame rather obfcures, than explains, it: *' in many, in 
more than one." 

Ynowe, enough. 

Yode, went. 

Yolde, yielded, recompenfe' d^ return d. Yolden, 
yielded, &c. 

Y6\y, jolly. 

Yore, I, 174, II, 29. Yorne, II, 139, heretofore, 
formerly, of old, before, allready : jeapa, S. 

Yowle, Chrijhnas. 

Yoyt,joy. 

Ypocraffe, hippocras, a mixture of wine, honey, and 
fpicees, fo call'd from Hippocrates, who was fuppofe'd to 
have invented it ; or, becaufe it was made in what phyfcians 
call his fleeve. 

Yrke, weary. 

Yrecche, II, 106. 

Yre, iron. 



GLOSSARY. 435 

Yrels, earls. 

Yreft, repd. 

Yrthe, earth. 

Yie,fea. 

Yfchent, degradeed, ajhame^d. 

YttsLV/CfJlain. 

Yfwowe, in afxooon. 

Yteld, I, 1 8 1, colour' dj paintedf dye'd: Eeteljeb, 5. 
Mister Ellis explains Yteld " conJlruBed," and derives it 
from the French : but the French etymon of a Saxon word, 
it is believe' d, would befomewhat difficult to discover. 

Ytynt, lofi. 

Yuly, III, 107, handfome, beautyful. In the edition of 
" Drunken Barnabys Four journeys to the north of En- 
gland," printedat London, in 17*3, that facetious traveler 

'* Thence to Worton ; being lighted, 
I wasfolemnly invited 
By a captains wife mofi yewly :" 
though, it mujl be confefs'd that the original [about 1640) 
has not yewly, but vewlie, unlefs the tail of the y have been 
brokeen off at the prefs. 
Yurne. See Yern. 
Yurney, journey. 
Yver^, Yvore, ivory, 
Ywent, gone ; tum'd, 
Yviinne, fucceed. 

Yylde. God yylde hyt the, III, 60, god yield, or 
reward, it thee. 



CORRECTIONS. 







VOLUME 


I. 


Page. 


Ferfe. 


Erroui. 


Correction. 


3 


45 


fpereshorde 


fperes horde 


7 


136 


I 


i 


19 


438 


by come 


bycome 


34 


548 


send 


fend 


28 


653 


Hauberkeser 


Hauberkes er 


29 


673 


entr^ 


entr6 


30 


700 


hindewordes 


hinde wordcs 


32 


736 


naman 


na man 


33 


763 


he he 


he 




765 


overal 


over al 


35 


823 


alto drogh 


al to- drogh 


37 


868 


fwownyg 


fwownyng 


41 


964 


alto breke 


al to-breke 


47 


1 1 09 


alredy, 


al redy, 


53 


1250 


alwife 


al wife 


56 


1323 


be re, 


b^re 


57 


1336 


faid 


faid 


62 


1458 


levesal 


leves al 


72 


1697 


alfone 


al fone 


78 


1851 . 


frame 


frame 


86 


2042 


Of 


Vpf 


92 


2194 


Bovf 


R9,t 


98 


2323 


faid 


,.faid 


106 


2511 


n 


in 


no 


26^9 ^ 


alto rent ■■ 


al to-rent 




2620 


noman 


. DO man 


122 


2918 


noniar 


jpo mar 


123 


2942 


alstyjte 


als tyte 


133 


3169 


aparty 


, ia ,party 


139 


3318 


I 


"i 



438 



CORRECTIONS. 



Page. 


Ferfe. 


ErrouT. 


Correction. 


140 


3339 


If 


If 


14S 


3489 


alday 


al day 


149 


3SSI 


alto torn 


al to-torn 


>5» 


3632 


alto reven 


al to- reven 


170 


8 


Kardeuyle 


Kardevylc 


171 


34 


of 


of 


172 


46 


bos 


los 




51 


Up on 


Upon 


*73 


6z 


drawnen 


drawen 




7* 


That grevede 


Th3X.~-Jhould have 
been indented. 




88 


Karlyown, 


Karlyoun, 


17+ 


lOS 


neuer 


never 


176 


140 


to rent 


to -rent 


177 


144 


Thane 


Thanne 


178 


'54 


Tell ye 


Tellyd 






out 


out. 




»59 


Gwenore 


quene Guenore 




202 


for 


for 


iSi 


257 


wylle fere, 


wylle, fere. 




32i\ 
3»4 


Both lines Jhould have dcen indented. 


»85 


353 


me in any 


me any 




428 


delvverede pry- 
founs 


delyverede povere 






pryfouns 


188 


430 


Fytfy 


Fyfty 




441 


alfo 


alfo 


189 


448 


yfe 


yfe 


190 


488 


Lanfaul 


Launfal 


19a 


509 


That that he 


That he 


193 


5*3 


leman, 


lemman, 


196 


594 


thonne 


thoune 


198 


647 


fche 


fche 


200 


694 


woman, 


woman 






alfo 


alfo 


20X 


749 


And the that 


And the, that 


204 


782 


a redy 


aredy 




799 


fchuld 


fchild 


205 


813 


twayn 


tway 
aredjr 


207 


862 


a redy 







CORRECTIONS. 439 


Page. 


rerfe. 


Errour. 


Correction. 




866 


y wyte 


ywyte 


309 


90s 


clodes and 


clodes, and 


213 


988 


alfo 


alfo 




990 


A day 


Aday 


215 


1035 


yn to 


ynto 






VOLUME 


II. 


6 


117 


Rowme 


Rowm6 


8 


171 


yfent 


yfent 1 


10 


213 


heghes 


heghtes 


II 


246 


for 


for 


20 


460 


yn to 


ynto 


25 


585 


therwete 


ther wete 


33 


761 


They tok har yn 


They tok har yn [yn] 






the toune 


the toune. 




765 


ros 


ros, 




777 


prykyde 


prykynde 




894 


dyscryve 


dyscrye 


41 


957 


a wede 


awede 


43 


993 


Of 


Of 


48 


1 1 34 


After 


After 


49 


"54 


four 


fourth 


60 


1401 


A feng 


Afengc 


6g 


1609 


fmot 


fmot 


70 


1662 


ff 


fs 


74 


1756 


glad. 


glad 




1757 


nam 


ham 


So 


1894 


Before forther 


Before [hys] forther 






arfoun 


arfoun 


92 


32 


Alfo 


Alfo 


95 


94 


his 


thife 


98 


174 


felanrade 


felauradc . f." 


103 


296 


byfnyke 


byfuyke .. 


116 


616 


olyve, 


olyve. 




618 


byreved. 


byreved. 


124 


79° 


ast 


129 


912 


hey, 


heyr. 


142 


1229 


fprong 


fprong 



440 



CORRECTIONS. 



Page. 


. Ferji. 


Errour. 


Correction, 


14S 


1371 


iore 


joie 


151 


1448 


Seide 


Sende 


IJ2 


1462 


Horns 


Horn 




1471 


ndn 


nou 




1482 


tot 


toe 


156 


7 


wyf 


wyf 




55 


woft 


wolt 


>59 


74 


fers. 


fers, 


161 


121 


what to rede 


what to rede ? 


167 


254 


ifent 


ifent 


169 


316 


com 


can 


170 


346 


Bi taughten 


Bitaiighten 


172 


38» 


Jhould have been indented. 


179 


559 


a fyn 


afyn 


183 


656 


And leove, fire. 


And, leove fire, 


185 


698 


iblesfet 


ibiefset 


188 


780 


a fyn 


afyn 


189 


812 


wrifte 


wifle 


191 


855 


bi com 


bicom 


192 


876 


Sent 


Send 


197 


1005 


bi ment 


biment 


202 


1129 


a weiward 


aweiward 


208 


85 


knyght hyghte 


knyghr. 


ai3 


221 


fadur 


fadur 


219 


357 


poyn 


poynt 


221 


406 


mete whyle 


mete-whyle 


^37 


803 


lyf lothe 


lyflothe 






VOLUME HI. 


26 


600 


ouyr 


ovyr 


39 


907 


hys 


hyr {or thys) 


41 


955 


forbode 


forbode 


42 


992 


be lyve 


belyve 


46 


1071 


by layne 


bylayne 


49 


1 1 50 


ftrokices 


ftokkes 


55 


1306 


yut 


put 




1326 


Ofte 


Ofte 


56 


X330 


And 


Ane 


58 


J36J 


ame 


amre 



CORRECTIONS. 44« 



Page. 


rerfe. 


Errour. 


Correction. 


60 


1424 


Thou fchalt, &c 


■. TAefe three lines are 






part of the next ^ 


flanza. 




1430 


Weleafaye! 


Weleawaye! 


67 


1585 


rtrenkyth full 
ftedd, 


ftrenkythfull ftedd, 


75 


1771 


we 


ye 


84 


2029 


a ftrote 


aftrote 


"5 


537 


fo 


fo 


124 


748 


Lorde,...wroght. 


*• Lorde,...wroght.'* 




754 


ne 


he 


144 


1218 


Amen — 


Amen — (Jhould have 
been indented.) 


»52 


1482 


tot 


toe 


157 


299 


wroth her heyle 


wrothherheyle 


159 


349 


come, in 


come in. 


189 


1066 


fell 


fell 



CONJECTURAL EMENDATIONS 

OF 

PRESENT READINGS. 







VOLUME I. 






YWAINE AND GAWIN. 


Page. 


Ferfe. 


Prefent reading. Conjectural emendation. 


8 


174 


cumanded cumand {as in P. 5, 
F. 110, and eljewhere. 


10 


2lg 


effe efe(efed,/».ii,r.23i.) 




221 


baken bake 


65 


1529 


anger danger 


92 


2194 


Bow Bot 


99 


2347 


neght negh 
LAUNFAL. 


176 


154 


kenne kin 


j8i 


257 


thy wyllefere, thy wylle, fere. 


201 


721 


worth wroth 
VOLUME IL 


* 




LYBEAUS DISCONUS. 


JO 


462 


baye browne, baye [and] browne, 


22 


503 


hedde hevedde 


34 


779 


And ayens Ayens 


85 


2004 


afere a fere 


89 


2117 


yftes yyftes 



CONJECTURAL EMENDATIONS. 44J 

GESTE OF KYNG HORN. 

fage. Verfe. Prefent reading. Conjectural tmendaliotu 

120 699 dohter dohte 

132 983 wowe windowe 

iji 144S Seide Sende 

EMARE. 

316 293 thatihitami that i ami 

2ag 594 kyght kyth 

597 gryglit gryth 

too fryght fryth 

VOLUME III. 

LE BONE FLORENCE OF ROME, 
hedd hevydd 

oon ane 

ERLE OF TOLDUS. 

Bodely Boldely 

hys own blode hys blode 

SQUYR OF LOWE DEGRE. 
i6a 404 i wyll (land i wyll (land by 

theiby 
171 617 kyng knyght 

1S4 936 treafure treafere 

KNIGHT OF CURTESY. 
203 201 Unto hymfelf this Unto hymfelf this 
knight fayd he, knight fayd, Ho I 
3 



21 


475 


30 


711 


97 


%6 




99 



[ 444 ] 

ERROURS 

IN 

THE DISSERTATION 







CORP.ECTEO. 


Page, 


Line. 


Err our. 


Correction. 


X, 


i, 


omisjion, 


After necesfaryly, in- 
fert have been ac- 
quainted with it. 


liii, 


23> 


Henry the 
tliird. 


Francis the firft. 


Ixxiv, 


«, 


This, 


Thus, 


Ixxxviii, 
Ixxxix, 


N.* 

6, 


Langefoft 
brought it 


Langetoft 
brought away 


xci, 


28, 


away 
where 


whence 


xcviii, 


6, 


language 
or which 


language or idiom," 
which (fee Percys 
Reliques, Notej 
on the Esfay, 
P. Ixxviii, N. (S.2) 


cv, 


«, 


luaneree 


nianere 



ccxv, i.^, Meogorgus, Nageorgus, 



Prinfed by W. Bulmer and company, 
Cleveland-row, Saint Jameses. 



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